Medical

Neuroanatomy and Pathology of Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease

Author: Heiko Braak,Kelly Del Tredici

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319126792

Category: Medical

Page: 162

View: 3213

As indicated by its title, this monograph deals chiefly with morphologically recognizable deviations from the normal anatomical condition of the human CNS. The AD-associated pathology is illustrated from its beginnings (sometimes even in childhood) to its final form, which is reached late in life. The AD process commences much earlier than the clinically recognizable phase of the disorder, and its timeline includes an extended preclinical phase. The further the pendulum swings away from the symptomatic final stages towards the early pathology, the more obvious the lesions become, although from a standpoint of severity they are more unremarkable and thus frequently overlooked during routine neuropathological assessment. For this reason, the authors deal with the hallmark lesions in the early phases of the AD process in considerable detail
Medical

Neuroanatomy and Pathology of Sporadic Parkinson's Disease

Author: Heiko Braak,Kelly Del Tredici

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540798501

Category: Medical

Page: 119

View: 9879

The synucleinopathy sporadic Parkinson’s disease (sPD) is the second most frequent degenerative disorder of the human nervous system after Alzheimer’s disease. The propensity for developing sPD exists in all ethnic groups worldwide, and the prevalence of the disorder increases considerably with age, thereby imposing an enormous social and economic burden on societies with increased life expectancy. The sPD-associated pathological process is progressive, does not go into remission, and can take decades to reach its culmination if it is not be terminated prematurely by death owing to other causes. Against the background of the normal morphology and anatomy, the authors analyze the pathoanatomy of sPD in the nervous system at various neuropathological stages and summarize the potential functional consequences of the lesions.
Science

Nonmotor Parkinson's: The Hidden Face

Management and the Hidden Face of Related Disorders

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128126043

Category: Science

Page: 764

View: 7344

Non-motor Parkinson's: The Hidden Face-Management and the Hidden Face of Related Disorders, Volume 134, the latest release in the International Review of Neurobiology series, is an up-to-date and comprehensive textbook addressing non-motor aspects of Parkinson’s disease, a key unmet need. Specific chapters in this updated release include Therapeutics and NMS in PD, Non-motor effects of conventional and transdermal therapies in PD, Infusion therapy, CDD and NMS in PD, DBS and NMS in PD, TMS and implications for NMS in PD, Botulinum toxin therapy and NMS in PD, and Nutrition and NMS in PD, amongst others. Including practical tips for non-specialists and clinical algorithms, the book contains contributions from over 40 opinion leaders in the field of movement disorders. It provides practitioners and researchers with a laboratory, to bedside, to caregiver perspective. Presents a comprehensive textbook on the non motor aspects of Parkinson’s disease Includes practical tips and clinical algorithms, and is the only textbook to bring a holistic approach Contains contributions from over 40 global opinion leaders in the field of movement disorders Provides special chapters on exercise, personalized medicine, osteoporosis, genetics, treatment aspects and nutrition
Psychology

The Realisation of Concepts

Infinity, Cognition, and Health

Author: W.M. Bernstein

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0429922000

Category: Psychology

Page: 250

View: 5234

There has recently been a flurry of theoretical activity in affective neuroscience and neuropsychoanalysis. This book argues that the ability to integrate biological and psychological levels of understanding is inhibited by two important issues. First is the assumption made by most theorists that physical and mental phenomena are essentially different ("the Hard Problem"). Second, is the ambiguity of the widely used "Affect Concept". Ideas about the autonomic nervous system are integrated with those from the author's previous text A Basic Theory of Neuropsychoanalysis. The Realization of Concepts is based on four key assumptions: (1) There is no "Hard Problem"; (2) Motivational theory and cognitive theory can be integrated to create more valid models of body, brain and mind interactions; (3) "Affect Concepts" are superfluous and work to inhibit theory integration; and, (4) Affect theory developed as a "compromise formation" in response to radical reductionism. Dynamic parasympathetic braking processes are seen as centrally important causes of competence to use semantic self and nonself-concepts to regulate sensory data, feelings, other concepts, and overt behaviour. A model is presented which describes how levels of sympathetic arousal and parasympathetic tone interact to cause normal, pathological and highly competent brain and mind states. Combining talk therapies with real time biofeedback data is described as a method for enhancing the parasympathetic tone.
Medical

