COMPUTERS

Nation as Network

Diaspora, Cyberspace, and Citizenship

Author: Victoria Bernal

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022614481X

Category: COMPUTERS

Page: 208

View: 5041

How is the internet transforming the relationships between citizens and states? What happens to politics when international migration is coupled with digital media, making it easy for people to be politically active in a nation from outside its borders? In Nation as Network, Victoria Bernal creatively combines media studies, ethnography, and African studies to explore this new political paradigm through a striking analysis of how Eritreans in diaspora have used the internet to shape the course of Eritrean history. Bernal argues that Benedict Anderson’s famous concept of nations as “imagined communities” must now be rethought because diasporas and information technologies have transformed the ways nations are sustained and challenged. She traces the development of Eritrean diaspora websites over two turbulent decades that saw the Eritrean state grow ever more tyrannical. Through Eritreans’ own words in posts and debates, she reveals how new subjectivities are formed and political action is galvanized online. She suggests that “infopolitics”—struggles over the management of information—make politics in the 21st century distinct, and she analyzes the innovative ways Eritreans deploy the internet to support and subvert state power. Nation as Network is a unique and compelling work that advances our understanding of the political significance of digital media.
History

Crude Chronicles

Indigenous Politics, Multinational Oil, and Neoliberalism in Ecuador

Author: Suzana Sawyer

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822385759

Category: History

Page: 310

View: 6306

Ecuador is the third-largest foreign supplier of crude oil to the western United States. As the source of this oil, the Ecuadorian Amazon has borne the far-reaching social and environmental consequences of a growing U.S. demand for petroleum and the dynamics of economic globalization it necessitates. Crude Chronicles traces the emergence during the 1990s of a highly organized indigenous movement and its struggles against a U.S. oil company and Ecuadorian neoliberal policies. Against the backdrop of mounting government attempts to privatize and liberalize the national economy, Suzana Sawyer shows how neoliberal reforms in Ecuador led to a crisis of governance, accountability, and representation that spurred one of twentieth-century Latin America’s strongest indigenous movements. Through her rich ethnography of indigenous marches, demonstrations, occupations, and negotiations, Sawyer tracks the growing sophistication of indigenous politics as Indians subverted, re-deployed, and, at times, capitulated to the dictates and desires of a transnational neoliberal logic. At the same time, she follows the multiple maneuvers and discourses that the multinational corporation and the Ecuadorian state used to circumscribe and contain indigenous opposition. Ultimately, Sawyer reveals that indigenous struggles over land and oil operations in Ecuador were as much about reconfiguring national and transnational inequality—that is, rupturing the silence around racial injustice, exacting spaces of accountability, and rewriting narratives of national belonging—as they were about the material use and extraction of rain-forest resources.
Social Science

Law and Disorder in the Postcolony

Author: Jean Comaroff,John L. Comaroff

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226114104

Category: Social Science

Page: 400

View: 8794

Are postcolonies haunted more by criminal violence than other nation-states? The usual answer is yes. In Law and Disorder in the Postcolony, Jean and John Comaroff and a group of respected theorists show that the question is misplaced: that the predicament of postcolonies arises from their place in a world order dominated by new modes of governance, new sorts of empires, new species of wealth—an order that criminalizes poverty and race, entraps the “south” in relations of corruption, and displaces politics into the realms of the market, criminal economies, and the courts. As these essays make plain, however, there is another side to postcoloniality: while postcolonies live in states of endemic disorder, many of them fetishize the law, its ways and itsmeans. How is the coincidence of disorder with a fixation on legalities to be explained? Law and Disorder in the Postcolony addresses this question, entering into critical dialogue with such theorists as Benjamin, Agamben, and Bayart. In the process, it also demonstrates how postcolonies have become crucial sites for the production of contemporary theory, not least because they are harbingers of a global future under construction.
History

No Place Like Home

A Black Briton's Journey Through the American South

Author: Gary Younge

Publisher: Univ. Press of Mississippi

ISBN: 9781578064885

Category: History

Page: 280

View: 8391

The British columnist and feature writer share his personal journey through the American South as a black man from another Western industrialized country. Original.
History

