Science

Our Inner Ape

A Leading Primatologist Explains why We are who We are

Author: Frans de Waal

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781594481963

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 8905

Argues that such social virtues as cooperation, empathy, and morality are as genetically inherent as aggressive and competitive behaviors, drawing on research with two ape species whose DNA most closely resembles that of humans to explain how ape instincts can inform readers about human behavior. Reprint. 50,000 first printing.
Social Science

Our Inner Ape

A Leading Primatologist Explains Why We Are Who We Are

Author: Frans de Waal

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1101217383

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 3955

Visit the author's Web site at www.ourinnerape.com It’s no secret that humans and apes share a host of traits, from the tribal communities we form to our irrepressible curiosity. We have a common ancestor, scientists tell us, so it’s natural that we act alike. But not all of these parallels are so appealing: the chimpanzee, for example, can be as vicious and manipulative as any human. Yet there’s more to our shared primate heritage than just our violent streak. In Our Inner Ape, Frans de Waal, one of the world’s great primatologists and a renowned expert on social behavior in apes, presents the provocative idea that our noblest qualities—generosity, kindness, altruism—are as much a part of our nature as are our baser instincts. After all, we share them with another primate: the lesser-known bonobo. As genetically similar to man as the chimpanzee, the bonobo has a temperament and a lifestyle vastly different from those of its genetic cousin. Where chimps are aggressive, territorial, and hierarchical, bonobos are gentle, loving, and erotic (sex for bonobos is as much about pleasure and social bonding as it is about reproduction). While the parallels between chimp brutality and human brutality are easy to see, de Waal suggests that the conciliatory bonobo is just as legitimate a model to study when we explore our primate heritage. He even connects humanity’s desire for fairness and its morality with primate behavior, offering a view of society that contrasts markedly with the caricature people have of Darwinian evolution. It’s plain that our finest qualities run deeper in our DNA than experts have previously thought. Frans de Waal has spent the last two decades studying our closest primate relations, and his observations of each species in Our Inner Ape encompass the spectrum of human behavior. This is an audacious book, an engrossing discourse that proposes thought-provoking and sometimes shocking connections among chimps, bonobos, and those most paradoxical of apes, human beings.
Political Science

Chimpanzee Politics

Power and Sex Among Apes

Author: Frans de Waal

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801886560

Category: Political Science

Page: 235

View: 2596

The first edition of Frans de Waal's Chimpanzee Politics was acclaimed not only by primatologists for its scientific achievement but also by politicians, business leaders, and social psychologists for its remarkable insights into the most basic human needs and behaviors. Twenty-five years later, this book is considered a classic. Featuring a new preface that includes recent insights from the author, this anniversary edition is a detailed and thoroughly engrossing account of rivalries and coalitions—actions governed by intelligence rather than instinct. As we watch the chimpanzees of Arnhem behave in ways we recognize from Machiavelli (and from the nightly news), de Waal reminds us again that the roots of politics are older than humanity.
Science

Peacemaking Among Primates

Author: Frans de Waal

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674659216

Category: Science

Page: 294

View: 1448

Examines how simians cope with aggression, and how they make peace after fights.
Nature

Tree of Origin

What Primate Behavior Can Tell Us about Human Social Evolution

Author: Frans B. M. De Waal

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674033023

Category: Nature

Page: 320

View: 4726

How did we become the linguistic, cultured, and hugely successful apes that we are? Our closest relatives--the other mentally complex and socially skilled primates--offer tantalizing clues. In "Tree of Origin" nine of the world's top primate experts read these clues and compose the most extensive picture to date of what the behavior of monkeys and apes can tell us about our own evolution as a species. It has been nearly fifteen years since a single volume addressed the issue of human evolution from a primate perspective, and in that time we have witnessed explosive growth in research on the subject. "Tree of Origin" gives us the latest news about bonobos, the "make love not war" apes who behave so dramatically unlike chimpanzees. We learn about the tool traditions and social customs that set each ape community apart. We see how DNA analysis is revolutionizing our understanding of paternity, intergroup migration, and reproductive success. And we confront intriguing discoveries about primate hunting behavior, politics, cognition, diet, and the evolution of language and intelligence that challenge claims of human uniqueness in new and subtle ways. "Tree of Origin" provides the clearest glimpse yet of the apelike ancestor who left the forest and began the long journey toward modern humanity.
Science