Transport Across Natural and Modified Biological Membranes and its Implications in Physiology and Therapy

Author: Julita Kulbacka,Saulius Satkauskas

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319568957

Category: Medical

Page: 140

View: 3405

This book elucidates the mechanisms involved in biological membrane functions. It describes the new modalities and characterization for basic in vitro as well as computer models of biological membranes. Biological membranes are analyzed in terms of advances in molecular dynamics. The individual chapters provide an in depth analysis of images from various biological models. The potential of membrane models in the context of treatment trials is discussed. The authors present new insights and current concepts for treatment procedures (nanocarriers, electroporation, channel blockers).
Science

Architectonics of the Human Telencephalic Cortex

Author: H. Braak

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642815227

Category: Science

Page: 147

View: 1402

This is a timely opus. Most of us now are too young to remember the unpleasant ring of a polemic between those who produced "hair-splitting" parcellations of the cortex (to paraphrase one of O. Vogt's favourite expressions) and those who saw the cortex as a homogeneous matrix sus taining the reverberations of EEG waves (to paraphrase Bailey and von Bonin). One camp accused the other of producing bogus preparations with a paint brush, and the other way around the accusation was that of poor eye-sight. Artefacts of various sorts were invoked to explain the opponent's error, ranging from perceptual effects (Mach bands crispening the areal borders) to poor fixation supposedly due to perfusion too soon (!) after death. I have heard most of this directly from the protagonists' mouths. The polemic was not resolved but it has mellowed with age and ultimately faded out. I was relieved to see that Professor Braak elegantly avoids dis cussion of an extrememist tenet, that of "hair-sharp" areal boundaries, which makes little sense in developmental biology and is irrelevant to neurophysiology. It was actually detrimental to cortical neuroanatomy, since its negation led to the idea that structurally distinct areas are not at all existent. Yet, nobody would deny the reality of five fingers on one hand even if the detailed assignment of every epidermal cell to one finger or another is obviously impossible.
Medical

Sperm Acrosome Biogenesis and Function During Fertilization

Author: Mariano G. Buffone

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319305670

Category: Medical

Page: 172

View: 5737

Over the last decades, acrosomal exocytosis (also called the “acrosome reaction”) has been recognized as playing an essential role in fertilization. Secretion of this granule is an absolute requirement for physiological fertilization. In recent years, the study of mammalian acrosomal exocytosis has yielded some major advances that challenge the long-held, general paradigms in the field. Principally, the idea that sperm must be acrosome-intact to bind to the zona pellucida of unfertilized eggs, based largely on in vitro fertilization studies of mouse oocytes denuded of the cumulus oophorus, has been overturned by experiments using state-of-the-art imaging of cumulus-intact oocytes and fertilization experiments where eggs were reinseminated by acrosome-reacted sperm recovered from the perivitelline space of zygotes. From a molecular point of view, acrosome exocytosis is a synchronized and tightly regulated process mediated by molecular mechanisms that are homologous to those reported in neuroendocrinal cell secretions. The authors provide a broader perspective, focusing on a limited number of important topics that are essential for understanding the molecular mechanisms governing this step in the fertilization process. They also discuss molecular aspects such as the signaling pathways leading to exocytosis, including the participation of ion channels, lipids, the fusion machinery proteins and the actin cytoskeleton as well as cellular aspects such as the site of acrosomal exocytosis and the use of gene-manipulated animals to study this process.
Medical

The Neuropathology of Huntington’s Disease: Classical Findings, Recent Developments and Correlation to Functional Neuroanatomy

