Philosophy

On Photography

A Philosophical Inquiry

Author: Diarmuid Costello

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351970836

Category: Philosophy

Page: 166

View: 8907

What is photography? Is it a source of knowledge or an art? Many have said the former because it records the world automatically, others the latter because it expresses human subjectivity. Can photography be both or must we choose? In On Photography: A Philosophical Inquiry, Diarmuid Costello examines these fascinating questions and more, drawing on images by Alfred Stieglitz, Berenice Abbott, Paul Strand, Lee Friedlander, James Welling, and Wolfgang Tillmans, among others, and the writings of Elizabeth Eastlake, Peter Henry Emerson, Edward Weston, Siegfried Kracauer, André Bazin, and Stanley Cavell. This sets the scene for the contemporary stand-off between "sceptical" and "non-sceptical" Orthodoxy in the work of Roger Scruton and Kendall Walton, and a New Theory of Photography taking its cue from László Moholy-Nagy and Patrick Maynard. Written in a clear and engaging style, On Photography is essential reading for anyone interested in the philosophy of photography, aesthetics, art, and visual studies.
Art

Photography After Conceptual Art

Author: Diarmuid Costello,Margaret Iversen

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444391496

Category: Art

Page: 208

View: 7000

Photography

The Media of Photography

Author: Diarmuid Costello

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: 9781118269015

Category: Photography

Page: 300

View: 9840

Two events in particular occasion this volume on the philosophy of photography: the blurring of boundaries that many took to demarcate photographic technology and practices from other representational and artistic technologies and the invention of digital photography. The purpose of this volume is not to revive older questions by asking what, if anything, still distinguishes photography in the light of these developments, but to consider sundry questions about the materials and tools—or media—of photography from a variety of perspectives. critically examines classic and influential arguments in philosophy of photography addresses recent trends in photographic art, such as conceptualism and appropriation highlights philosophically neglected elements of photographic art, such as performativity and self-portraiture reexamines the role of photographic media in photographic art practices offers new perspectives of the impact of digital technologies on photography explores the relationship between photographic art and photography in other arts (comics and music) and in science brings a range of philosophical methodologies and traditions into dialogue incorporates extended discussions of the work of important photographers and artists who use photography (e.g. Friedlander, Gursky, Lawlor) illustrates philosophical points with reproductions, many of them not widely known closely connects philosophical theory to the details of photographic practice offers original and novel theories of the aesthetic, artistic, and epistemic values of photographs
Philosophy

Ethics and Public Policy

A Philosophical Inquiry

Author: Jonathan Wolff

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136721770

Category: Philosophy

Page: 240

View: 1027

Train crashes cause, on average, a handful of deaths each year in the UK. Technologies exist that would save the lives of some of those who die. Yet these technical innovations would cost hundreds of millions of pounds. Should we spend the money? How can we decide how to trade off life against financial cost? Such dilemmas make public policy is a battlefield of values, yet all too often we let technical experts decide the issues for us. Can philosophy help us make better decisions? Ethics and Public Policy: A Philosophical Inquiry is the first book to subject important and controversial areas of public policy to philosophical scrutiny. Jonathan Wolff, a renowned philosopher and veteran of many public committees, such as the Gambling Review Body, introduces and assesses core problems and controversies in public policy from a philosophical standpoint. Each chapter is centred on an important area of public policy where there is considerable moral and political disagreement. Topics discussed include: Can we defend inflicting suffering on animals in scientific experiments for human benefit? What limits to gambling can be achieved through legislation? What assumptions underlie drug policy? Can we justify punishing those who engage in actions that harm only themselves? What is so bad about crime? What is the point of punishment? Other chapters discuss health care, disability, safety and the free market. Throughout the book, fundamental questions for both philosopher and policy maker recur: what are the best methods for connecting philosophy and public policy? Should thinking about public policy be guided by an ‘an ideal world’ or the world we live in now? If there are ‘knock down’ arguments in philosophy why are there none in public policy? Each chapter concludes with ‘Lessons for Philosophy’ making this book not only an ideal introduction for those coming to philosophy, ethics or public policy for the first time, but also a vital resource for anyone grappling with the moral complexity underlying policy debates.
Photography

