The first edition of this work has become the standard introduction to the theory of p-adic numbers at both the advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate level. This second edition includes a deeper treatment of p-adic functions in Ch. 4 to include the Iwasawa logarithm and the p-adic gamma-function, the rearrangement and addition of some exercises, the inclusion of an extensive appendix of answers and hints to the exercises, as well as numerous clarifications.
p-adic numbers play a very important role in modern number theory, algebraic geometry and representation theory. Lately p-adic numbers have attracted a great deal of attention in modern theoretical physics as a promising new approach for describing the non-Archimedean geometry of space-time at small distances. This is the first book to deal with applications of p-adic numbers in theoretical and mathematical physics. It gives an elementary and thoroughly written introduction to p-adic numbers and p-adic analysis with great numbers of examples as well as applications of p-adic numbers in classical mechanics, dynamical systems, quantum mechanics, statistical physics, quantum field theory and string theory. Contents:Analysis on the Field p-Adic Numbers:The Field of p-Adic NumbersAnalytic FunctionsAdditive and Multiplicative CharactersIntegration TheoryThe Gaussian IntegralsGeneralized FunctionsConvolution and the Fourier TransformationHomogeneous Generalized FunctionsPseudo-Differential Operators on the Field of p-Adic Numbers:The Operator D?p-Adic Schrodinger Operatorsp-Adic Quantum Theory:p-Adic Quantum MechanicsSpectral Theory in p-Adic Quantum MechanicsWeyl Systems. Infinite Dimensional Casep-Adic Stringsq-Analysis (Quantum Groups) and p-Adic AnalysisStochastic Processes Over the Field of p-Adic Numbers Readership: Students, postgraduates, mathematical physicists, mathematicians and physicists. keywords:Distribution Theory Ã la Bruhat;Planck Scale;p-Adic Analysis;Gaussian Integrals;Fourier Theory;Convolution of Generalized Functions;p-Adic Quantum Mechanics;Spectral Theory;Weyl Systems;p-Adic Strings;Quantum Groups;q-Analysis;Stochastic Processes
There are numbers of all kinds: rational, real, complex, p-adic. The p-adic numbers are less well known than the others, but they play a fundamental role in number theory and in other parts of mathematics. This elementary introduction offers a broad understanding of p-adic numbers. From the reviews: "It is perhaps the most suitable text for beginners, and I shall definitely recommend it to anyone who asks me what a p-adic number is." --THE MATHEMATICAL GAZETTE
An especially timely work, the book is an introduction to the theory of p-adic L-functions originated by Kubota and Leopoldt in 1964 as p-adic analogues of the classical L-functions of Dirichlet. Professor Iwasawa reviews the classical results on Dirichlet's L-functions and sketches a proof for some of them. Next he defines generalized Bernoulli numbers and discusses some of their fundamental properties. Continuing, he defines p-adic L-functions, proves their existence and uniqueness, and treats p-adic logarithms and p-adic regulators. He proves a formula of Leopoldt for the values of p-adic L-functions at s=1. The formula was announced in 1964, but a proof has never before been published. Finally, he discusses some applications, especially the strong relationship with cyclotomic fields.
This is an introduction to p-adic analysis which is elementary yet complete and which displays the variety of applications of the subject. Dr Schikhof is able to point out and explain how p-adic and 'real' analysis differ. This approach guarantees the reader quickly becomes acquainted with this equally 'real' analysis and appreciates its relevance. The reader's understanding is enhanced and deepened by the large number of exercises included throughout; these both test the reader's grasp and extend the text in interesting directions. As a consequence, this book will become a standard reference for professionals (especially in p-adic analysis, number theory and algebraic geometry) and will be welcomed as a textbook for advanced students of mathematics familiar with algebra and analysis.
Many classical problems in additive number theory are direct problems, in which one starts with a set A of natural numbers and an integer H -> 2, and tries to describe the structure of the sumset hA consisting of all sums of h elements of A. By contrast, in an inverse problem, one starts with a sumset hA, and attempts to describe the structure of the underlying set A. In recent years there has been ramrkable progress in the study of inverse problems for finite sets of integers. In particular, there are important and beautiful inverse theorems due to Freiman, Kneser, Plünnecke, Vosper, and others. This volume includes their results, and culminates with an elegant proof by Ruzsa of the deep theorem of Freiman that a finite set of integers with a small sumset must be a large subset of an n-dimensional arithmetic progression.