Between Arab and White

Race and Ethnicity in the Early Syrian American Diaspora

Author: Sarah Gualtieri

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520255348

Category: History

Page: 270

View: 2537

"Direct and accessible. A tour de force of research that demonstrates seemingly unlikely origins, evolutions, and contradictions of social identities."—George Lipsitz, author of Footsteps in the Dark and American Studies in a Moment of Danger
Political Science

Ethnopolitics in Cyberspace

The Internet, Minority Nationalism, and the Web of Identity

Author: Robert A. Saunders

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 0739141945

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

View: 9472

Ethnopolitics in Cyberspace examines the central role of the Internet in shaping national identity among stateless nations and national minorities in the twenty-first century. By creating new spaces for political discourse, alternative avenues for cultural production, and novel means of social organization, the author argues that the Web is remaking what it means to be part of nation.
Social Science

Diaspora and Imagined Nationality

USA-Africa Dialogue and Cyberframing Nigerian Nationhood

Author: Kole Ade-Odutola

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781594609268

Category: Social Science

Page: 176

View: 5124

Among other things, information and telecommunications technology has made it possible to expand the meaning of community without propinquity. This book shows that despite the ongoing Diasporization of Africans as a result of the world's most recent encounters with globalization, epistemic communities are in formation. These communities are composed of people who remain concerned about their countries of origin, and those who study those countries, engaged in conversation with people located there on matters of common concern and interest. The book in particular considers the nature, forms, content, and meanings of conceptualizations of nation, as well as discourses of nationalism by Nigerians at home and abroad, and consequences of these discussions and debates on clarifying what it means to be a nation. It is well-researched, thought-provoking, and constitutes a significant contribution to Nigerian, African, and Communication Studies.This book is part of the African World Series, edited by Toyin Falola, Frances Higginbotham Nalle Centennial Professor in History, University of Texas at Austin.
Technology & Engineering

Invisible Users

Youth in the Internet Cafés of Urban Ghana

Author: Jenna Burrell

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262300680

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 248

View: 2896

The urban youth frequenting the Internet cafés of Accra, Ghana, who are decidedly not members of their country's elite, use the Internet largely as a way to orchestrate encounters across distance and amass foreign ties--activities once limited to the wealthy, university-educated classes. The Internet, accessed on second-hand computers (castoffs from the United States and Europe), has become for these youths a means of enacting a more cosmopolitan self. In Invisible Users, Jenna Burrell offers a richly observed account of how these Internet enthusiasts have adopted, and adapted to their own priorities, a technological system that was not designed with them in mind. Burrell describes the material space of the urban Internet café and the virtual space of push and pull between young Ghanaians and the foreigners they encounter online; the region's famous 419 scam strategies and the rumors of "big gains" that fuel them; the influential role of churches and theories about how the supernatural operates through the network; and development rhetoric about digital technologies and the future viability of African Internet cafés in the region. Burrell, integrating concepts from science and technology studies and African studies with empirical findings from her own field work in Ghana, captures the interpretive flexibility of technology by users in the margins but also highlights how their invisibility puts limits on their full inclusion into a global network society.
Social Science

Diaspora Online

Identity Politics and Romanian Migrants

Author: Ruxandra Trandafoiu

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 0857459449

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 5407

After the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989, millions of Romanians emigrated in search of work and new experiences; they became engaged in an interrogation of what it meant to be Romanian in a united Europe and the globalized world. Their thoughts, feelings and hopes soon began to populate the virtual world of digital and mobile technologies. This book chronicles the online cultural and political expressions of the Romanian diaspora using websites based in Europe and North America. Through online exchanges, Romanians perform new types of citizenship, articulated from the margins of the political field. The politicization of their diasporic condition is manifested through written and public protests against discriminatory work legislation, mobilization, lobbying, cultural promotion and setting up associations and political parties that are proof of the gradual institutionalization of informal communications. Online discourse analysis, supplemented by interviews with migrants, poets and politicians involved in the process of defining new diasporic identities, provide the basis of this book, which defines the new cultural and political practices of the Romanian diaspora.
Social Science

