Science

Other Minds: The Octopus and the Evolution of Intelligent Life

Author: Peter Godfrey-Smith

Publisher: HarperCollins UK

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 271

‘Brilliant’ Guardian ‘Fascinating and often delightful’ The Times SHORTLISTED FOR THE 2017 ROYAL SOCIETY SCIENCE BOOK PRIZE What if intelligent life on Earth evolved not once, but twice? The octopus is the closest we will come to meeting an intelligent alien. What can we learn from the encounter?
Science

Other Minds

Author: Peter Godfrey-Smith

Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 178

Although mammals and birds are widely regarded as the smartest creatures on earth, it has lately become clear that a very distant branch of the tree of life has also sprouted higher intelligence: the cephalopods, consisting of the squid, the cuttlefish, and above all the octopus. In captivity, octopuses have been known to identify individual human keepers, raid neighboring tanks for food, turn off lightbulbs by spouting jets of water, plug drains, and make daring escapes. How is it that a creature with such gifts evolved through an evolutionary lineage so radically distant from our own? What does it mean that evolution built minds not once but at least twice? The octopus is the closest we will come to meeting an intelligent alien. What can we learn from the encounter? In Other Minds, Peter Godfrey-Smith, a distinguished philosopher of science and a skilled scuba diver, tells a bold new story of how subjective experience crept into being—how nature became aware of itself. As Godfrey-Smith stresses, it is a story that largely occurs in the ocean, where animals first appeared. Tracking the mind’s fitful development, Godfrey-Smith shows how unruly clumps of seaborne cells began living together and became capable of sensing, acting, and signaling. As these primitive organisms became more entangled with others, they grew more complicated. The first nervous systems evolved, probably in ancient relatives of jellyfish; later on, the cephalopods, which began as inconspicuous mollusks, abandoned their shells and rose above the ocean floor, searching for prey and acquiring the greater intelligence needed to do so. Taking an independent route, mammals and birds later began their own evolutionary journeys. But what kind of intelligence do cephalopods possess? Drawing on the latest scientific research and his own scuba-diving adventures, Godfrey-Smith probes the many mysteries that surround the lineage. How did the octopus, a solitary creature with little social life, become so smart? What is it like to have eight tentacles that are so packed with neurons that they virtually “think for themselves”? What happens when some octopuses abandon their hermit-like ways and congregate, as they do in a unique location off the coast of Australia? By tracing the question of inner life back to its roots and comparing human beings with our most remarkable animal relatives, Godfrey-Smith casts crucial new light on the octopus mind—and on our own.

توقيع في الخلية

Author: د. ستيفن ماير

Publisher: مركز براهين للأبحاث والدراسات

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 736

View: 848

في (توقيع في الخلية) يطرح ماير أول مرجع شامل لحجة التصميم الذكي المبنية على الدنا. بينما يروي قصة نجاح محاولات حل خيوط اللغز الذي لم يتعرض له داروين –كيف نشأت الحياة؟–، طور ماير حجة للنظرية التي غالبا ما يساء فهمها، مستخدما الطريقة التي استعملها داروين نفسه. بطرحه لرؤية جديدة لواحد من الألغاز المستمرة للبيولوجيا الحديثة، أثبت ماير أن أدلة التصميم الذكي ليست قائمة على الجهل أو رفض العلم، بل هي بالأحرى قائمة على أدلة علمية ساحقة، تتزايد مع الوقت. «حجة حاسمة مبنية على نقاط علمية مذهلة من أحدث ما توصل إليه العلم». - د. فيليب سكيل (بروفيسور شرفي في جامعة ولاية بنسلفانيا وعضو الأكاديمية الوطنية للعلوم) «استعراض رائع... سواءً أكنت تؤيد التصميم الذكي أو تعارضه، كتاب (توقيع في الخلية) هو كتابٌ يجب أن تقرأه». - د. سكوت ترنر (بروفيسور البيولوجيا البيئية وبيولوجيا الغابات في جامعة ولاية نيويورك) «عرض متقن للإشكالية الصعبة». - د. توماس ناجل (أستاذ بجامعة نيويورك)، في جريدة Times Literary Supplement
Science

Astrobiology, Discovery, and Societal Impact

Author: Steven J. Dick

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 406

View: 892

Examines humanistic aspects of astrobiology, exploring approaches, critical issues, and implications of the discovery of extraterrestrial life.
Nature

The Octopus and the Orangutan

Author: Eugene Linden

Publisher: E P Dutton

ISBN:

Category: Nature

Page: 242

View: 593

Presents a collection of anecdotes that offer evidence about animal intelligence, sharing stories of animal friendship, survival, and unexpected behavior.
Business & Economics

