How is the internet transforming the relationships between citizens and states? What happens to politics when international migration is coupled with digital media, making it easy for people to be politically active in a nation from outside its borders? In Nation as Network, Victoria Bernal creatively combines media studies, ethnography, and African studies to explore this new political paradigm through a striking analysis of how Eritreans in diaspora have used the internet to shape the course of Eritrean history. Bernal argues that Benedict Anderson’s famous concept of nations as “imagined communities” must now be rethought because diasporas and information technologies have transformed the ways nations are sustained and challenged. She traces the development of Eritrean diaspora websites over two turbulent decades that saw the Eritrean state grow ever more tyrannical. Through Eritreans’ own words in posts and debates, she reveals how new subjectivities are formed and political action is galvanized online. She suggests that “infopolitics”—struggles over the management of information—make politics in the 21st century distinct, and she analyzes the innovative ways Eritreans deploy the internet to support and subvert state power. Nation as Network is a unique and compelling work that advances our understanding of the political significance of digital media.
A succinct and comprehensive history of the development of citizenship from the Roman Empire to the present day Citizenship, Inequality, and Difference offers a concise and sweeping overview of citizenship's complex evolution, from ancient Rome to the present. Political leaders and thinkers still debate, as they did in Republican Rome, whether the presumed equivalence of citizens is compatible with cultural diversity and economic inequality. Frederick Cooper presents citizenship as "claim-making"--the assertion of rights in a political entity. What those rights should be and to whom they should apply have long been subjects for discussion and political mobilization, while the kind of political entity in which claims and counterclaims have been made has varied over time and space. Citizenship ideas were first shaped in the context of empires. The relationship of citizenship to "nation" and "empire" was hotly debated after the revolutions in France and the Americas, and claims to "imperial citizenship" continued to be made in the mid-twentieth century. Cooper examines struggles over citizenship in the Spanish, French, British, Ottoman, Russian, Soviet, and American empires, and he explains the reconfiguration of citizenship questions after the collapse of empires in Africa and India. He explores the tension today between individualistic and social conceptions of citizenship, as well as between citizenship as an exclusionary notion and flexible and multinational conceptions of citizenship. Citizenship, Inequality, and Difference is a historically based reflection on some of the most fundamental issues facing human societies in the past and present.
A multidisciplinary, authoritative outline of the current intellectual landscape of the field. Over the past three decades, the term ‘diaspora’ has been featured in many research studies and in wider theoretical debates in areas such as communications, the humanities, social sciences, politics, and international relations. The Handbook of Diasporas, Media, and Culture explores new dimensions of human mobility and connectivity—presenting state-of-the-art research and key debates on the intersection of media, cultural, and diasporic studies This innovative and timely book helps readers to understand diasporic cultures and their impact on the globalized world. The Handbook presents contributions from internationally-recognized scholars and researchers to strengthen understanding of diasporas and diasporic cultures, diasporic media and cultural resources, and the various forms of diasporic organization, expression, production, distribution, and consumption. Divided into seven sections, this wide-ranging volume covers topics such as methodological challenges and innovations in diasporic research, the construction of diasporic identity, the politics of diasporic integration, the intersection of gender and generation with the diasporic condition, new technologies in media, and many others. A much-needed resource for anyone with interest diasporic studies, this book: Presents new and original theory, research, and essays Employs unique methodological and conceptual debates Offers contributions from a multidisciplinary team of scholars and researchers Explores new and emerging trends in the study of diasporas and media Applies a wide-ranging, international perspective to the subject Due to its international perspective, interdisciplinary approach, and wide range of authors from around the world, The Handbook of Diasporas, Media, and Culture is ideal for undergraduate and graduate students, teachers, lecturers, and researchers in areas that focus on the relationship of media and society, ethnic identity, race, class and gender, globalization and immigration, and other relevant fields.
