Science

Physiological Plant Ecology

Ecophysiology and Stress Physiology of Functional Groups

Author: Walter Larcher

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540435167

Category: Science

Page: 513

View: 5000

With contributions by numerous experts.
Science

Physiological Plant Ecology

Author: Walter Larcher

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783642962837

Category: Science

Page: 254

View: 4519

Ecology is the science of the relationships between living organisms and their envi ronment . . It is concerned with the web of interactions involved in the circulation of matter and the flow of energy that makes possible life on earth, and with the adapta tions of organisms to the conditions under which they survive. Given the multitude of diverse organisms, the plant ecologist focuses upon the plants, investigating the influence of environmental factors on the character of the vegetation and the be havior of the individual plant species. Plant ecophysiology, a discipline within plant ecology, is concerned fundamentally with the physiology of plants as it is modified by fluctuating external influences. The aim of this book is to convey the conceptual framework upon which this discipline is based, to offer insights into the basic mechanisms and interactions within the system "plant and environment", and to present examples of current problems in this rap idly developing area. Among the topics discussed are the vital processes of plants, their metabolism and energy transformations as they are affected by environmental factors, and the ability of these organisms to adapt to such factors. It is assumed that the reader has a background in the fundamentals of plant physiology; the physiological bases of the phenomena of interest will be mentioned only to the extent necessary for an understanding of the ecological relationships.
Science

Physiological Plant Ecology III

Responses to the Chemical and Biological Environment

Author: O. L. Lange,P. S. Nobel,C. B. Osmond,H. Ziegler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642681530

Category: Science

Page: 799

View: 816

O.L. LANGE, P.S. NOBEL, C.B. OSMOND, and H. ZIEGLER Growth, development and reproductive success of individual plants depend on the interaction, within tolerance limits, of the factors in the physical, chemical and biological environment. The first two volumes of this series addressed fea tures of the physical environment (Vol. 12A) and the special responses of land plants as they relate to water use and carbon dioxide assimilation (Vol. 12B). In this volume we consider specific aspects of the chemical and biological envi ronment, and whereas the previous volumes were primarily concerned with the atmospheric interactions, our emphasis here shifts very much to the soil. This complex medium for plant growth was briefly reviewed in Chapter 17, Volume 12A. Since it is difficult to determine the precise physical and chemical interactions in the soil, it is even more difficult to determine the important biological interactions among organisms. Nevertheless there is growing aware ness of the significance of these interactions and their effects on physiological processes in the individual plant.
Science

Physiological Plant Ecology

Ecophysiology and Stress Physiology of Functional Groups

Author: Walter Larcher

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783540780991

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 1847

Plant ecophysiology is concerned fundamentally with the physiology of plants as modified by fluctuating external influences. According to a definition agreed by the Societe d'Ecophysiologie, ecophysiology "involves both the descriptive study of the responses of organisms to ambient conditions and the causal analysis of the corresponding ecologically dependent physiological mechanisms, at every level of or ganization. The ecophysiological approach must take into account polymorphism" (that is, structural and functional diversity) "in in dividual responses, which are largely responsible for the adaptive capacity of any given population. In this respect, ecophysiological study yields information which is fundamental for an understanding of the mechanisms underlying adaptive strategies" (Vannier 1994). of the author is to convey the conceptual framework upon The aim which this discipline is based, to offer insights into the basic mechanisms and interactions within the system "plant and environ ment", and to present examples of current problems. Although physi ological ecology is currently an exciting and expanding branch of science it is by no means a recent field of research. I have tried to por tray its rich historical background in the choice of illustrations and tabular material; the results presented reflect the broadness of vision, the struggles and successes of the pioneering experimental eco physiologists, as well as the most recent advances in knowledge.
Nature

Physiological Plant Ecology

39th Symposium of the British Ecological Society

Author: Malcolm C. Press,Julie D. Scholes,Martin G. Barker

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521549295

Category: Nature

Page: 494

View: 4447

The last decade has seen rapid and major advances in our understanding of the physiological ecology of plants. This volume reviews some of these advances and new challenges. The chapters cover five broad themes: resource acquisition and utilization; interactions between organisms; responses to global environmental changes; ecosystems; and integration and scaling. This book brings together an unrivalled collection of leading practitioners in the discipline from North America, Europe and Australia and adopts a broad approach, ranging from the molecular to the ecosystem level. It has proven a valuable tool for researchers and advanced students in the discipline.
Science

Physiological Plant Ecology II

Water Relations and Carbon Assimilation

Author: Otto L. Lange

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642681506

Category: Science

Page: 750

View: 7142

O. L. LANGE, P. S. NOBEL, C. B. OSMOND, and H. ZIEGLER In the original series of the Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, plant water relations and photosynthesis were treated separately, and the connection between phenomena was only considered in special chapters. O. STOCKER edited Vol ume III, Pjlanze und Wasser/Water Relations of Plants in 1956, and 4 years later, Volume V, Parts I and 2, Die COrAssimilation/The Assimilation of Carbon Dioxide appeared, edited by A. PIRSON. Until recently, there has also been a tendency to cover these aspects of plant physiology separately in most text books. Without doubt, this separation is justifiable. If one is specifically inter ested, for example in photosynthetic electron transport, in details of photophos phorylation, or in carbon metabolism in the Calvin cycle, it is not necessary to ask how these processes relate to the water relations of the plant. Accordingly, this separate coverage has been maintained in the New Series of the Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology. The two volumes devoted exclusively to photosynthesis are Volume 5, Photosynthesis I, edited by A. TREBST and M. AVRON, and Volume 6, Photosynthesis II, edited by M. GIBBS and E. LATZKO. When consider ing carbon assimilation and plant water relations from an ecological point of view, however, we have to recognize that this separation is arbitrary.
Science