Good Natured

Author: Frans B. M. DE WAAL,F. B. M. de Waal

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674033175

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 8367

Science

The Bonobo and the Atheist: In Search of Humanism Among the Primates

Author: Frans de Waal

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393089193

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 3252

In this lively and illuminating discussion of his landmark research, esteemed primatologist Frans de Waal argues that human morality is not imposed from above but instead comes from within. Moral behavior does not begin and end with religion but is in fact a product of evolution. For many years, de Waal has observed chimpanzees soothe distressed neighbors and bonobos share their food. Now he delivers fascinating fresh evidence for the seeds of ethical behavior in primate societies that further cements the case for the biological origins of human fairness. Interweaving vivid tales from the animal kingdom with thoughtful philosophical analysis, de Waal seeks a bottom-up explanation of morality that emphasizes our connection with animals. In doing so, de Waal explores for the first time the implications of his work for our understanding of modern religion. Whatever the role of religious moral imperatives, he sees it as a “Johnny-come-lately” role that emerged only as an addition to our natural instincts for cooperation and empathy. But unlike the dogmatic neo-atheist of his book’s title, de Waal does not scorn religion per se. Instead, he draws on the long tradition of humanism exemplified by the painter Hieronymus Bosch and asks reflective readers to consider these issues from a positive perspective: What role, if any, does religion play for a well-functioning society today? And where can believers and nonbelievers alike find the inspiration to lead a good life? Rich with cultural references and anecdotes of primate behavior, The Bonobo and the Atheist engagingly builds a unique argument grounded in evolutionary biology and moral philosophy. Ever a pioneering thinker, de Waal delivers a heartening and inclusive new perspective on human nature and our struggle to find purpose in our lives.
Science

The Evolution of Primate Societies

Author: John C. Mitani,Josep Call,Peter M. Kappeler,Ryne A. Palombit,Joan B. Silk

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226531732

Category: Science

Page: 728

View: 9011

In 1987, the University of Chicago Press published Primate Societies, the standard reference in the field of primate behavior for an entire generation of students and scientists. But in the twenty-five years since its publication, new theories and research techniques for studying the Primate order have been developed, debated, and tested, forcing scientists to revise their understanding of our closest living relatives. Intended as a sequel to Primate Societies, The Evolution of Primate Societies compiles thirty-one chapters that review the current state of knowledge regarding the behavior of nonhuman primates. Chapters are written by the leading authorities in the field and organized around four major adaptive problems primates face as they strive to grow, maintain themselves, and reproduce in the wild. The inclusion of chapters on the behavior of humans at the end of each major section represents one particularly novel aspect of the book, and it will remind readers what we can learn about ourselves through research on nonhuman primates. The final section highlights some of the innovative and cutting-edge research designed to reveal the similarities and differences between nonhuman and human primate cognition. The Evolution of Primate Societies will be every bit the landmark publication its predecessor has been.
Psychology

The Age of Empathy

Nature's Lessons for a Kinder Society

Author: Frans de Waal

Publisher: Crown

ISBN: 0307462528

Category: Psychology

Page: 304

View: 9236

In this thought-provoking book, the acclaimed author of Our Inner Ape examines how empathy comes naturally to a great variety of animals, including humans. Are we our brothers' keepers? Do we have an instinct for compassion? Or are we, as is often assumed, only on earth to serve our own survival and interests? By studying social behaviors in animals, such as bonding, the herd instinct, the forming of trusting alliances, expressions of consolation, and conflict resolution, Frans de Waal demonstrates that animals–and humans–are "preprogrammed to reach out." He has found that chimpanzees care for mates that are wounded by leopards, elephants offer "reassuring rumbles" to youngsters in distress, and dolphins support sick companions near the water's surface to prevent them from drowning. From day one humans have innate sensitivities to faces, bodies, and voices; we've been designed to feel for one another. De Waal's theory runs counter to the assumption that humans are inherently selfish, which can be seen in the fields of politics, law, and finance. But he cites the public's outrage at the U.S. government's lack of empathy in the wake of Hurricane Katrina as a significant shift in perspective–one that helped Barack Obama become elected and ushered in what may well become an Age of Empathy. Through a better understanding of empathy's survival value in evolution, de Waal suggests, we can work together toward a more just society based on a more generous and accurate view of human nature. Written in layman's prose with a wealth of anecdotes, wry humor, and incisive intelligence, The Age of Empathy is essential reading for our embattled times. "An important and timely message about the biological roots of human kindness." —Desmond Morris, author of The Naked Ape
Business & Economics