Author: Udo Rüb,Jean Paul G. Vonsattel,Helmut Heinsen,Horst-Werner Korf

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331919285X

Category: Medical

Page: 146

View: 7880

This monograph describes the progress in neuropathological HD research made during the last century, the neuropathological hallmarks of HD and their pathogenic relevance. Starting with the initial descriptions of the progressive degeneration of the striatum as one of the key events in HD, the worldwide practiced Vonsattel HD grading system of striatal neurodegeneration will be outlined. Correlating neuropathological data with results on the functional neuroanatomy of the human brain, subsequent chapters will highlight recent HD findings: the neuronal loss in the cerebral neo-and allocortex, the neurodegeneration of select thalamic nuclei, the affection of the cerebellar cortex and nuclei, the involvement of select brainstem nuclei, as well as the pathophysiological relevance of these pathologies for the clinical picture of HD. Finally, the potential pathophysiological role of neuronal huntingtin aggregations and the most important and enduring challenges of neuropathological HD research are discussed.
Medical

Developmental Aspects of the Lymphatic Vascular System

Author: Friedemann Kiefer,Stefan Schulte-Merker

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3709116465

Category: Medical

Page: 204

View: 6239

The book focuses on the lymphatic vascular system from a developmental biologist’s point of view. It provides an overview on the many recent advances in understanding the development of lymphatic vessels, using advanced genetic models in conjunction with state of the art imaging. For each chapter a synopsis is provided, highlighting the main points in a concise manner. The book is intended for professors and researchers in vascular biology, angiogenesis research and developmental biology. It furthermore offers an excellent basis for entry level researchers and newcomers to this field, as well as for teachers, graduate students, advanced science and medical students.
Medical

Development of the Cerebellum from Molecular Aspects to Diseases

Author: Hassan Marzban

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319597493

Category: Medical

Page: 504

View: 6600

The authors present the most current and cutting-edge knowledge regarding the molecular basis of cerebellar development, focusing on information relevant to laboratory scientists and clinicians providing service to patients with cerebellar disorders. Knowledge obtained from advanced neuroimaging techniques that are used during development, and from molecular- and genetic-based studies has provided rapidly-growing evidence that the cerebellum is a brain region that is highly impacted by developmental defects. Cerebellar defects result in significant intellectual and motor function impairment that affects both the patients and their families.
Medical

The Benefits of Natural Products for Neurodegenerative Diseases

Author: M. Mohamed Essa,Akbar Mohammed,Gilles Guillemin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319283839

Category: Medical

Page: 496

View: 689

Focuses on the effects of natural products and their active components on brain function and neurodegenerative disease prevention. Phytochemicals such as alkaloids, terpenes, flavanoids, isoflavones, saponins etc are known to possess protective activity against many neurological diseases. The molecular mechanisms behind the curative effects rely mainly on the action of phytonutrients on distinct signaling pathways associated with protein folding and neuro-inflammation. The diverse array of bioactive nutrients present in these natural products plays a pivotal role in prevention and cure of various neurodegenerative diseases, disorders, or insults, such as Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, traumatic brain injury, and other neuronal dysfunctions. However, the use of these antioxidants in the management of neurodegenerative conditions has so far been not well understood. This is a comprehensive collection addressing the effects on the brain of natural products and edible items such as reservatrol, curcumin, gingerol, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and marine products.
Medical

Signaling Pathways and Molecular Mediators in Metastasis

Author: Alessandro Fatatis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400725574

Category: Medical

Page: 378

View: 8144

This work presents the most advanced discoveries from translational research laboratories directly involved in identifying molecules and signalling pathways that play an instrumental role in metastasis. In contrast to other works, conventionally focused on a single type of tumour, the various chapters in this book provide a broad perspective of the similarities and discrepancies among the dissemination of several solid malignancies. Through recurrent and overlapping references to molecular mechanisms and mediators, the readers will gain knowledge of the common ground in metastasis from a single source. Finally, an introductory chapter provides a clinical perspective of the problems presented by metastatic tumours for diagnosis and treatment. The work presented here is directed to researchers in tumour biology with a developing interest in metastatic dissemination as well as medical and graduate students seeking to expand and integrate the notions acquired in basic cancer biology and oncology courses.
Medical

