Medical by Michael A. Arbib,Fletcher Jones Professor of Computer Science and Professor of Biological Sciences Biomedical Engineering Neuroscience and Psychology Michael A Arbib,Peter Erdi,Péter Érdi,János Szentágothai,Janos Szentagothai,Alice Szentagothai
Author: Michael A. Arbib,Fletcher Jones Professor of Computer Science and Professor of Biological Sciences Biomedical Engineering Neuroscience and Psychology Michael A Arbib,Peter Erdi,Péter Érdi,János Szentágothai,Janos Szentagothai,Alice Szentagothai
Publisher: MIT Press
In "Neural Organization," Arbib, É rdi, and Szentá gothai integrate structural, functional, and dynamical approaches to the interaction of brain models and neurobiologcal experiments. Both structure-based "bottom-up" and function- based "top-down" models offer coherent concepts by which to evaluate the experimental data. The goal of this book is to point out the advantages of a multidisciplinary, multistrategied approach to the brain. Part I of "Neural Organization" provides a detailed introduction to each of the three areas of structure, function, and dynamics. "Structure" refers to the anatomical aspects of the brain and the relations between different brain regions. "Function" refers to skills and behaviors, which are explained by means of functional schemas and biologically based neural networks. "Dynamics" refers to the use of a mathematical framework to analyze the temporal change of neural activities and synaptic connectivities that underlie brain development and plasticity--in terms of both detailed single-cell models and large-scale network models. In part II, the authors show how their systematic approach can be used to analyze specific parts of the nervous system--the olfactory system, hippocampus, thalamus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and basal ganglia--as well as to integrate data from the study of brain regions, functional models, and the dynamics of neural networks. In conclusion, they offer a plan for the use of their methods in the development of cognitive neuroscience.
Biological models by János Szentágothai,Michael A. Arbib
Author: Patti Adank,Carolyn McGettigan,Sonja A E Kotz
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Speech production and perception are two of the most complex actions humans perform. The processing of speech is studied across various fields and using a wide variety of research approaches. These fields include, but are not limited to, (socio)linguistics, phonetics, cognitive psychology, neurophysiology, and cognitive neuroscience. Research approaches range from behavioural studies to neuroimaging techniques such as Magnetoencephalography, electroencephalography (MEG/EEG) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), as well as neurophysiological approaches, such as the recording of Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs), and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). Each of these approaches provides valuable information about specific aspects of speech processing. Behavioural testing can inform about the nature of the cognitive processes involved in speech processing, neuroimaging methods show where (fMRI and MEG) in the brain these processes take place and/or elucidate on the time-course of activation of these brain areas (EEG and MEG), while neurophysiological methods (MEPs and TMS) can assess critical involvement of brain regions in the cognitive process. Yet, what is currently unclear is how speech researchers can combine methods such that a convergent approach adds to theory/model formulation, above and beyond the contribution of individual component methods? We expect that such combinations of approaches will significantly forward theoretical development in the field. The present research topic comprise a collection of manuscripts discussing the cognitive and neural organisation of speech processing, including speech production and perception at the level of individual speech sounds, syllables, words, and sentences. Our goal was to use findings from a variety of disciplines, perspectives, and approaches to gain a more complete picture of the organisation of speech processing. The contributions are grouped around the following five main themes: 1) Spoken language comprehension under difficult listening conditions; 2) Sub-lexical processing; 3) Sensorimotor processing of speech; 4) Speech production. The contributions used a variety of research approaches, including behavioural experiments, fMRI, EEG, MEG, and TMS. Twelve of the 14 contributions were on speech perception processing, and the remaining two examined speech production. This Research Topic thus displays a wide variety of topics and research methods and this comprehensive approach allows an integrative understanding of currently available evidence as well as the identification of concrete venues for future research.
Computers by Mario Köppen,Nikola Kasabov,George Coghill
15th International Conference, ICONIP 2008, Auckland, New Zealand, November 25-28, 2008, Revised Selected Papers
Author: Mario Köppen,Nikola Kasabov,George Coghill
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The two volume set LNCS 5506 and LNCS 5507 constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Neural Information Processing, ICONIP 2008, held in Auckland, New Zealand, in November 2008. The 260 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous ordinary paper submissions and 15 special organized sessions. 116 papers are published in the first volume and 112 in the second volume. The contributions deal with topics in the areas of data mining methods for cybersecurity, computational models and their applications to machine learning and pattern recognition, lifelong incremental learning for intelligent systems, application of intelligent methods in ecological informatics, pattern recognition from real-world information by svm and other sophisticated techniques, dynamics of neural networks, recent advances in brain-inspired technologies for robotics, neural information processing in cooperative multi-robot systems.
