Medical

Neural Organization

Structure, Function, and Dynamics

Author: Michael A. Arbib,Fletcher Jones Professor of Computer Science and Professor of Biological Sciences Biomedical Engineering Neuroscience and Psychology Michael A Arbib,Peter Erdi,Péter Érdi,János Szentágothai,Janos Szentagothai,Alice Szentagothai

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262011594

Category: Medical

Page: 407

View: 5236

In "Neural Organization," Arbib, É rdi, and Szentá gothai integrate structural, functional, and dynamical approaches to the interaction of brain models and neurobiologcal experiments. Both structure-based "bottom-up" and function- based "top-down" models offer coherent concepts by which to evaluate the experimental data. The goal of this book is to point out the advantages of a multidisciplinary, multistrategied approach to the brain. Part I of "Neural Organization" provides a detailed introduction to each of the three areas of structure, function, and dynamics. "Structure" refers to the anatomical aspects of the brain and the relations between different brain regions. "Function" refers to skills and behaviors, which are explained by means of functional schemas and biologically based neural networks. "Dynamics" refers to the use of a mathematical framework to analyze the temporal change of neural activities and synaptic connectivities that underlie brain development and plasticity--in terms of both detailed single-cell models and large-scale network models. In part II, the authors show how their systematic approach can be used to analyze specific parts of the nervous system--the olfactory system, hippocampus, thalamus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and basal ganglia--as well as to integrate data from the study of brain regions, functional models, and the dynamics of neural networks. In conclusion, they offer a plan for the use of their methods in the development of cognitive neuroscience.

The Cognitive and Neural Organisation of Speech Processing

Author: Patti Adank,Carolyn McGettigan,Sonja A E Kotz

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 2889197751

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 4363

Speech production and perception are two of the most complex actions humans perform. The processing of speech is studied across various fields and using a wide variety of research approaches. These fields include, but are not limited to, (socio)linguistics, phonetics, cognitive psychology, neurophysiology, and cognitive neuroscience. Research approaches range from behavioural studies to neuroimaging techniques such as Magnetoencephalography, electroencephalography (MEG/EEG) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), as well as neurophysiological approaches, such as the recording of Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs), and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). Each of these approaches provides valuable information about specific aspects of speech processing. Behavioural testing can inform about the nature of the cognitive processes involved in speech processing, neuroimaging methods show where (fMRI and MEG) in the brain these processes take place and/or elucidate on the time-course of activation of these brain areas (EEG and MEG), while neurophysiological methods (MEPs and TMS) can assess critical involvement of brain regions in the cognitive process. Yet, what is currently unclear is how speech researchers can combine methods such that a convergent approach adds to theory/model formulation, above and beyond the contribution of individual component methods? We expect that such combinations of approaches will significantly forward theoretical development in the field. The present research topic comprise a collection of manuscripts discussing the cognitive and neural organisation of speech processing, including speech production and perception at the level of individual speech sounds, syllables, words, and sentences. Our goal was to use findings from a variety of disciplines, perspectives, and approaches to gain a more complete picture of the organisation of speech processing. The contributions are grouped around the following five main themes: 1) Spoken language comprehension under difficult listening conditions; 2) Sub-lexical processing; 3) Sensorimotor processing of speech; 4) Speech production. The contributions used a variety of research approaches, including behavioural experiments, fMRI, EEG, MEG, and TMS. Twelve of the 14 contributions were on speech perception processing, and the remaining two examined speech production. This Research Topic thus displays a wide variety of topics and research methods and this comprehensive approach allows an integrative understanding of currently available evidence as well as the identification of concrete venues for future research.
Biological models

Conceptual Models of Neural Organization

Based on a Work Session of the Neurosciences Research Program

Author: János Szentágothai,Michael A. Arbib

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Biological models

Page: 205

View: 3078

Computers

Advances in Neuro-Information Processing

15th International Conference, ICONIP 2008, Auckland, New Zealand, November 25-28, 2008, Revised Selected Papers