Mitochondrial Mechanisms of Degeneration and Repair in Parkinson's Disease

Author: Lori M. Buhlman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319421395

Category: Medical

Page: 275

View: 4344

This volume brings together various theories of how aberrations in mitochondrial function and morphology contribute to neurodegeneration in idiopathic and familial forms of Parkinson’s disease. Moreover, it comprehensively reviews the current search for therapies, and proposes how molecules are involved in specific functions as attractive therapeutic targets. It is expected to facilitate critical thought and discussion about the fundamental aspects of neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease and foster the development of therapeutic strategies among researchers and graduate students. Theories of idiopathic Parkinson’s etiology support roles for chronic inflammation and exposure to heavy metals or pesticides. Interestingly, as this project proposes, a case can be made that abnormalities in mitochondrial morphology and function are at the core of each of these theories. In fact, the most common approach to the generation of animal and cell-culture models of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease involves exposure to mitochondrial toxins. Even more compelling is the fact that most familial patients harbor genetic mutations that cause disruptions in normal mitochondrial morphology and function. While there remains to be no effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease, efforts to postpone, prevent and “cure” onset mitochondrial aberrations and neurodegeneration associated with Parkinson’s disease in various models are encouraging. While only about ten percent of Parkinson’s patients inherit disease-causing mutations, discovering common mechanisms by which familial forms of Parkinson’s disease manifest will likely shed light on the pathophysiology of the more common idiopathic form and provide insight to the general process of neurodegeneration, thus revealing therapeutic targets that will become more and more accessible as technology improves.
Medical

The Ultimate Guide to Choosing a Medical Specialty, Third Edition

Author: Brian Freeman

Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional

ISBN: 0071790284

Category: Medical

Page: 504

View: 2833

You owe it to yourself to read this book before you choose a medical specialty! The Ultimate Guide to Choosing a Medical Specialty, 3rd edition delivers a well-researched, insider’s look at the complex issues medical students face when choosing a medical specialty. Supported by first-hand knowledge, useful facts and statistics – plus the author’s personal experience and gut-level reports from current residents -- this unique guide provides everything necessary to compare specialties and make a confident decision. The Ultimate Guide to Choosing a Medical Specialty, 3rd edition is divided into two sections: Part 1 Planning Your Medical Career delves into the main issues surrounding the choice of your medical specialty. These twelve chapters provide everything you need to begin making this major decision – from how to research each specialty to how to apply for residency. Part 2 Specialty Profiles features chapters devoted to each of the 20 major specialties. It provides important information such as the latest salary information, employment data, and match statistics. Features: An “insider’s look” at different areas of medicine -- with specialty chapters written by physicians just out of residency training Candid and revealing descriptions of each specialty Profiles of the major specialties, including those to which you may have had little exposure, such as radiation oncology A concise, up-to-date guide to the residency application and matching process A chapter with valuable advice to help you maximize your success in obtaining a residency position in each field Updated to include alternative career paths for MDs, such as laboratory science, the military, MD/MBA, and MD/JD
Medical