Anthropology conducted in Africa has been central to the methodological and theoretical development of the discipline since it was first institutionalized in the late 19th century. Written and edited by a team of leading cultural anthropologists on the subject, A Companion to the Anthropology of Africa compiles a collection of insightful essays that address all aspects of life on the continent of Africa. Chapters within explore the extent to which anthropological thinking on this topic has been, or remains, influenced by the theoretical traditions, whilst others consider the extent to which anthropological thinking has been transformed by growing interest in using anthropological knowledge to critically address practical concerns and public problems such as war, poverty, and public health. This Companion is presented in four parts. The first part looks at enduring themes—tracing the development of anthropological thinking and the current debates about themes such as witchcraft, kinship, law and justice that have demonstrated remarkable staying power in the anthropology of Africa. The second section considers topics that began to garner attention during decolonization and in its immediate aftermath. Such topics include mobility and displacement, urbanism, and political violence. The third part comprises topics such as trauma, social justice, sex and sexuality that have become the central concern of anthropologists of Africa since its many nations gained their independence. It also looks at ‘hot topics’ like social media, humanitarianism, and environmentality. The final section considers the role that Africanist anthropology has played in informing other Africanist disciplines, and reflects on the politics of representation within the discipline as well. Filled with a wide variety of expert opinions and observations across chapters which are highly sophisticated in their coverage, A Companion to the Anthropology of Africa is an essential reference resource for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as researching anthropologists.
Theorizing NGOs examines how the rise of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) has transformed the conditions of women's lives and of feminist organizing. Victoria Bernal and Inderpal Grewal suggest that we can understand the proliferation of NGOs through a focus on the NGO as a unified form despite the enormous variation and diversity contained within that form. Theorizing NGOs brings together cutting-edge feminist research on NGOs from various perspectives and disciplines. Contributors locate NGOs within local and transnational configurations of power, interrogate the relationships of nongovernmental organizations to states and to privatization, and map the complex, ambiguous, and ultimately unstable synergies between feminisms and NGOs. While some of the contributors draw on personal experience with NGOs, others employ regional or national perspectives. Spanning a broad range of issues with which NGOs are engaged, from microcredit and domestic violence to democratization, this groundbreaking collection shows that NGOs are, themselves, fields of gendered struggles over power, resources, and status. Contributors. Sonia E. Alvarez, Victoria Bernal, LeeRay M. Costa, Inderpal Grewal, Laura Grünberg, Elissa Helms, Julie Hemment, Saida Hodžic, Lamia Karim, Sabine Lang, Lauren Leve, Kathleen O'Reilly, Aradhana Sharma
This book is an anthology designed to reflect the changing face of cultural anthropology and to reveal the dynamics of present-day life around the world. The selections offer excellent examples of current research by leading anthropologists and others that represent the state of the art in anthropology today.
The rhetoric on the Internet and its potential implications for the sphere of politics have been especially pertinent in regard to young people. Through the use of notions such as the e-generation or the messenger generation, the new ICT's supposed transformative potential has been identified and discussed. Just based on the title of this book, it might seem as if we are offering a similar approach here - speculative reflections on the significance of the Internet for young people's engagement and participation.
The Internet has become a powerful medium for Africans in the Diaspora to meet for cross border dialogue. Cameroonians all over the world are using this tool for what the present study considers to be a public-sphere discourse. Cameroonians living in the United States and other nations use the Internet to discuss and debate the political, social, economic, and cultural aspects of the nationhood of Cameroon with the aim of seeking solutions to some of those pressing needs that confront the country. This study builds on Habermas and other leading feminist authors' conceptualization of the democratic public sphere, central to Habermas' theory of communicative action. This study's theoretical framework incorporates elements of the African experience in order to examine the dominant, oppositional and parallel themes that arise from four Cameroonian websites just before the national presidential election in 2004. The methodology adapts Jager's critical discourse analytical (CDA) framework, which was deemed an appropriate methodology because it sought not only to analyze the linguistic component of the discourse in the four websites, but more importantly to examine the holistic structure of the discourse that is its history and context. This study concludes that gender disparity existed in the dialogue between Cameroonian men and women. Cameroonian men were more dominant than the women in the discourse on the central themes involving the Cameroonian presidential election of 2004. The all-female website was more focused on the infrastructural development of Cameroon. Lastly, these findings suggest that future studies should focus on the ways that the Cameroonians and other Diasporic populations utilize the Internet to create alternative discursive spaces for political and social purposes.
Computers by University of California, Santa Barbara. Center for Black Studies Research
What are Arabic Europeans watching on television and how does it affect their identities as Europeans? New evidence from seven capitals shows that, far from being isolated in ethnic media ghettoes, they are critical news consumers in Arabic and European languages and engaged citizens.