The Engine of Visualization

Thinking Through Photography

Author: Patrick Maynard

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801486890

Category: Photography

Page: 331

View: 7306

Photography extends our human ability to produce images, which are understood as surface markings - here induced by light. Through an approach to photography that is both analytic and consistently sensitive to photo history, Maynard places photography among modern imaging technologies, such as those familiar in medicine, and addresses some provocative questions. Technologies amplify but they also suppress. What does photography suppress? How should we think about depictive fidelity? What problems do the new digital technologies bring in their wake? What accounts for the persistent ambivalence regarding photographic art? Although Maynard's particular focus is photography, much of his discussion illuminates issues concerning other technologies and other kinds of images.
Education

Philosophy of Education in Action

An Inquiry-Based Approach

Author: David W. Nicholson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317551184

Category: Education

Page: 202

View: 2448

Philosophy of Education in Action is an innovative, inquiry-based introductory text that invites readers to study philosophy of education through the lens of their own observations and experiences. Structured according to a "Wonder Model of Inquiry," each chapter begins by posing a fundamental What if question about curriculum, pedagogy, and the role of the school before investigating the various philosophical perspectives that guide and influence educational practices. Classroom vignettes and examples of actual schools and educational programs help to ground philosophical perspectives in real-world scenarios, while the book’s unique inquiry-based approach leads students to both think critically about philosophical questions and apply the concepts to their own teaching. Features of the text include: What if questions that structure each chapter to pique students' curiosity, stimulate creativity, and promote critical thinking. Authentic classroom vignettes that encourage students to analyze what it means to "do" philosophy and to reflect upon their own practices, examine their role in the educational process, and articulate their own philosophical beliefs. A concluding section asking readers to imagine and design their own hypothetical school or classroom as a project-based means of analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating the different philosophies discussed. Accessible and thought-provoking, Philosophy of Education in Action provides a dynamic learning experience for readers to understand and apply philosophy in educational practice.
Education

Philosophy in the Classroom

Author: Matthew Lipman,Ann Margaret Sharp,Frederick S. Oscanyan

Publisher: Temple University Press

ISBN: 9781439905630

Category: Education

Page: 240

View: 9354

This is a textbook for teachers that demonstrates how philosophical thinking can be used in teaching children. It begins with the assumption that what is taught in schools is not (and should not be) subject matter but rather ways of thinking. The main point is that the classroom should be converted into a community of inquiry, and that one can begin doing that with children. Based on the curriculum that Matt Lipman has developed at the Institute for the Advancement of Philosophy for Children, which he heads, this book describes the curriculum and explains its use. The text is self-contained, however. This revision is thorough-going and incorporates new chapters, as well as new material in old chapters. Part One focuses on the need of educational change and the importance of philosophical inquiry in developing new approaches. Part Two discusses curriculum and teaching methodology, including teacher behavior conducive to helping children. Part Three deals with developing logic skills and moral judgment. It concludes with a chapter on the sorts of philosophical themes pertinent to ethical inquiry for children: the right and the fair, perfect and right, free will and determinism, change and growth, truth, caring, standards and rules, thinking and thinking for oneself. Education, in this sense, is not a matter of dispensing information; it is the process of assisting in the growth of the whole individual.
Education

Thinking in Education

Author: Matthew Lipman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521012256

Category: Education

Page: 304

View: 4741

A major contribution towards teaching for judgment, not just for knowledge, by a leading theorist.
Social Science