Author: Mario Köppen,Nikola Kasabov,George Coghill

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642024890

Category: Computers

Page: 1257

View: 9542

The two volumes contain the papers presented at the ICONIP 2008 conference of the Asia Paci?c Neural Network Assembly, held in Auckland, New Zealand, November 25–28, 2008. ICONIP 2008 attracted around 400 submissions, with approx. 260 pres- tations accepted, many of them invited. ICONIP 2008 covered a large scope of topics in the areas of: methods and techniques of arti?cial neural networks, n- rocomputers, brain modeling, neuroscience, bioinformatics, pattern recognition, intelligent information systems, quantum computation, and their numerous - plications in almost all areas of science, engineering, medicine, the environment, and business. One of the features of the conference was the list of 20 plenary and invited speakers, all internationally established scientists, presenting their recent work. Amongthem: ProfessorsShun-ichiAmari,RIKENBrainScience Institute;Shiro Usui, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Japan; Andrzej Cichocki, RIKEN Brain Science Institute; Takeshi Yamakawa, Kyushu Institute of Technology; Kenji Doya, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology; Youki Kadobayashi, - tional Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan; Sung- Bae Cho, Yonsei University, Korea; Alessandro Villa, University of Grenoble, France; Danilo Mandic, Imperial College, UK; Richard Duro, Universidade da Coruna,Spain,AndreasKo ¨nig,TechnischeUniversit¨ atKaiserslautern,Germany; Yaochu Jin, Honda Research Institute Europe, Germany; Bogdan Gabrys, U- versityofBournemouth,UK;JunWang,ChineseUniversityofHongKong;Mike Paulin, Otago University, New Zealand; Mika Hirvensalo, University of Turku, Finland;LeiXu,ChineseUniversityofHongKongandBeijingUniversity,China; Wlodzislaw Duch, Nicholaus Copernicus University, Poland; Gary Marcus, New York University, USA.
Medical

Neural Plasticity and Cognitive Development

Insights from Children with Perinatal Brain Injury

Author: Joan Stiles,Judy S. Reilly,Susan C. Levine,Doris A. Trauner,Ruth Nass

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199938504

Category: Medical

Page: 384

View: 5991

The advent of modern neurobiological methods over the last three decades has provided overwhelming evidence that it is the interaction of genetic factors and the experience of the individual that guides and supports brain development. Brains do not develop normally in the absence of critical genetic signaling, and they do not develop normally in the absence of essential environmental input. The key to understanding the origins and emergence of both the brain and behavior lies in understanding how inherited and environmental factors are engaged in the dynamic and interactive processes that define and direct development of the neurobehavioral system. Neural Plasticity and Cognitive Development focuses on children who suffered focal brain insult (typically stroke) in the pre- or perinatal period which provides a model for exploring the dynamic nature of early brain and cognitive development. In most, though not all, of the cases considered, the injuries affect substantial portions of one cerebral hemisphere, resulting in patterns of neural damage that would compromise cognitive ability in adults. However, longitudinal behavioral studies of this population of children have revealed only mild cognitive deficits, and preliminary data from functional brain imaging studies suggest that alternative patterns of functional organization emerge in the wake of early injury. Neural Plasticity and Cognitive Development posits that the capacity for adaptation is not the result of early insult. Rather, it reflects normal developmental processes which are both dynamic and adaptive operating against a backdrop of serious perturbation of the neural substrate.
Social Science

Principles Of Organization In Organisms

Author: Jay E. Mittenthal

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0429972180

Category: Social Science

Page: 471

View: 6973

Based on a workshop held at the Santa Fe Institute in June, 1990, this book explores structure in organisms,both physical and dynamical,and presents the current status of the search for natural pathways, principles of organization, and the theory of design for organisms. Topics discussed include dynamical systems analysis the pathways of evolution development, physiology, and functional morphology and the principles of dynamical change in connectivity within the networks of processes.The aim of the workshop was to seek principles of organization in organisms and a theory that could generate those principles, as Newtonian mechanics generates Kepler's laws of planetary motion. The object of the theory is to explain patterns of structure in living or past organisms, or patterns to be expected in future organisms. The book proposes principles of organization that are independent of time scale and level of organization, and that make predictions about structure without recourse to micro-level details. Among them are principles of coordination, evolution to the edge of chaos, the matching of processes to constraints, and the evolution of higher-level processes as a way to surmount resource limitations. These general principles, which may be characteristic of any evolving complex system, may then be used in conjunction with properties of the specific materials and processes in organisms to understand biological structure.
Medical

Brain Organization of Language and Cognitive Processes

Author: Alfredo Ardila,Feggy Ostrosky-Solis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461307996

