Neural Organization

Author: Michael A. Arbib

Publisher: MIT Press


Category: Medical

Page: 407

View: 512

In "Neural Organization," Arbib, É rdi, and Szentá gothai integrate structural, functional, and dynamical approaches to the interaction of brain models and neurobiologcal experiments. Both structure-based "bottom-up" and function- based "top-down" models offer coherent concepts by which to evaluate the experimental data. The goal of this book is to point out the advantages of a multidisciplinary, multistrategied approach to the brain. Part I of "Neural Organization" provides a detailed introduction to each of the three areas of structure, function, and dynamics. "Structure" refers to the anatomical aspects of the brain and the relations between different brain regions. "Function" refers to skills and behaviors, which are explained by means of functional schemas and biologically based neural networks. "Dynamics" refers to the use of a mathematical framework to analyze the temporal change of neural activities and synaptic connectivities that underlie brain development and plasticity--in terms of both detailed single-cell models and large-scale network models. In part II, the authors show how their systematic approach can be used to analyze specific parts of the nervous system--the olfactory system, hippocampus, thalamus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and basal ganglia--as well as to integrate data from the study of brain regions, functional models, and the dynamics of neural networks. In conclusion, they offer a plan for the use of their methods in the development of cognitive neuroscience.

The Cognitive and Neural Organisation of Speech Processing

Author: Patti Adank

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA




View: 430

Speech production and perception are two of the most complex actions humans perform. The processing of speech is studied across various fields and using a wide variety of research approaches. These fields include, but are not limited to, (socio)linguistics, phonetics, cognitive psychology, neurophysiology, and cognitive neuroscience. Research approaches range from behavioural studies to neuroimaging techniques such as Magnetoencephalography, electroencephalography (MEG/EEG) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), as well as neurophysiological approaches, such as the recording of Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs), and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). Each of these approaches provides valuable information about specific aspects of speech processing. Behavioural testing can inform about the nature of the cognitive processes involved in speech processing, neuroimaging methods show where (fMRI and MEG) in the brain these processes take place and/or elucidate on the time-course of activation of these brain areas (EEG and MEG), while neurophysiological methods (MEPs and TMS) can assess critical involvement of brain regions in the cognitive process. Yet, what is currently unclear is how speech researchers can combine methods such that a convergent approach adds to theory/model formulation, above and beyond the contribution of individual component methods? We expect that such combinations of approaches will significantly forward theoretical development in the field. The present research topic comprise a collection of manuscripts discussing the cognitive and neural organisation of speech processing, including speech production and perception at the level of individual speech sounds, syllables, words, and sentences. Our goal was to use findings from a variety of disciplines, perspectives, and approaches to gain a more complete picture of the organisation of speech processing. The contributions are grouped around the following five main themes: 1) Spoken language comprehension under difficult listening conditions; 2) Sub-lexical processing; 3) Sensorimotor processing of speech; 4) Speech production. The contributions used a variety of research approaches, including behavioural experiments, fMRI, EEG, MEG, and TMS. Twelve of the 14 contributions were on speech perception processing, and the remaining two examined speech production. This Research Topic thus displays a wide variety of topics and research methods and this comprehensive approach allows an integrative understanding of currently available evidence as well as the identification of concrete venues for future research.

Advances in Neuro-Information Processing

Author: Mario Köppen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media


Category: Computers

Page: 1257

View: 187

The two volumes contain the papers presented at the ICONIP 2008 conference of the Asia Paci?c Neural Network Assembly, held in Auckland, New Zealand, November 25–28, 2008. ICONIP 2008 attracted around 400 submissions, with approx. 260 pres- tations accepted, many of them invited. ICONIP 2008 covered a large scope of topics in the areas of: methods and techniques of arti?cial neural networks, n- rocomputers, brain modeling, neuroscience, bioinformatics, pattern recognition, intelligent information systems, quantum computation, and their numerous - plications in almost all areas of science, engineering, medicine, the environment, and business. One of the features of the conference was the list of 20 plenary and invited speakers, all internationally established scientists, presenting their recent work. Amongthem: ProfessorsShun-ichiAmari,RIKENBrainScience Institute;Shiro Usui, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Japan; Andrzej Cichocki, RIKEN Brain Science Institute; Takeshi Yamakawa, Kyushu Institute of Technology; Kenji Doya, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology; Youki Kadobayashi, - tional Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan; Sung- Bae Cho, Yonsei University, Korea; Alessandro Villa, University of Grenoble, France; Danilo Mandic, Imperial College, UK; Richard Duro, Universidade da Coruna,Spain,AndreasKo ¨nig,TechnischeUniversit¨ atKaiserslautern,Germany; Yaochu Jin, Honda Research Institute Europe, Germany; Bogdan Gabrys, U- versityofBournemouth,UK;JunWang,ChineseUniversityofHongKong;Mike Paulin, Otago University, New Zealand; Mika Hirvensalo, University of Turku, Finland;LeiXu,ChineseUniversityofHongKongandBeijingUniversity,China; Wlodzislaw Duch, Nicholaus Copernicus University, Poland; Gary Marcus, New York University, USA.