Technology and the Character of Contemporary Life

A Philosophical Inquiry

Author: Albert Borgmann

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022616358X

Category: Social Science

Page: 310

View: 4608

Blending social analysis and philosophy, Albert Borgmann maintains that technology creates a controlling pattern in our lives. This pattern, discernible even in such an inconspicuous action as switching on a stereo, has global effects: it sharply divides life into labor and leisure, it sustains the industrial democracies, and it fosters the view that the earth itself is a technological device. He argues that technology has served us as well in conquering hunger and disease, but that when we turn to it for richer experiences, it leads instead to a life dominated by effortless and thoughtless consumption. Borgmann does not reject technology but calls for public conversation about the nature of the good life. He counsels us to make room in a technological age for matters of ultimate concern—things and practices that engage us in their own right.
Education

Imitation and Education

A Philosophical Inquiry into Learning by Example

Author: Bryan R. Warnick

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780791474280

Category: Education

Page: 167

View: 1661

Brings together current research in philosophy, cognitive science, and education to uncover and criticize the traditional assumptions of how and why we should learn through imitation.
Education

The If Machine

Philosophical Enquiry in the Classroom

Author: Peter Worley

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1441136827

Category: Education

Page: 216

View: 1009

Each session in this practical book offers an imaginary situation, followed by a series of questions to encourage children to challenge key philosophical ideas such as values and ethics, gender and identity, and existence and beauty. All the enquiries have been tried and tested, and a handy star system is included to indicate the difficulty level of each one. With a comprehensive introduction and key sections on the philosophy behind the experiments, this book also includes an online teacher's resource to guide practitioners through using the sessions to best effect in the classroom.
Photography

Photography after Photography

Gender, Genre, History

Author: Abigail Solomon-Godeau

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822373629

Category: Photography

Page: 288

View: 7492

Presenting two decades of work by Abigail Solomon-Godeau, Photography after Photography is an inquiry into the circuits of power that shape photographic practice, criticism, and historiography. As the boundaries that separate photography from other forms of artistic production are increasingly fluid, Solomon-Godeau, a pioneering feminist and politically engaged critic, argues that the relationships between photography, culture, gender, and power demand renewed attention. In her analyses of the photographic production of Cindy Sherman, Robert Mapplethorpe, Susan Meiselas, Francesca Woodman, and others, Solomon-Godeau refigures the disciplinary object of photography by considering these practices through an examination of the determinations of genre and gender as these shape the relations between photographers, their images, and their viewers. Among her subjects are the 2006 Abu Ghraib prison photographs and the Cold War-era exhibition The Family of Man, insofar as these illustrate photography's embeddedness in social relations, viewing relations, and ideological formations.
Art

Photography, Trace, and Trauma

Author: Margaret Iversen

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022637033X

Category: Art

Page: 184

View: 8290

Photography is often associated with the psychic effects of trauma: the automatic nature of the process, wide-open camera lens, and light-sensitive film record chance details unnoticed by the photographer—similar to what happens when a traumatic event bypasses consciousness and lodges deeply in the unconscious mind. Photography, Trace, and Trauma takes a groundbreaking look at photographic art and works in other media that explore this important analogy. Examining photography and film, molds, rubbings, and more, Margaret Iversen considers how these artistic processes can be understood as presenting or simulating a residue, trace, or “index” of a traumatic event. These approaches, which involve close physical contact or the short-circuiting of artistic agency, are favored by artists who wish to convey the disorienting effect and elusive character of trauma. Informing the work of a number of contemporary artists—including Tacita Dean, Jasper Johns, Mary Kelly, Gabriel Orozco, and Gerhard Richter—the concept of the trace is shown to be vital for any account of the aesthetics of trauma; it has left an indelible mark on the history of photography and art as a whole.
Art