Category: Medical

Page: 276

View: 820

Neuropsychology has presented a particularly formidable array of devel opments during recent years. The number of methods, theoretical ap proaches, and publications has been steadily increasing, permitting a step-by-step approach to a deeper understanding of the tremendously complex relationships existing between brain and behavior. This volume was planned as a collection of papers that, in one way or another, present new research and clinical perspectives or interpretations about brain-behavior relationships. Some chapters present new research in specific topics, others summarize the evidence for a particular the oretical position, and others simply review the area and suggest new perspectives of research. Consistent with the spirit in which the book was planned, the authors present and propose new avenues for developing neuropsychology and understanding the organization of cognitive activity. Part I is devoted to basic theoretical and technical approaches in studying brain organization of cognitive processes. Hanlon and Brown ("Microgenesis: Historical Review and Current Studies") present an over view of some clinical and experimental work from the standpoint of mi crogenetic theory. Microgenesis is considered to be the structural devel opment of a cognition through qualitatively different stages. The authors discuss the growing dissatisfaction with both the old center and pathway theories and the newer modular or componental accounts. They also ex plore how micro genesis can be extended to the interpretation of symp toms of brain damage in developing a structural model of hierarchic levels through which the process of cognitive function unfolds.
Psychology

Fractals of Brain, Fractals of Mind

In Search of a Symmetry Bond

Author: Earl R. Mac Cormac,Maksim Stamenov

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027251275

Category: Psychology

Page: 359

View: 5206

This collective volume is the first to discuss systematically what are the possibilities to model different aspects of brain and mind functioning with the formal means of fractal geometry and deterministic chaos. At stake here is not an approximation to the way of actual performance, but the possibility of brain and mind to implement nonlinear dynamic patterns in their functioning. The contributions discuss the following topics (among others): the edge-of- chaos dynamics in recursively organized neural systems and in intersensory interaction, the fractal timing of the neural functioning on different scales of brain networking, aspects of fractal neurodynamics and quantum chaos in novel biophysics, the fractal maximum-power evolution of brain and mind, the chaotic dynamics in the development of consciousness, etc. It is suggested that the margins of our capacity for phenomenal experience, are fractal-limit phenomena . Here the possibilities to prove the plausibility of fractal modeling with appropriate experimentation and rational reconstruction are also discussed. A conjecture is made that the brain vs. mind differentiation becomes possible, most probably, only with the imposition of appropriate symmetry groups implementing a flowing interface of features of local vs. global brain dynamics. (Series B)
Medical

Conscious and Unconscious Programs in the Brain

Author: Benjamin Kissin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461321875

Category: Medical

Page: 406

View: 1390

For almost a century now, since Freud described the basic motivations and Pavlov the basic mechanisms of human behavior, we have had a reasonable concept of the forces that drive us. Only recently have we gained any real insight into how the brain really works to produce such behavior. The new developments in cognitive psychology and neuroscience have taught us things about the function of the brain that would have been inconceivable even ten years ago. Yet, there still remains a tremendous gap between the two studies-human behavior and brain function-a gap which often seems irrec oncilable in view of the basic differences in the methodologies and approaches of the two fields. Students of behavior are frequently disinterested in the underlying neu rophysiology while neurophysiologists tend to consider the concepts of psychiatrists and clinical psychologists too vague and theoretical to be applicable to their own more limited schemata. Several valiant attempts have been made by experimentalists to develop a theoretical context in which behavior is described, not separately from brain function but rather as its direct outgrowth. This present work is still another attempt to develop a theoretical system which, given the limitations of our present knowledge, as completely as possible, the underlying brain mechanisms that influ will describe ence and determine human behavior. The main emphasis of this work, however, will be not on normal behavior but rather on more neurotic manifestations.
Science

The Neural Bases of Multisensory Processes

Author: Micah M. Murray,Mark T. Wallace

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439812195

Category: Science

Page: 810

View: 4810

It has become accepted in the neuroscience community that perception and performance are quintessentially multisensory by nature. Using the full palette of modern brain imaging and neuroscience methods, The Neural Bases of Multisensory Processes details current understanding in the neural bases for these phenomena as studied across species, stages of development, and clinical statuses. Organized thematically into nine sub-sections, the book is a collection of contributions by leading scientists in the field. Chapters build generally from basic to applied, allowing readers to ascertain how fundamental science informs the clinical and applied sciences. Topics discussed include: Anatomy, essential for understanding the neural substrates of multisensory processing Neurophysiological bases and how multisensory stimuli can dramatically change the encoding processes for sensory information Combinatorial principles and modeling, focusing on efforts to gain a better mechanistic handle on multisensory operations and their network dynamics Development and plasticity Clinical manifestations and how perception and action are affected by altered sensory experience Attention and spatial representations The last sections of the book focus on naturalistic multisensory processes in three separate contexts: motion signals, multisensory contributions to the perception and generation of communication signals, and how the perception of flavor is generated. The text provides a solid introduction for newcomers and a strong overview of the current state of the field for experts.
Computers