Kabul Carnival

Gender Politics in Postwar Afghanistan

Author: Julie Billaud

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812246969

Category: Social Science

Page: 264

View: 8170

After the attacks of September 11, 2001, the plight of Afghan women under Taliban rule was widely publicized in the United States as one of the humanitarian issues justifying intervention. Kabul Carnival explores the contradictions, ambiguities, and unintended effects of the emancipatory projects for Afghan women designed and imposed by external organizations. Building on embodiment and performance theory, this evocative ethnography describes Afghan women's responses to social anxieties about identity that have emerged as a result of the military occupation. Offering one of the first long-term on-the-ground studies since the arrival of allied forces in 2001, Julie Billaud introduces readers to daily life in Afghanistan through portraits of women targeted by international aid policies. Examining encounters between international experts in gender and transitional justice, Afghan civil servants and NGO staff, and women unaffiliated with these organizations, Billaud unpacks some of the paradoxes that arise from competing understandings of democracy and rights practices. Kabul Carnival reveals the ways in which the international community's concern with the visibility of women in public has ultimately created tensions and constrained women's capacity to find a culturally legitimate voice.
Social Science

Theorizing NGOs

States, Feminisms, and Neoliberalism

Author: Inderpal Grewal,Victoria Bernal

Publisher: Duke University Press Books

ISBN: 9780822355519

Category: Social Science

Page: 392

View: 1565

Theorizing NGOs examines how the rise of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) has transformed the conditions of women's lives and of feminist organizing. Victoria Bernal and Inderpal Grewal suggest that we can understand the proliferation of NGOs through a focus on the NGO as a unified form despite the enormous variation and diversity contained within that form. Theorizing NGOs brings together cutting-edge feminist research on NGOs from various perspectives and disciplines. Contributors locate NGOs within local and transnational configurations of power, interrogate the relationships of nongovernmental organizations to states and to privatization, and map the complex, ambiguous, and ultimately unstable synergies between feminisms and NGOs. While some of the contributors draw on personal experience with NGOs, others employ regional or national perspectives. Spanning a broad range of issues with which NGOs are engaged, from microcredit and domestic violence to democratization, this groundbreaking collection shows that NGOs are, themselves, fields of gendered struggles over power, resources, and status. Contributors. Sonia E. Alvarez, Victoria Bernal, LeeRay M. Costa, Inderpal Grewal, Laura Grünberg, Elissa Helms, Julie Hemment, Saida Hodžic, Lamia Karim, Sabine Lang, Lauren Leve, Kathleen O'Reilly, Aradhana Sharma
History

Cyberspace and the State

Towards a Strategy for Cyber-Power

Author: David J. Betz

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351224522

Category: History

Page: 160

View: 3845

The major aim of Cyberspace and the State is to provide conceptual orientation on the new strategic environment of the Information Age. It seeks to restore the equilibrium of policy-makers which has been disturbed by recent cyber scares, as well as to bring clarity to academic debate on the subject particularly in the fields of politics and international relations, war and strategic studies. Its main chapters explore the impact of cyberspace upon the most central aspects of statehood and the state system?power, sovereignty, war, and dominion. It is concerned equally with practice as with theory and may be read in that sense as having two halves.
Biography & Autobiography