Neural Plasticity and Cognitive Development

Author: Joan Stiles

Publisher: Oxford University Press


Category: Medical

Page: 384

View: 360

The advent of modern neurobiological methods over the last three decades has provided overwhelming evidence that it is the interaction of genetic factors and the experience of the individual that guides and supports brain development. Brains do not develop normally in the absence of critical genetic signaling, and they do not develop normally in the absence of essential environmental input. The key to understanding the origins and emergence of both the brain and behavior lies in understanding how inherited and environmental factors are engaged in the dynamic and interactive processes that define and direct development of the neurobehavioral system. Neural Plasticity and Cognitive Development focuses on children who suffered focal brain insult (typically stroke) in the pre- or perinatal period which provides a model for exploring the dynamic nature of early brain and cognitive development. In most, though not all, of the cases considered, the injuries affect substantial portions of one cerebral hemisphere, resulting in patterns of neural damage that would compromise cognitive ability in adults. However, longitudinal behavioral studies of this population of children have revealed only mild cognitive deficits, and preliminary data from functional brain imaging studies suggest that alternative patterns of functional organization emerge in the wake of early injury. Neural Plasticity and Cognitive Development posits that the capacity for adaptation is not the result of early insult. Rather, it reflects normal developmental processes which are both dynamic and adaptive operating against a backdrop of serious perturbation of the neural substrate.
Language Arts & Disciplines

A Neural Network Model of Lexical Organisation

Author: Michael Fortescue

Publisher: A&C Black


Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 248

View: 309

This is an engaging study of the mental lexicon: the way in which the form and meaning of words is stored by speakers of specific languages. Fortescue attempts to narrow the gap between the results of experimental neurology and the concerns of theoretical linguistics in the area of lexical semantics. The prime goal as regards linguistic theory is to show how matters of lexical organization can be analysed and discussed within a neurologically informed framework that is both adaptable and constrained. It combines the perspectives of distributed network modelling and linguistic semantics, and draws upon the accruing evidence from neuroimaging studies as regards the cortical regions involved. It engages with a number of controversial current issues in both disciplines. This text is intended as a tool for linguists interested in psychological adequacy and the latest advances in Cognitive Science. It provides a principled means of distinguishing those semantic features required by a mental lexicon that have a direct bearing on grammar from those that do not. A Neural Network Model of Lexical Organisation is essential reading for researchers in neurolinguistics and lexical semantics.

Brain Organization of Language and Cognitive Processes

Author: Alfredo Ardila

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media


Category: Medical

Page: 276

View: 534

Neuropsychology has presented a particularly formidable array of devel opments during recent years. The number of methods, theoretical ap proaches, and publications has been steadily increasing, permitting a step-by-step approach to a deeper understanding of the tremendously complex relationships existing between brain and behavior. This volume was planned as a collection of papers that, in one way or another, present new research and clinical perspectives or interpretations about brain-behavior relationships. Some chapters present new research in specific topics, others summarize the evidence for a particular the oretical position, and others simply review the area and suggest new perspectives of research. Consistent with the spirit in which the book was planned, the authors present and propose new avenues for developing neuropsychology and understanding the organization of cognitive activity. Part I is devoted to basic theoretical and technical approaches in studying brain organization of cognitive processes. Hanlon and Brown ("Microgenesis: Historical Review and Current Studies") present an over view of some clinical and experimental work from the standpoint of mi crogenetic theory. Microgenesis is considered to be the structural devel opment of a cognition through qualitatively different stages. The authors discuss the growing dissatisfaction with both the old center and pathway theories and the newer modular or componental accounts. They also ex plore how micro genesis can be extended to the interpretation of symp toms of brain damage in developing a structural model of hierarchic levels through which the process of cognitive function unfolds.