The Dismal Science

How Thinking Like an Economist Undermines Community

Author: Stephen A. Marglin

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674026544

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 359

View: 3080

See "Stephen Marglin on the Future of Capitalism" at FORA.tv. Economists celebrate the market as a device for regulating human interaction without acknowledging that their enthusiasm depends on a set of half-truths: that individuals are autonomous, self-interested, and rational calculators with unlimited wants and that the only community that matters is the nation-state. However, as Stephen Marglin argues, market relationships erode community. In the past, for example, when a farm family experienced a setback--say the barn burned down--neighbors pitched in. Now a farmer whose barn burns down turns, not to his neighbors, but to his insurance company. Insurance may be a more efficient way to organize resources than a community barn raising, but the deep social and human ties that are constitutive of community are weakened by the shift from reciprocity to market relations. Marglin dissects the ways in which the foundational assumptions of economics justify a world in which individuals are isolated from one another and social connections are impoverished as people define themselves in terms of how much they can afford to consume. Over the last four centuries, this economic ideology has become the dominant ideology in much of the world. Marglin presents an account of how this happened and an argument for righting the imbalance in our lives that this ideology has fostered.
Science

The Ape And The Sushi Master

Cultural Reflections Of A Primatologist

Author: Franz De Waal,Franz Waal

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0786724536

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 1057

What if apes had their own culture rather than an imposed human version? What if they reacted to situations with behavior learned through observation of their elders (culture) rather than with pure genetically coded instinct (nature)? In answering these questions, eminent primatologist Frans de Waal corrects our arrogant assumption that humans are the only creatures to have made the leap from the natural to the cultural domain.The book's title derives from an analogy de Waal draws between the way behavior is transmitted in ape society and the way sushi-making skills are passed down from sushi master to apprentice. Like the apprentice, young apes watch their group mates at close range, absorbing the methods and lessons of each of their elders' actions. Responses long thought to be instinctive are actually learned behavior, de Waal argues, and constitute ape culture.A delightful mix of intriguing anecdote, rigorous clinical study, adventurous field work, and fascinating speculation, The Ape and the Sushi Master shows that apes are not human caricatures but members of our extended family with their own resourcefulness and dignity.
Business & Economics

Thick Face, Black Heart

The Warrior Philosophy for Conquering the Challenges of Business and Life

Author: Chin-Ning Chu

Publisher: Grand Central Publishing

ISBN: 0759525277

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 384

View: 5823

Chin-Ning Chu is one of the world's foremost experts on Asian business psychology, a frequent guest on "Larry King Live" and other high-profile TV shows. Now he shows how to apply ancient Chinese military wisdom to the competitive world of business today. "Could become the Think and Grow Rich of the 1990s".--Success magazine.
Social Science

The Creative Spark

How Imagination Made Humans Exceptional

Author: Agustín Fuentes

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1101983957

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 7258

A bold new synthesis of paleontology, archaeology, genetics, and anthropology that overturns misconceptions about race, war and peace, and human nature itself, answering an age-old question: What made humans so exceptional among all the species on Earth? Creativity. It is the secret of what makes humans special, hiding in plain sight. Agustín Fuentes argues that your child's finger painting comes essentially from the same place as creativity in hunting and gathering millions of years ago, and throughout history in making war and peace, in intimate relationships, in shaping the planet, in our communities, and in all of art, religion, and even science. It requires imagination and collaboration. Every poet has her muse; every engineer, an architect; every politician, a constituency. The manner of the collaborations varies widely, but successful collaboration is inseparable from imagination, and it brought us everything from knives and hot meals to iPhones and interstellar spacecraft. Weaving fascinating stories of our ancient ancestors' creativity, Fuentes finds the patterns that match modern behavior in humans and animals. This key quality has propelled the evolutionary development of our bodies, minds, and cultures, both for good and for bad. It's not the drive to reproduce; nor competition for mates, or resources, or power; nor our propensity for caring for one another that have separated us out from all other creatures. As Fuentes concludes, to make something lasting and useful today you need to understand the nature of your collaboration with others, what imagination can and can't accomplish, and, finally, just how completely our creativity is responsible for the world we live in. Agustín Fuentes's resounding multimillion-year perspective will inspire readers—and spark all kinds of creativity.
Social Science

Primate Behavioral Ecology

Author: Karen B. Strier

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317327101

Category: Social Science

Page: 602

View: 404

This comprehensive introductory text integrates evolutionary, ecological, and demographic perspectives with new results from field studies and contemporary noninvasive molecular and hormonal techniques to understand how different primates behave and the significance of these insights for primate conservation. Each chapter is organized around the major research themes in the field, with Strier emphasizing the interplay between theory, observations, and conservation issues. Examples are drawn from the "classic" primate field studies as well as more recent studies on previously neglected species, illustrating the vast behavioral variation that exists across the primate order. Primate Behavioral Ecology 5th Edition also examines how anthropogenic activities are negatively impacting primate populations, including a thorough analysis of behavioural plasticity and its implications. This fully updated new edition incorporates exciting new discoveries and the most up-to-date approaches in the field to provide an invaluable overview of the field of primate behavioral ecology and its applications to primate conservation. It is considered to be a “must read” for all students interested in primates.
Science