Neural Networks

Theory and Architecture

Author: Arun V. Holden

Publisher: Manchester University Press

ISBN: 9780719032790

Category: Computers

Page: 236

View: 4362

Computers

Computational Neuroscience

Author: Eric L. Schwartz

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262691642

Category: Computers

Page: 441

View: 4269

The thirty original contributions in this book provide a working definition of"computational neuroscience" as the area in which problems lie simultaneously within computerscience and neuroscience. They review this emerging field in historical and philosophical overviewsand in stimulating summaries of recent results. Leading researchers address the structure of thebrain and the computational problems associated with describing and understanding this structure atthe synaptic, neural, map, and system levels.The overview chapters discuss the early days of thefield, provide a philosophical analysis of the problems associated with confusion between brainmetaphor and brain theory, and take up the scope and structure of computationalneuroscience.Synaptic-level structure is addressed in chapters that relate the properties ofdendritic branches, spines, and synapses to the biophysics of computation and provide a connectionbetween real neuron architectures and neural network simulations.The network-level chapters take upthe preattentive perception of 3-D forms, oscillation in neural networks, the neurobiologicalsignificance of new learning models, and the analysis of neural assemblies and local learningrides.Map-level structure is explored in chapters on the bat echolocation system, cat orientationmaps, primate stereo vision cortical cognitive maps, dynamic remapping in primate visual cortex, andcomputer-aided reconstruction of topographic and columnar maps in primates.The system-level chaptersfocus on the oculomotor system VLSI models of early vision, schemas for high-level vision,goal-directed movements, modular learning, effects of applied electric current fields on corticalneural activity neuropsychological studies of brain and mind, and an information-theoretic view ofanalog representation in striate cortex.Eric L. Schwartz is Professor of Brain Research and ResearchProfessor of Computer Science, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York UniversityMedical Center. Computational Neuroscience is included in the System Development FoundationBenchmark Series.
Computers

Persuasive Technology: Design for Health and Safety

7th International Conference on Persuasive Technology, PERSUASIVE 2012, Linköping, Sweden, June 6-8, 2012. Proceedings

Author: Magnus Bang,Eva L. Ragnemalm

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642310370

Category: Computers

Page: 280

View: 612

This book constitutes the proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Persuasive Technology, PERSUASIVE 2012, held in Linköping, Sweden, in June 2012. The 21 full papers presented together with 5 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. In addition three keynote papers are included in this volume. The papers cover the typical fields of persuasive technology, such as health, safety and education.
Language Arts & Disciplines

Advances in Applied Psycholinguistics: Volume 1, Disorders of First Language Development

Author: Sheldon Rosenberg

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521317320

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 318

View: 6856

These volumes, part of the Cambridge Monographs and Texts in Applied Psycholinguistics, present contemporary, high-level reviews of research, theory, and practice in reading, writing, and language-learning and in disorders of first language development. Each review focuses wherever possible on the work of its author or authors. This series will help those involved in psychology, linguistics, education, and speech sciences keep abreast of major developments in the many sub-areas of applied psycholinguistics. Volumes 1 and 2 are bound together in cloth, but for greater accessibility are published separately in paper.
Medical

Body and Brain

A Trophic Theory of Neural Connections

Author: Dale Purves

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674077164

Category: Medical

Page: 231

View: 7196

The major goal of developmental neurobiology is to understand how the nervous system is put together. A central theme that has emerged from research in this field over the last several decades is the crucial role of trophic interactions in neural assembly, and indeed throughout an animal's life. Trophic--which means nutritive--refers to long-term interdependencies between nerve cells and the cells they innervate. The theory of trophic effects presented in this book offers an explanation of how the vertebrate nervous system is related to--and regulated by--the body it serves. The theory rationalizes the nervous system's accommodation, throughout life, to the changing size and form of the body it tenants, indicating the way connections between nerve cells change in response to stimuli as diverse as growth, injury, experience, and natural selection. Dale Purves, a leading neurobiologist best known for his work on the formation and maintenance of synaptic connections, presents this theory within the historical setting of earlier ideas about neural organization--from Weiss's theory of functional reorganization to the chemoaffinity theory championed by Sperry. In addition to illuminating eighty years of work on trophic interactions, this book asks its own compelling questions: Are trophic interactions characteristic of all animals or only of those with complex nervous systems? Are trophic interactions related to learning? What does the trophic theory of neural connections imply about the currently fashionable view that the nervous system operates according to Darwinian principles? Purves lays the theoretical foundation for practical exploration of trophic interactions as they apply to neural connections, a pursuit that will help us understand how our own nervous systems generate change. The ideas in this book not only enrich neurobiology but also convey the profound relevance of neuroscience to other fields of life science.