How to See: Looking, Talking, and Thinking about Art

Author: David Salle

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393248143

Category: Art

Page: 256

View: 792

“If John Berger’s Ways of Seeing is a classic of art criticism, looking at the ‘what’ of art, then David Salle’s How to See is the artist’s reply, a brilliant series of reflections on how artists think when they make their work. The ‘how’ of art has perhaps never been better explored.” —Salman Rushdie How does art work? How does it move us, inform us, challenge us? Internationally renowned painter David Salle’s incisive essay collection illuminates these questions by exploring the work of influential twentieth-century artists. Engaging with a wide range of Salle’s friends and contemporaries—from painters to conceptual artists such as Jeff Koons, John Baldessari, Roy Lichtenstein, and Alex Katz, among others—How to See explores not only the multilayered personalities of the artists themselves but also the distinctive character of their oeuvres. Salle writes with humor and verve, replacing the jargon of art theory with precise and evocative descriptions that help the reader develop a personal and intuitive engagement with art. The result: a master class on how to see with an artist’s eye.
Philosophy

Donald Davidson’s Triangulation Argument

A Philosophical Inquiry

Author: Robert H. Myers,Claudine Verheggen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113464129X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 224

View: 994

According to many commentators, Davidson’s earlier work on philosophy of action and truth-theoretic semantics is the basis for his reputation, and his later forays into broader metaphysical and epistemological issues, and eventually into what became known as the triangulation argument, are much less successful. This book by two of his former students aims to change that perception. In Part One, Verheggen begins by providing an explanation and defense of the triangulation argument, then explores its implications for questions concerning semantic normativity and reductionism, the social character of language and thought, and skepticism about the external world. In Part Two, Myers considers what the argument can tell us about reasons for action, and whether it can overcome skeptical worries based on claims about the nature of motivation, the sources of normativity and the demands of morality. The book reveals Davidson’s later writings to be full of innovative and important ideas that deserve much more attention than they are currently receiving.
Philosophy

Putting Philosophy to Work

Inquiry and Its Place in Culture -- Essays on Science, Religion, Law, Literature, and Life (Expanded Edition)

Author: Susan Haack

Publisher: Prometheus Books

ISBN: 1616144947

Category: Philosophy

Page: 345

View: 3344

This engaging and wide-ranging collection of essays is informed and unified by the conviction that philosophy can, and should, engage with real-world issues. Susan Haack's keen analytical skills and well-chosen illustrations illuminate a diverse range of cultural questions; and her direct style and wry sense of humor make complex ideas and subtle distinctions accessible to serious readers whatever their discipline or particular interests. Putting Philosophy to Work will appeal not only to philosophers but also to thoughtful scientists, economists, legal thinkers, historians, literary scholars, and humanists. This new, expanded second edition includes several previously unpublished essays: a devastating critique of Karl Popper's highly (and dangerously) influential philosophy of science; a searching and thought-provoking analysis of scientism; and a groundbreaking paper on "academic ethics in a preposterous environment" that every professor, and would-be professor, should read. From the Trade Paperback edition.
Social Science

Reflective Thinking in Social Work

Learning from student narratives

Author: Mekada Julia Graham

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317675797

Category: Social Science

Page: 154

View: 4370

It is vital that social work students learn to integrate their personal and professional selves if they are to meet the challenges of social work in complex changing environments. This accessible text is designed to enable readers to explore and build on their existing skills and abilities, supporting them to become competent and self-aware reflective practitioners. Reflective Thinking in Social Work uses stories told by a range of social work students to model reflective practice learning. Discussing issues such as identity, motivation to enter the social work profession and lived experiences in the journey into social work, the book brings together stories of hardship, privilege, families, hopes, interests and community activism from many diverse ethnic backgrounds. Each narrative is introduced by the author and ends with a commentary drawing out the key themes and exploring how the reader can use the narrative to enhance their own understanding and critical thinking, and to engage in transformative practice. Framed by an in-depth discussion of available frameworks for reflective practice in different contexts and the importance of narratives in constructing identities, this is an invaluable text for social work students at both bachelor's and master's degree levels.
Education