الاقتصاد العجيب: اقتصادي مارق يبحث في الجانب الخفي من كل شي

Author: Steven D. Levitt

Publisher: العبيكان للنشر

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 264

View: 235

أيهما أشد خطراً، المسدس أم حوض السباحة؟ ما هي الأشياء المشتركة بين معلمي المدارس ومصارعي السومو؟ لماذا ما يزال تجار المخدرات يعيشون مع أمهاتهم؟ ما هو مقدار اهتمام الوالدين حقاً؟ ما هو تأثير قضية «رو» و«ويد» في جرائم العنف؟ قد لا تبدو هذه الأسئلة مثل الأسئلة النمطية التي يسألها الاقتصادي، لكن ستيفن د. ليفيت ليس اقتصادياً نمطياً؛ إنه عالم شجاع أكثر من أي شيء آخر، يدرس المادة والأحاجي في الحياة اليومية ــ من الغش والجريمة إلى الرياضة وتربية الأطفال ــ وتقوم استنتاجاته عادة على قلب الحكمة التقليدية رأساً على عقب. وغالباً ما يبدأ بتل كبير من المعطيات وبسؤال بسيط لم يطرح من قبل. إنه يهتم ببعض هذه الأسئلة مثل قضايا الحياة والموت، وبعضها الآخر ذو ميزات استثنائية دون شك. وهكذا يحتوي هذا الكتاب على حقل جديد من الدراسة، وهو (الاقتصاد العجيب). ومن خلال سرده للقصص الآسرة ومن النظرة العميقة غير المباشرة، يبين ليفيت وزميله ستيفن ج. دوبنر أن الاقتصاد -في جذوره- دراسة للحوافز ـــ كيف يحصل الناس على ما يريدون أو يحتاجون، لاسيما عندما يريد الناس الآخرون الشيء ذاته أو يحتاجونه. في كتابهما (الاقتصاد العجيب)، يشرع المؤلفان في استكشاف الجانب الخفي ـــ من كل شيء؛ الأعمال الداخلية لعصابة مخدرات، وحقيقة الوسطاء العقاريين، وأساطير تمويل الحملات. وقصص الغش لدى معلمي المدارس. وأسرار جمعية كوكلوكس كلان (العرقية). ومن هنا فإذا كانت الأخلاق تمثل كيف نريد للعالم أن يسير، فإن الاقتصاد يمثل كيف يعمل العالم فعلاً. صحيح إن قراء هذا الكتاب سيتسلحون بقصص وأحاجٍ تكفي لتروى في آلاف الحفلات، لكن كتاب (الاقتصاد العجيب) يستطيع أن يقدم أكثر من ذلك، إنه يعيد تعريف الطريقة التي ننظر بها إلى العالم الحديث تعريفاً حرفياً. العبيكان للنشر
Nature

The Long Evolution of Brains and Minds

Author: Gerhard Roth

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Nature

Page: 320

View: 346

The main topic of the book is a reconstruction of the evolution of nervous systems and brains as well as of mental-cognitive abilities, in short “intelligence” from simplest organisms to humans. It investigates to which extent the two are correlated. One central topic is the alleged uniqueness of the human brain and human intelligence and mind. It is discussed which neural features make certain animals and humans intelligent and creative: Is it absolute or relative brain size or the size of “intelligence centers” inside the brains, the number of nerve cells inside the brain in total or in such “intelligence centers” decisive for the degree of intelligence, of mind and eventually consciousness? And which are the driving forces behind these processes? Finally, it is asked what all this means for the classical problem of mind-brain relationship and for a naturalistic theory of mind.
Computers

Deus Ex Machina Sapiens

Author: David Ellis

Publisher: Elysian Detroit

ISBN:

Category: Computers

Page: 280

View: 430

Watson's win on Jeopardy came as no surprise to those who had read Deus ex Machina sapiens. It was written largely during the 1990s, around the time that another IBM supercomputer--Deep Blue--was trouncing world chess grandmaster Garry Kasparov. The book has since been updated on a few points of detail but its primary message remains intact: the Machine is rapidly evolving as Man's rival if not replacement for the job of Steward of the Earth. Building upon the work of some of the world's greatest scientists, philosophers, and religious thinkers, and drawing particularly from developments in the computing and cognitive sciences--particularly, the field of artificial intelligence, or AI--the book reveals the evolutionary emergence of a machine that is not just intelligent but also self-conscious, emotional, and free-willed. In the 1980s and '90s you used to hear grandiose claims about AI. Machines would soon surpass humans in intelligence, it was claimed by some. The Japanese government spent a billion dollars on one project to make it happen. Well, it didn't happen, but that didn't stop the development of intelligence in machines. AI research simply went underground, and has ever since been quietly incorporated into the "ordinary" programs we use every day, without fanfare, without hype. There is still no machine that rivals Homo sapiens in overall intelligence, but today there are machines that far exceed human intellectual capacity in specific domains, from games to engineering to art, and the number of domains is growing exponentially big and exponentially fast. The disappearance of AI from front stage was good insofar as it allowed machines to develop in the right way; that is, through an evolutionary process, which is the only way for something of such complexity to develop. But it was bad insofar as we lost sight of the development of the intelligent machine. Deus brings Machina sapiens back to front stage, where it belongs. After describing the evolutionary development of intelligence in machines it goes on to describe the emotional, intellectual, and ethical attributes of what is no less than an emergent new life form. It asks the Big Question that can only be asked if you accept the very possibility of the new life form: Will it be serpent or savior? The question is answered in the book's title, which is intended to mean "God Emerging From the Intelligent Machine." The author confesses to having never studied Latin and to have concocted the title from two known Latin phrases: "Deus ex Machina" and "Homo sapiens." The concoction could be grammatically incorrect. The author would be pleased to be corrected.