The air we breathe is twenty-one percent oxygen, an amount higher than on any other known world. While we may take our air for granted, Earth was not always an oxygenated planet. How did it become this way? Donald Canfield—one of the world's leading authorities on geochemistry, earth history, and the early oceans—covers this vast history, emphasizing its relationship to the evolution of life and the evolving chemistry of the Earth. Canfield guides readers through the various lines of scientific evidence, considers some of the wrong turns and dead ends along the way, and highlights the scientists and researchers who have made key discoveries in the field. Showing how Earth’s atmosphere developed over time, Oxygen takes readers on a remarkable journey through the history of the oxygenation of our planet. Some images inside the book are unavailable due to digital copyright restrictions.
J.R. Kent has solved a 2,500-year-old mystery that defies both religion and science! Hidden in the thirty-one verses of Genesis One is a message so powerful it could ultimately change the course of global events. Our hi-tech world is barely a century old, and already life altering environmental, terrorist, political, economic, and health threats pose potentially dire consequences for our future. However, many of the ancient, advanced civilizations such as the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans and the Mayans of Central America endured for thousands of years. So what was their secret, and how is it revealed in the Genesis verses? Genesis One is an ancient creation account for the earth, plants, animals, and humankind. However, when reading these verses they may seem bewildering and out of the natural order. The premise of this book illustrates in startling detail that this amazing story—in fact—perfectly correlates with the theories of modern science! There are several reasons why this mystery has not been revealed until now. First, an ancient author wrote this account in the original Hebrew language, but the actual evolutionary sequence of the Earth that he so accurately revealed has been lost in translation by the many biblical versions that followed. Second, the discoveries of modern science now put us at a point in time when this correlation has now been found in translation. This revelation then begs two questions. How was this knowledge possible in ancient times, and who wrote it?
The ordinary atoms that make up the known universe—from our bodies and the air we breathe to the planets and stars—constitute only 5 percent of all matter and energy in the cosmos. The rest is known as dark matter and dark energy, because their precise identities are unknown. The Cosmic Cocktail is the inside story of the epic quest to solve one of the most compelling enigmas of modern science—what is the universe made of?—told by one of today's foremost pioneers in the study of dark matter. Blending cutting-edge science with her own behind-the-scenes insights as a leading researcher in the field, acclaimed theoretical physicist Katherine Freese recounts the hunt for dark matter, from the discoveries of visionary scientists like Fritz Zwicky—the Swiss astronomer who coined the term "dark matter" in 1933—to the deluge of data today from underground laboratories, satellites in space, and the Large Hadron Collider. Theorists contend that dark matter consists of fundamental particles known as WIMPs, or weakly interacting massive particles. Billions of them pass through our bodies every second without us even realizing it, yet their gravitational pull is capable of whirling stars and gas at breakneck speeds around the centers of galaxies, and bending light from distant bright objects. Freese describes the larger-than-life characters and clashing personalities behind the race to identify these elusive particles. Many cosmologists believe we are on the verge of solving the mystery. The Cosmic Cocktail provides the foundation needed to fully fathom this epochal moment in humankind’s quest to understand the universe.
For almost four billion years, microbes had the primordial oceans all to themselves. The stewards of Earth, these organisms transformed the chemistry of our planet to make it habitable for plants, animals, and us. Life's Engines takes readers deep into the microscopic world to explore how these marvelous creatures made life on Earth possible—and how human life today would cease to exist without them. Paul Falkowski looks "under the hood" of microbes to find the engines of life, the actual working parts that do the biochemical heavy lifting for every living organism on Earth. With insight and humor, he explains how these miniature engines are built—and how they have been appropriated by and assembled like Lego sets within every creature that walks, swims, or flies. Falkowski shows how evolution works to maintain this core machinery of life, and how we and other animals are veritable conglomerations of microbes. A vibrantly entertaining book about the microbes that support our very existence, Life's Engines will inspire wonder about these elegantly complex nanomachines that have driven life since its origin. It also issues a timely warning about the dangers of tinkering with that machinery to make it more "efficient" at meeting the ever-growing demands of humans in the coming century.