Photovoice Research in Education and Beyond

A Practical Guide from Theory to Exhibition

Author: Amanda O. Latz

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131752988X

Category: Education

Page: 194

View: 4674

Photovoice is a form of participatory action research, which has been gaining use and momentum since its inception in the mid-1990s. Within the enactment of this methodology, research participants are invited to document aspects of their lives through photography and then provide written or oral accounts of the images they create. Designed to situate participants as experts on their lives and their experiences, photovoice is a powerful and visceral approach to policy change efforts. In this book, the photovoice methodology is conceptualized as being comprised of eight steps: identification, invitation, education, documentation, narration, ideation, presentation, and confirmation. Each of the steps is explained and expanded upon, and insights are drawn from the extant photovoice literature and the author’s personal experience. In addition, attention is given to the history of photography and inquiry, theoretical underpinnings and aims of the methodology, ethical considerations, methods and procedures, approaches to data analysis, and photovoice exhibitions. Finally, the author has attended to some aspects of photovoice that have historically been left unattended, such as: building a conceptual framework for a photovoice study, viewing the photovoice exhibition as a site of inquiry, and thinking through the ways in which ever-evolving photography technologies can and should impact decision-making throughout the photovoice process. While many texts exist that touch on and/or address photovoice, this is the first book solely dedicated to the entirety of the photovoice methodology — from theory to exhibition. Built as a practical guide, readers will find a wealth of information, resources, and advice within this book. Educators, students, and academic researchers will find this an accessible and compassionate text, one that will be a trusted companion while on the photovoice project journey.
Philosophy

Thinking about Addiction

Hyperbolic Discounting and Responsible Agency

Author: Craig Hanson,George Ainslie

Publisher: Rodopi

ISBN: 9042026626

Category: Philosophy

Page: 129

View: 2768

What is addiction? Why do some people become addicted while others do not? Is the addict rational? In this book, Craig Hanson attempts to answer these questions and more. Using insights from the beginnings of philosophy to contemporary behavioral economics, Hanson attempts to assess the variety of ways in which we can and cannot, understand addiction. Special consideration is given to a challenging (and controversial) proposal dubbed “hyperbolic discounting.” Hanson proposes some modifications to the hyperbolic discounting view that permit it to explain not only addiction, but also a variety of psychological maladies, such as self-deception.
Photography

Photography and Philosophy

Essays on the Pencil of Nature

Author: Scott Walden

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444335081

Category: Photography

Page: 344

View: 1634

PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHILOSOPHY ESSAYS ON THE PENCIL OF NATURE "Many of the essays are well written and indeed groundbreaking...Given its overall depth, the anthology is worth reading by any critic, curator or student of the arts."-Prefix Photo "How does anyone accept or deny 'reality' in photographic excursions? This is the central issue in this extraordinary compilation of 13 essays by contemporary philosophers who argue back and forth (in editor Walden's clever arrangement) so that readers must engage their own minds within the constantly conflicting (theoretical and personal) propositions/explanations. This is a rich, provocative, intelligent, challenging, and important compilation. Highly recommended."-Choice "Required reading for anyone interested in analytic philosophy of photography, Scott Walden's collection includes essays by most of the major writers in this area. The combination of classic pieces with newly commissioned work makes this both a useful reference book and a stimulating contribution to ongoing debates about photographic representation.-Nigel Warburton, The Open University Seeing is believing or is it? In an era of digital-imaging technology, can photographs still be considered truthful or realistic? Photography and Philosophy takes an up-to-date look at the issues of photographic truth, objectivity, and realism. It tests the limits on what can ethically be done with a camera and examines the fundamental differences between photographic and non-photographic artwork. Unlike the numerous texts devoted to the subject of Film Theory, this collection contains essays specifically about the art form of Still Photography and the broader theoretical questions it raises. Written by contemporary philosophers in a thorough and engaging manner, it is an excellent resource for students studying aesthetics or fine arts and photography.