The idea of mirror symmetry originated in physics, but in recent years, the field of mirror symmetry has exploded onto the mathematical scene. It has inspired many new developments in algebraic and arithmetic geometry, toric geometry, the theory of Riemann surfaces, and infinite-dimensional Lie algebras among others. The developments in physics stimulated the interest of mathematicians in Calabi-Yau varieties. This led to the realization that the time is ripe for mathematicians, armed with many concrete examples and alerted by the mirror symmetry phenomenon, to focus on Calabi-Yau varieties and to test for these special varieties some of the great outstanding conjectures, e.g., the modularity conjecture for Calabi-Yau threefolds defined over the rationals, the Bloch-Beilinson conjectures, regulator maps of higher algebraic cycles, Picard-Fuchs differential equations, GKZ hypergeometric systems, and others. The articles in this volume report on current developments. The papers are divided roughly into two categories: geometric methods and arithmetic methods. One of the significant outcomes of the workshop is that we are finally beginning to understand the mirror symmetry phenomenon from the arithmetic point of view, namely, in terms of zeta-functions and L-series of mirror pairs of Calabi-Yau threefolds. The book is suitable for researchers interested in mirror symmetry and string theory.
Mathematics by J. H. Loxton,A. J. van Poorten,Australian Mathematical Society. Number Theory Section
An introduction to analysis with the right mix of abstract theories and concrete problems. Starting with general measure theory, the book goes on to treat Borel and Radon measures and introduces the reader to Fourier analysis in Euclidean spaces with a treatment of Sobolev spaces, distributions, and the corresponding Fourier analysis. It continues with a Hilbertian treatment of the basic laws of probability including Doob's martingale convergence theorem and finishes with Malliavin's "stochastic calculus of variations" developed in the context of Gaussian measure spaces. This invaluable contribution gives a taste of the fact that analysis is not a collection of independent theories, but can be treated as a whole.
To the Teacher. This book is designed to introduce a student to some of the important ideas of algebraic topology by emphasizing the re lations of these ideas with other areas of mathematics. Rather than choosing one point of view of modem topology (homotopy theory, simplicial complexes, singular theory, axiomatic homology, differ ential topology, etc.), we concentrate our attention on concrete prob lems in low dimensions, introducing only as much algebraic machin ery as necessary for the problems we meet. This makes it possible to see a wider variety of important features of the subject than is usual in a beginning text. The book is designed for students of mathematics or science who are not aiming to become practicing algebraic topol ogists-without, we hope, discouraging budding topologists. We also feel that this approach is in better harmony with the historical devel opment of the subject. What would we like a student to know after a first course in to pology (assuming we reject the answer: half of what one would like the student to know after a second course in topology)? Our answers to this have guided the choice of material, which includes: under standing the relation between homology and integration, first on plane domains, later on Riemann surfaces and in higher dimensions; wind ing numbers and degrees of mappings, fixed-point theorems; appli cations such as the Jordan curve theorem, invariance of domain; in dices of vector fields and Euler characteristics; fundamental groups
"Springer has just released the second edition of Steven Roman’s Field Theory, and it continues to be one of the best graduate-level introductions to the subject out there....Every section of the book has a number of good exercises that would make this book excellent to use either as a textbook or to learn the material on your own. All in all...a well-written expository account of a very exciting area in mathematics." --THE MAA MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES DIGITAL LIBRARY
This book is an elementary introduction to $p$-adic analysis from the number theory perspective. With over 100 exercises included, it will acquaint the non-expert to the basic ideas of the theory and encourage the novice to enter this fertile field of research. The main focus of the book is the study of $p$-adic $L$-functions and their analytic properties. It begins with a basic introduction to Bernoulli numbers and continues with establishing the Kummer congruences. These congruences are then used to construct the $p$-adic analog of the Riemann zeta function and $p$-adic analogs of Dirichlet's $L$-functions. Featured is a chapter on how to apply the theory of Newton polygons to determine Galois groups of polynomials over the rational number field. As motivation for further study, the final chapter introduces Iwasawa theory.
Hauptziel des Buches ist die Vermittlung des Grundbestandes der Algebraischen Zahlentheorie einschließlich der Theorie der normalen Erweiterungen bis hin zu einem Ausblick auf die Klassenkörpertheorie. Gleichberechtigt mit algebraischen Zahlen werden auch algebraische Funktionen behandelt. Dies geschieht einerseits um die Analogie zwischen Zahl- und Funktionenkörpern aufzuzeigen, die besonders deutlich im Falle eines endlichen Konstantenkörpers ist. Andererseits erhält man auf diese Weise eine Einführung in die Theorie der "höheren Kongruenzen" als eines wesentlichen Bestandteils der "Arithmetischen Geometrie". Obgleich das Buch hauptsächlich algebraischen Methoden gewidmet ist, findet man in der Einleitung auch einen kurzen Beweis des Primzahlsatzes nach Newman. In den Kapiteln 7 und 8 wird die Theorie der Heckeschen L-Reihen behandelt einschließlich der Verteilung der Primideale algebraischer Zahlkörper in Kegeln.
Mathematics by Claire C. Ralph,Santiago R. Simanca
This complete introduction to the study of arithmetic differential operators over the p-adic integers offers graduate students and researchers an accessible guide to this novel and promising area of mathematics. It starts with the basics and is accessible to anyone with a basic grasp of algebraic number theory.