Catching Fire

How Cooking Made Us Human

Author: Richard W. Wrangham

Publisher: Profile Books

ISBN: 184668286X

Category: Science

Page: 309

View: 5120

In this stunningly original book, Richard Wrangham argues that it was cooking that caused the extraordinary transformation of our ancestors from apelike beings to Homo erectus. At the heart of Catching Fire lies an explosive new idea: the habit of eating cooked rather than raw food permitted the digestive tract to shrink and the human brain to grow, helped structure human society, and created the male-female division of labour. As our ancestors adapted to using fire, humans emerged as "the cooking apes". Covering everything from food-labelling and overweight pets to raw-food faddists, Catching Fire offers a startlingly original argument about how we came to be the social, intelligent, and sexual species we are today. "This notion is surprising, fresh and, in the hands of Richard Wrangham, utterly persuasive ... Big, new ideas do not come along often in evolution these days, but this is one." -Matt Ridley, author of Genome
Language Arts & Disciplines

Adam's Tongue

How Humans Made Language, How Language Made Humans

Author: Derek Bickerton

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 9780809022816

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 286

View: 9861

The renowned linguist author of Bastard Tongues presents a revisionist assessment of evolution that credits language as a key component in what separates humans from animals, in an account that explains how "power scavenging" forced early humans to break from previous communication systems and acquire new brain structures.
Body, Mind & Spirit

Animal Lessons

Discovering Your Spiritual Connection with Animals

Author: Danielle MacKinnon

Publisher: Llewellyn Worldwide

ISBN: 0738752932

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 240

View: 3453

Develop a deeper, more positive relationship with the animals in your life and become a better person using Animal Lessons. All around you, animals are acting as therapists, trainers, mentors, and gurus—if you pay attention. They want to guide you toward the next step in your personal evolution, and this first-of-its-kind book shows you how to understand and benefit from them. Having worked deeply and intuitively with animals for nearly twenty years, Danielle MacKinnon has a wealth of wisdom that she shares through helpful tools and techniques, client stories, and her step-by-step process for personal growth through animal guidance. With an open heart and mind, you’ll develop a new awareness and stronger love of yourself as well as the wise creatures in your life. Praise: "MacKinnon, a psychic medium, blends personal stories with tips and tools aimed at helping readers discover a deeper relationship with their pets. Animals, she writes, often act as therapists, trainers, mentors, and gurus, and can offer lessons on love, patience, happiness, and gratitude."—Publishers Weekly
Religion

Religious Affects

Animality, Evolution, and Power

Author: Donovan O. Schaefer

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822374900

Category: Religion

Page: 304

View: 1885

In Religious Affects Donovan O. Schaefer challenges the notion that religion is inextricably linked to language and belief, proposing instead that it is primarily driven by affects. Drawing on affect theory, evolutionary biology, and poststructuralist theory, Schaefer builds on the recent materialist shift in religious studies to relocate religious practices in the affective realm—an insight that helps us better understand how religion is lived in conjunction with systems of power. To demonstrate religion's animality and how it works affectively, Schaefer turns to a series of case studies, including the documentary Jesus Camp and contemporary American Islamophobia. Placing affect theory in conversation with post-Darwinian evolutionary theory, Schaefer explores the extent to which nonhuman animals have the capacity to practice religion, linking human forms of religion and power through a new analysis of the chimpanzee waterfall dance as observed by Jane Goodall. In this compelling case for the use of affect theory in religious studies, Schaefer provides a new model for mapping relations between religion, politics, species, globalization, secularism, race, and ethics.
Science

Chimpanzees and Human Evolution

Author: Martin N. Muller

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674983319

Category: Science

Page: 794

View: 3704

Knowledge of wild chimpanzees has expanded dramatically. This volume, edited by Martin Muller, Richard Wrangham, and David Pilbeam, brings together scientists who are leading a revolution to discover and explain human uniqueness, by studying our closest living relatives. Their conclusions may transform our understanding of human evolution.
Nature

In the Shadow of Man

Author: Jane Goodall

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

ISBN: 9780618056767

Category: Nature

Page: 297

View: 9200

A personal account of the author's life among wild chimpanzees in Africa offers insight into animal behavior and draws parallels between chimpanzee and human relationships.