An Introduction to Medical Teaching

Author: Kathryn Huggett,William B. Jeffries

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9401790663

Category: Medical

Page: 271

View: 9973

Few faculty members in academic medical centers are formally prepared for their roles as teachers. This work is an introductory text designed to provide medical teachers with the core concepts of effective teaching practice and information about innovations for curriculum design, delivery and assessment. It offers brief, focused chapters with content that is assimilated easily by the reader. The topics are relevant to basic science and clinical teachers and the work does not presume readers possess prerequisite knowledge of education theory or instructional design. The authors emphasize the application of concepts to teaching practice. Topics include: Facilitating Student Learning; Teaching Large Groups; Teaching in Small Groups; Flipping the Classroom; Problem-Based Learning; Team-Based Learning; Teaching Clinical Skills; Teaching with Simulation; Teaching with Practicals and Labs; Teaching with Technological Tools; Teaching to Develop Scientific Engagement in Medical Students; Designing a Course; Establishing and Teaching Elective Courses; Designing Global Health Experiences; Assessing Student Performance; Documenting the Trajectory of Your Teaching and Teaching as Scholarship. This is a complete revision of the first edition of this work with new chapters and up to date information. Similar to the first edition, chapters were written by leaders in medical education and research who draw upon extensive professional experience and the literature on best practices in education. Although designed for teachers, the work reflects a learner-centered perspective and emphasizes outcomes for student learning. The book is accessible and visually interesting and the work contains information that is current, but not time-sensitive. Each chapter concludes with references, many include recommendations for additional reading, and the work includes an appendix with resources for medical education.
Medical

Immunology and Psychiatry

From Basic Research to Therapeutic Interventions

Author: Norbert Müller,Aye-Mu Myint,Markus J. Schwarz

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331913602X

Category: Medical

Page: 408

View: 8608

Psychiatric disorders are one of the most dramatic burdens for humankind. The role of immune dysfunction in the pathophysiology of these disorders has emerged during the last years, because there has been tremendous progress in psychoneuroimmunological research. Many results are presented here by pioneers in the field. The book addresses various effects of the immune system on the pathophysiology and course of psychiatric disorders and highlights the possible future impact on treatment decisions of various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and depression. The contributions cover the role of in utero immune challenges on the development of schizophrenia, the role of infections, and autoimmune diseases and mild immune activation in the development of depression and schizophrenia, the influence of immune responses in other disorders such as Tourette's, Alzheimer's, and OCD, the connections between mental and physical pain as well as between anti-inflammatory and antipsychotic drugs.​
Medical

The Sensory Circumventricular Organs of the Mammalian Brain

Subfornical Organ, OVLT and Area Postrema

Author: Michael J. McKinley,Robin M. McAllen,Pamela J. Davern,Michelle E. Giles,Jennifer D. Penschow,Nana Sunn,Aaron Uschakov,Brian Oldfield

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642555322

Category: Medical

Page: 127

View: 8542

This is the only book entirely devoted to the sensory circumventricular organs. It reviews research into their detailed anatomy, neurochemistry, neural connections, and functions, and provides the reader with many illustrations previously unpublished.
Medical

Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences

Author: Michael Jeffrey Aminoff,Robert B. Daroff

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780122268700

Category: Medical

Page: 4300

View: 8813

This major reference work embraces all aspects of neurology: the disorders, the underlying neurobiology, methods and history. The four volume set is arranged for ease of use.
Medical

Nanotechnology for Biology and Medicine

At the Building Block Level

Author: Gabriel A. Silva,Vladimir Parpura

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387312965

Category: Medical

Page: 236

View: 9225

This text book will bring together a mix of both internationally known and established senior scientists along side up and coming (but already accomplished) junior scientists that have varying expertise in fundamental and applied nanotechnology to biology and medicine.
Medical

Alzheimer’s Disease - From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

Author: Hermann J. Gertz,Thomas Arendt

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3709175089

Category: Medical

Page: 320

View: 5313

As human longevity continues to be extended, so will the impact of age-associated dementia on individual lives and society. Alzheimer’s disease as the most common cause of dementia in the elderly remains a sentinal problem and its underlying pathology is still poorly understood. Available therapeutic strategies require considerable refinement and the development of new therapeutic strategies need input from basic research. Thus continued efforts are necessary both to understand basic mechanisms of the condition and to achieve more powerfull therapies. This volume brings together the reports of basic scientists and clinical investigators. The chapters provide a spectrum of information valuable for clinicians and scientists. This issue bridges the gap between laboratory work in basic science and the development of urgently needed therapeutic strategies. Areas presented are the molecular and cellular biology of the disease, pathogenetic mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets, genetics, risk factors, strategies of prevention and treatment as well as practical aspects of medical and social care for patients with Alzheimer’s disease.