Dive into a mind-bending exploration of the physics of black holes Black holes, predicted by Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity more than a century ago, have long intrigued scientists and the public with their bizarre and fantastical properties. Although Einstein understood that black holes were mathematical solutions to his equations, he never accepted their physical reality—a viewpoint many shared. This all changed in the 1960s and 1970s, when a deeper conceptual understanding of black holes developed just as new observations revealed the existence of quasars and X-ray binary star systems, whose mysterious properties could be explained by the presence of black holes. Black holes have since been the subject of intense research—and the physics governing how they behave and affect their surroundings is stranger and more mind-bending than any fiction. After introducing the basics of the special and general theories of relativity, this book describes black holes both as astrophysical objects and theoretical “laboratories” in which physicists can test their understanding of gravitational, quantum, and thermal physics. From Schwarzschild black holes to rotating and colliding black holes, and from gravitational radiation to Hawking radiation and information loss, Steven Gubser and Frans Pretorius use creative thought experiments and analogies to explain their subject accessibly. They also describe the decades-long quest to observe the universe in gravitational waves, which recently resulted in the LIGO observatories’ detection of the distinctive gravitational wave “chirp” of two colliding black holes—the first direct observation of black holes’ existence. The Little Book of Black Holes takes readers deep into the mysterious heart of the subject, offering rare clarity of insight into the physics that makes black holes simple yet destructive manifestations of geometric destiny.
يعد هذا الكتاب المنشور عام 1985م من أهم الكتب التي نقدت النظرية الداروينية نقدًا تفصيليًا معمقًا وشاملًا، إن لم يكن أهمها على الإطلاق. ورغم كثرة ما كتب في هذا المجال، يظل هذا الكتاب رغم قِدمه النسبي أصلًا لما جاء بعده، حيث قدم فيه أستاذ علوم الوراثة والكيمياء الحيوية (مايكل دنتون) واحدة من أروع كلاسيكيات نقد الداروينية. فبين شرحه لعدم كفاية الآليات التطورية -من انتخاب طبيعي وطفرات- لانتقال النوع إلى نوع آخر، وتعريجه على سجل الحفريات وكيف أنه يفشل دومًا في تصديق النبؤات الخيالية التي تدعي الداروينية صحتها، ووصوله إلى البيولوجيا الجزيئية، وكيف أنها أكثر المخاطر التي تتحدى التطور، يثبت دنتون بما لا يدع مجالا للشك، أن التطور نظرية في أزمة. دلالة عنوان الكتاب (التطور: نظرية في أزمة) على مضمونه، تدل على أن اختيار مايكل دنتون له كان موفّقًا ودقيقًا وقبل ذلك مُطابقًا ومُصدِّقًا لتأزم النظرية بالفعل، بالإضافة إلى امتلائها بالثغرات والتحكُّمات التي زادت بنيانها المعرفي وهنًا إلى وهن.
التأثير, الكتاب الكلاسيكي حول عملية الإقناع, يشرح مبادئ علم النفس التي تقف وراء قول الناس «نعم» لأي طلب كان, كما يشرح كيفية تطبيق فهم هذه المبادئ. الدكتور روبرت سيالديني مدرّس خبير في حقلي التأثير والإقناع المتناميين بسرعة. إن هذا الكتاب الذي ينظر إليه في الأوساط العلمية نظرة مرموقة جداً؛ فهو حصيلة خمس وثلاثين سنة من الأبحاث الدقيقة المعتمدة على الأدلة القوية، إضافة إلى برنامج استمر ثلاث سنوات من الدراسة الميدانية لما يدفع الناس إلى تغيير سلوكهم. سوف نتعلم المبادئ الستة الأساسية, وكيف نستعملها كي نصبح مهرة في فن الإقناع- وكيف ندافع عن أنفسنا ضد من يحاول أن يستغلنا بإقناعنا بما يريد. هذا الكتاب مثالي لجميع الناس العاملين في جميع نواحي الحياة. سوف تغيّر مبادئ التأثيرشخصيتك تغييراً إيجابياً قوياً وتقودك نحو النجاح. العبيكان للنشر