Looking for Strangers

The True Story of My Hidden Wartime Childhood

Author: Dori Katz

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022606333X

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 184

View: 1277

Dori Katz is a Jewish Holocaust survivor who thought that her lost memories of her childhood years in Belgium were irrecoverable. But after a chance viewing of a documentary about hidden children in German-occupied Belgium, she realized that she might, in fact, be able to unearth those years. Looking for Strangers is the deeply honest record of her attempt to do so, a detective story that unfolds through one of the most horrifying periods in history in an attempt to understand one’s place within it. In alternating chapters, Katz journeys into multiple pasts, setting details from her mother’s stories that have captivated her throughout her life alongside an account of her own return to Belgium forty years later—against her mother’s urgings—in search of greater clarity. She reconnects her sharp but fragmented memories: being sent by her mother in 1943, at the age of three, to live with a Catholic family under a Christian identity; then being given up, inexplicably, to an orphanage in the years immediately following the war. Only after that, amid postwar confusion, was she able to reconnect with her mother. Following this trail through Belgium to her past places of hiding, Katz eventually finds herself in San Francisco, speaking with a man who claimed to have known her father in Auschwitz—and thus known his end. Weighing many other stories from the people she meets along her way—all of whom seem to hold something back—she attempts to stitch thread after thread into a unified truth, to understand the countless motivations and circumstances that determined her remarkable life. A story at once about self-discovery, the transformation of memory, a fraught mother-daughter relationship, and the oppression of millions, Looking for Strangers is a book of both historical insight and imaginative grasp. It is a book in which the past, through its very mystery, becomes alive, immediate—of the most urgent importance.
Social Science

Contemporary Cultures, Global Connections

Anthropology for the 21st Century

Author: Victoria Bernal

Publisher: Cognella Academic Pub

ISBN: 9781621316534

Category: Social Science

Page: 540

View: 7836

This book is an anthology designed to reflect the changing face of cultural anthropology and to reveal the dynamics of present-day life around the world. The selections offer excellent examples of current research by leading anthropologists and others that represent the state of the art in anthropology today.
Art

Archives of the Insensible

Of War, Photopolitics, and Dead Memory

Author: Allen Feldman

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022627733X

Category: Art

Page: 420

View: 9507

In "Archives of the Insensible" anthropologist Allen Feldman presents a genealogical critique of the sensibilities and insensibilities of contemporary warfare. Feldman subjects the law to a strip search, interrogating diverse trials and revealing the intersecting forms of bodily and psychic subjugation that they display. Throughout, ethnographic specificities are treated philosophically and political philosophy is treated ethnographically through deconstructive description. Among the cases he examines are the interrogation of Ashraf Salim at the Combatant Status Review Tribunal at Guantanamo; the kangaroo court of American soldiers who murdered Gul Mudin, an Afghani noncombatant; Gerhard Richter s forensic paintings of the disputable suicides of a Red Brigade cell in Stammheim prison; Radovan Karadzic s forensic allegations against the corpses attributed to his shelling of a market in Sarajevo; the trial of the police officers who beat Rodney G. King and the latter s judicial lynching by video montage; Jean Luc Godard s film class at Sarajevo where visual facts are indicted for no longer speaking for themselves; and Jacques Derrida standing naked before his cat while awaiting apocalyptic judgment. Through his analysis of these and several other cases, Feldman shows how state power arises "ex nihilo "in the chasm between violent events themselves and the space where political meaning is made. He aims to reverse sovereign logic, the whole task of which is to transform what Foucault called the enigmatic dispersion of human events into certified facts on which state violence is grounded. In contrast, Feldman relies on the disorientation that arises from micrological description as theory in an attempt to retard the hyperaccelerated time of war and media."
Social Science

Building Diaspora

Filipino Community Formation on the Internet

Author: Emily Ignacio

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 081353514X

Category: Social Science

Page: 176

View: 4713

Emily Noelle Ignacio explores how Filipinos have used the Internet's subtle, cyber, but very real social connections to construct and reinforce a sense of national, ethnic, and racial identity with distant others.
Political Science

