The book gives an introduction to $p$-adic numbers from the point of view of number theory, topology, and analysis. Compared to other books on the subject, its novelty is both a particularly balanced approach to these three points of view and an emphasis on topics accessible to undergraduates. In addition, several topics from real analysis and elementary topology which are not usually covered in undergraduate courses (totally disconnected spaces and Cantor sets, points of discontinuity of maps and the Baire Category Theorem, surjectivity of isometries of compact metric spaces) are also included in the book. They will enhance the reader's understanding of real analysis and intertwine the real and $p$-adic contexts of the book. The book is based on an advanced undergraduate course given by the author. The choice of the topic was motivated by the internal beauty of the subject of $p$-adic analysis, an unusual one in the undergraduate curriculum, and abundant opportunities to compare it with its much more familiar real counterpart. The book includes a large number of exercises. Answers, hints, and solutions for most of them appear at the end of the book. Well written, with obvious care for the reader, the book can be successfully used in a topic course or for self-study.
This second edition introduces an additional set of new mathematical problems with their detailed solutions in real analysis. It also provides numerous improved solutions to the existing problems from the previous edition, and includes very useful tips and skills for the readers to master successfully. There are three more chapters that expand further on the topics of Bernoulli numbers, differential equations and metric spaces. Each chapter has a summary of basic points, in which some fundamental definitions and results are prepared. This also contains many brief historical comments for some significant mathematical results in real analysis together with many references. Problems and Solutions in Real Analysis can be treated as a collection of advanced exercises by undergraduate students during or after their courses of calculus and linear algebra. It is also instructive for graduate students who are interested in analytic number theory. Readers will also be able to completely grasp a simple and elementary proof of the Prime Number Theorem through several exercises. This volume is also suitable for non-experts who wish to understand mathematical analysis. Request Inspection Copy Contents:Sequences and LimitsInfinite SeriesContinuous FunctionsDifferentiationIntegrationImproper IntegralsSeries of FunctionsApproximation by PolynomialsConvex FunctionsVarious Proof ζ(2) = π2/6Functions of Several VariablesUniform DistributionRademacher FunctionsLegendre PolynomialsChebyshev PolynomialsGamma FunctionPrime Number TheoremBernoulli NumbersMetric SpacesDifferential Equations Readership: Undergraduates and graduate students in mathematical analysis.
p-adic numbers play a very important role in modern number theory, algebraic geometry and representation theory. Lately p-adic numbers have attracted a great deal of attention in modern theoretical physics as a promising new approach for describing the non-Archimedean geometry of space-time at small distances.This is the first book to deal with applications of p-adic numbers in theoretical and mathematical physics. It gives an elementary and thoroughly written introduction to p-adic numbers and p-adic analysis with great numbers of examples as well as applications of p-adic numbers in classical mechanics, dynamical systems, quantum mechanics, statistical physics, quantum field theory and string theory.
This is an introduction to p-adic analysis which is elementary yet complete and which displays the variety of applications of the subject. Dr Schikhof is able to point out and explain how p-adic and 'real' analysis differ. This approach guarantees the reader quickly becomes acquainted with this equally 'real' analysis and appreciates its relevance. The reader's understanding is enhanced and deepened by the large number of exercises included throughout; these both test the reader's grasp and extend the text in interesting directions. As a consequence, this book will become a standard reference for professionals (especially in p-adic analysis, number theory and algebraic geometry) and will be welcomed as a textbook for advanced students of mathematics familiar with algebra and analysis.
These lecture notes are intended as an introduction to p-adic analysis on the elementary level. For this reason they presuppose as little background as possi ble. Besides about three semesters of calculus, I presume some slight exposure to more abstract mathematics, to the extent that the student won't have an adverse reaction to matrices with entries in a field other than the real numbers, field extensions of the rational numbers, or the notion of a continuous map of topolog ical spaces. The purpose of this book is twofold: to develop some basic ideas of p-adic analysis, and to present two striking applications which, it is hoped, can be as effective pedagogically as they were historically in stimulating interest in the field. The first of these applications is presented in Chapter II, since it only requires the most elementary properties of Q ; this is Mazur's construction by p means of p-adic integration of the Kubota-Leopoldtp-adic zeta-function, which "p-adically interpolates" the values of the Riemann zeta-function at the negative odd integers. My treatment is based on Mazur's Bourbaki notes (unpublished).
This book results from a unique and innovative program at Pennsylvania State University. Under the program, the ''best of the best'' students nationwide are chosen to study challenging mathematical areas under the guidance of experienced mathematicians. This program, Mathematics Advanced Study Semesters (MASS), offers an unparalleled opportunity for talented undergraduate students who are serious in the pursuit of mathematical knowledge. This volume represents various aspects of the MASS program over its six-year existence, including core courses, summer courses, students' research, and colloquium talks. The book is most appropriate for college professors of mathematics who work with bright and eager undergraduate and beginning graduate students, for such students who want to expand their mathematical horizons, and for everyone who loves mathematics and wants to learn more interesting and unusual material. The first half of the book contains lecture notes of nonstandard courses. A text for a semester-long course on $p$-adic analysis is centered around contrasts and similarities with its real counterpart. A shorter text focuses on a classical area of interplay between geometry, algebra and number theory (continued fractions, hyperbolic geometry and quadratic forms). Also provided are detailed descriptions of two innovative courses, one on geometry and the other on classical mechanics. These notes constitute what one may call the skeleton of a course, leaving the instructor ample room for innovation and improvisation. The second half of the book contains a large collection of essays on a broad spectrum of exciting topics from Hilbert's Fourth Problem to geometric inequalities and minimal surfaces, from mathematical billiards to fractals and tilings, from unprovable theorems to the classification of finite simple groups and lexicographic codes.
Was plane geometry your favourite math course in high school? Did you like proving theorems? Are you sick of memorising integrals? If so, real analysis could be your cup of tea. In contrast to calculus and elementary algebra, it involves neither formula manipulation nor applications to other fields of science. None. It is Pure Mathematics, and it is sure to appeal to the budding pure mathematician. In this new introduction to undergraduate real analysis the author takes a different approach from past studies of the subject, by stressing the importance of pictures in mathematics and hard problems. The exposition is informal and relaxed, with many helpful asides, examples and occasional comments from mathematicians like Dieudonne, Littlewood and Osserman. The author has taught the subject many times over the last 35 years at Berkeley and this book is based on the honours version of this course. The book contains an excellent selection of more than 500 exercises.