Business & Economics by David Scarborough,Mark John Somers
Applying Pattern Recognition to the Analysis of Organizational Behavior
Author: David Scarborough,Mark John Somers
Publisher: Amer Psychological Assn
Category: Business & Economics
"Behavioral scientists working in organizations today have access to unprecedented amounts of data. Networked computing and software tools are changing the landscape of organizational research in fundamental ways. Information technology facilitates creation of vast amounts of data. In organizational research, online surveys, interactive interviews, computer-based assessment, and other digital tools have become a preferred medium for collecting self-report and opinion data. Other unobtrusive, nontraditional sources of behavioral observation data are coming into use. Measures of online behavior and databases maintained by corporations and government agencies for other purposes can be a useful source of research data. Concurrent with expanding data availability, analytic capability and processing capacity have improved dramatically.
This is an engaging study of the mental lexicon: the way in which the form and meaning of words is stored by speakers of specific languages. Fortescue attempts to narrow the gap between the results of experimental neurology and the concerns of theoretical linguistics in the area of lexical semantics. The prime goal as regards linguistic theory is to show how matters of lexical organization can be analysed and discussed within a neurologically informed framework that is both adaptable and constrained. It combines the perspectives of distributed network modelling and linguistic semantics, and draws upon the accruing evidence from neuroimaging studies as regards the cortical regions involved. It engages with a number of controversial current issues in both disciplines. This text is intended as a tool for linguists interested in psychological adequacy and the latest advances in Cognitive Science. It provides a principled means of distinguishing those semantic features required by a mental lexicon that have a direct bearing on grammar from those that do not. A Neural Network Model of Lexical Organisation is essential reading for researchers in neurolinguistics and lexical semantics.
Neuropsychology has presented a particularly formidable array of devel opments during recent years. The number of methods, theoretical ap proaches, and publications has been steadily increasing, permitting a step-by-step approach to a deeper understanding of the tremendously complex relationships existing between brain and behavior. This volume was planned as a collection of papers that, in one way or another, present new research and clinical perspectives or interpretations about brain-behavior relationships. Some chapters present new research in specific topics, others summarize the evidence for a particular the oretical position, and others simply review the area and suggest new perspectives of research. Consistent with the spirit in which the book was planned, the authors present and propose new avenues for developing neuropsychology and understanding the organization of cognitive activity. Part I is devoted to basic theoretical and technical approaches in studying brain organization of cognitive processes. Hanlon and Brown ("Microgenesis: Historical Review and Current Studies") present an over view of some clinical and experimental work from the standpoint of mi crogenetic theory. Microgenesis is considered to be the structural devel opment of a cognition through qualitatively different stages. The authors discuss the growing dissatisfaction with both the old center and pathway theories and the newer modular or componental accounts. They also ex plore how micro genesis can be extended to the interpretation of symp toms of brain damage in developing a structural model of hierarchic levels through which the process of cognitive function unfolds.
Investigation of the functional architecture of the human brain using modern noninvasive imaging techniques is a rapidly expanding area of research. A proper knowledge of methodology is needed to appreciate the burgeoning literature in the field. This timely publication provides an excellent catalogue of the main techniques. The authors offer an invaluable analysis of mapping strategies and techniques, providing everything from the foundations to the major pitfalls and practical applications of the modern techniques used in neuroimaging. Contains over 1000 full color pages with more than 200 color figures. Spanning the methodological gamut from the molecular level to the whole brain while discussing anatomy, physiology, and pathology, as well as their integration, Brain Mapping: The Methods, 2e, brings the reader a comprehensive, well-illustrated and entirely readable description of the methods for brain mapping. Drs. Toga and Mazziotta provide everything from the foundations to the major pitfalls and practical applications of the technique by assembling an impressive group of experts, all widely known in their field, who contribute an outstanding set of chapters.