Terrorism in Cyberspace

The Next Generation

Author: Gabriel Weimann

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 023180136X

Category: Political Science

Page: 344

View: 524

The war on terrorism has not been won, Gabriel Weimann argues in Terrorism in Cyberspace, the successor to his seminal Terror on the Internet. Even though al-Qaeda's leadership has been largely destroyed and its organization disrupted, terrorist attacks take 12,000 lives annually worldwide, and jihadist terrorist ideology continues to spread. How? Largely by going online and adopting a new method of organization. Terrorist structures, traditionally consisting of loose-net cells, divisions, and subgroups, are ideally suited for flourishing on the Internet through websites, e-mail, chat rooms, e-groups, forums, virtual message boards, YouTube, Google Earth, and other outlets. Terrorist websites, including social media platforms, now number close to 10,000. This book addresses three major questions: why and how terrorism went online; what recent trends can be discerned—such as engaging children and women, promoting lone wolf attacks, and using social media; and what future threats can be expected, along with how they can be reduced or countered. To answer these questions, Terrorism in Cyberspace analyzes content from more than 9,800 terrorist websites, and Weimann, who has been studying terrorism online since 1998, selects the most important kinds of web activity, describes their background and history, and surveys their content in terms of kind and intensity, the groups and prominent individuals involved, and effects. He highlights cyberterrorism against financial, governmental, and engineering infrastructure; efforts to monitor, manipulate, and disrupt terrorists' online efforts; and threats to civil liberties posed by ill-directed efforts to suppress terrorists' online activities as future, worrisome trends.
History

Mastering the Niger

James MacQueen's African Geography and the Struggle over Atlantic Slavery

Author: David Lambert

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022607823X

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 9213

In Mastering the Niger, David Lambert recalls Scotsman James MacQueen (1778–1870) and his publication of A New Map of Africa in 1841 to show that Atlantic slavery—as a practice of subjugation, a source of wealth, and a focus of political struggle—was entangled with the production, circulation, and reception of geographical knowledge. The British empire banned the slave trade in 1807 and abolished slavery itself in 1833, creating a need for a new British imperial economy. Without ever setting foot on the continent, MacQueen took on the task of solving the “Niger problem,” that is, to successfully map the course of the river and its tributaries, and thus breathe life into his scheme for the exploration, colonization, and commercial exploitation of West Africa. Lambert illustrates how MacQueen’s geographical research began, four decades before the publication of the New Map, when he was managing a sugar estate on the West Indian colony of Grenada. There MacQueen encountered slaves with firsthand knowledge of West Africa, whose accounts would form the basis of his geographical claims. Lambert examines the inspirations and foundations for MacQueen’s geographical theory as well as its reception, arguing that Atlantic slavery and ideas for alternatives to it helped produce geographical knowledge, while geographical discourse informed the struggle over slavery.
Social Science

Theorizing NGOs

States, Feminisms, and Neoliberalism

Author: Victoria Bernal,Inderpal Grewal

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822377195

Category: Social Science

Page: 392

View: 8418

Theorizing NGOs examines how the rise of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) has transformed the conditions of women's lives and of feminist organizing. Victoria Bernal and Inderpal Grewal suggest that we can understand the proliferation of NGOs through a focus on the NGO as a unified form despite the enormous variation and diversity contained within that form. Theorizing NGOs brings together cutting-edge feminist research on NGOs from various perspectives and disciplines. Contributors locate NGOs within local and transnational configurations of power, interrogate the relationships of nongovernmental organizations to states and to privatization, and map the complex, ambiguous, and ultimately unstable synergies between feminisms and NGOs. While some of the contributors draw on personal experience with NGOs, others employ regional or national perspectives. Spanning a broad range of issues with which NGOs are engaged, from microcredit and domestic violence to democratization, this groundbreaking collection shows that NGOs are, themselves, fields of gendered struggles over power, resources, and status. Contributors. Sonia E. Alvarez, Victoria Bernal, LeeRay M. Costa, Inderpal Grewal, Laura Grünberg, Elissa Helms, Julie Hemment, Saida Hodžic, Lamia Karim, Sabine Lang, Lauren Leve, Kathleen O'Reilly, Aradhana Sharma
Social Science

Conflict and the Refugee Experience

Flight, Exile, and Repatriation in the Horn of Africa

Author: Assefaw Bariagaber

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317162218

Category: Social Science

Page: 196

View: 6747

One of the most serious threats to peace, security and the sovereignty of nations in the post-Cold War era is population migration. A particularly volatile form of this threat is the global refugee problem and nowhere is this issue more severe than in Africa. This book offers a comprehensive analysis of refugee experience in the Horn of Africa. It includes an examination of the dynamics of flight from the country of origin, settlement in exile and repatriation to the country of origin. Such an integrative approach sets this book apart from other studies and will serve as a reader for courses on ethno-national conflicts, migration, international politics, security and African politics.