Physiological Plant Ecology I

Responses to the Physical Environment

Author: O. L. Lange,P. S. Nobel,C. B. Osmond,H. Ziegler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642680909

Category: Science

Page: 628

View: 5679

Science

Physiological Plant Ecology IV

Ecosystem Processes: Mineral Cycling, Productivity and Man’s Influence

Author: O. L. Lange,P. S. Nobel,C. B. Osmond,H. Ziegler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642681565

Category: Science

Page: 646

View: 9945

O. L. LANGE, P. S. NOBEL, C. B. OSMOND, and H. ZIEGLER In the last volume of the series 'Physiological Plant Ecology' we have asked contributors to address the bases of ecosystem processes in terms of key plant physiological properties. It has often been suggested that it is not profitable to attempt analysis of complex living systems in terms of the properties of component individuals or populations, i. e. , the whole is more than the sum of its parts. Nevertheless, assessments of ecological research over the last century show that other approaches are seldom more helpful. Although it is possible to describe complex systems of living organisms in holistic terms, the most useful descriptions are found in terms of the birth, growth and death of individ uals. This allows analysis of performance of the parts of the whole considering their synergistic and antagonistic interrelationships and is the basis for a synthe sis which elucidates the specific properties of a system. Thus it seems that the description of ecosystem processes is inevitably anchored in physiological under standing. If enquiry into complex living systems is to remain a scientific exercise, it must retain tangible links with physiology. Of course, as was emphasized in Vol. 12A, not all of our physiological understanding is required to explore ecosystem processes. For pragmatic purposes, the whole may be adequantely represented as a good deal less than the sum of its parts.
Science

Nature as the Laboratory

Darwinian Plant Ecology in the German Empire, 1880-1900

Author: Eugene Cittadino

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521524865

Category: Science

Page: 212

View: 1547

A 1990 account of the botanical reform movement and its pioneering contribution to ecological science.

Pflanzenökologie

Author: Ernst-Detlef Schulze,Erwin Beck,Klaus Müller-Hohenstein

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783827409874

Category:

Page: 846

View: 5109

Das Lehrbuch behandelt die PflanzenAkologie in folgenden Teilgebieten: Molekulare A-kophysiologie (Stressphysiologie) AutAkologie (WArme-, Wasser-, Kohlenstoff- und NAhrelementhaushalt der Gesamtpflanze) A-kosystemkunde (A-kosystemtheorie und die Pflanze als Teil von A-kosystemen) SynAkologie (Populationsbiologie der Pflanzen und VegetationsAkologie) Globale Aspekte der PflanzenAkologie (StoffkreislAufe, internationale Abkommen und sozioAkonomische Wechselwirkungen) Die A-kophysiologie untersucht Pflanzen am natA1/4rlichen Standort, bei denen mehr oder weniger starker Stress auf den Organismus einwirkt. In der molekularen A-kophysiologie wird der Einfluss von abiotischem und biotischem Stress zell- und molekularbiologisch bis hin zu den Genen verfolgt. SchAden und Anpassungen werden in der molekularen Dimension betrachtet. Hier beginnt das VerstAndnis fA1/4r die Vielfalt, mit der Pflanzen auf die Lebensbedingungen auf der Erde reagieren. In der AutAkologie kommen auf der Ebene der Einzelpflanze Struktur und Architektur als MAglichkeiten der Anpassung hinzu, auf der Ebene der A-kosysteme gewinnt auch die biologische und abiotische Umgebung zusAtzlichen Einfluss. Dies leitet A1/4ber zur Populationsbiologie und VegetationsAkologie, die die rAumliche Verteilung von Arten, die zeitliche Dynamik der AktivitAt und die biologischen Interaktionen berA1/4cksichtigen. Damit erreicht die PflanzenAkologie die Ebene der globalen StoffkreislAufe, die vor allem in Hinblick auf die anthropogenen Eingriffe in die Natur und die sich abzeichnende Bewirtschaftung des Kohlenstoffkreislaufs dargestellt werden. Das Buch behandelt nicht nur natA1/4rliche Vegetationen, sondern auch Akologische Aspekte der Land- und Forstwirtschaft. Das Lehrbuch der PflanzenAkologie richtet sich vor allem an Biologiestudenten sowie Wissenschaftler der Botanik, der Geowissenschaften und der LandschaftsAkologie. Es ist auch gedacht als Grundlage fA1/4r alle, die mit Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Landnutzung und mit Eingriffen in die Landschaft zu tun haben.
Science

Plant Ecology

Author: Ernst-Detlef Schulze,Erwin Beck,Klaus Müller-Hohenstein

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540208334

Category: Science

Page: 702

View: 1845

This textbook covers Plant Ecology from the molecular to the global level. It covers the following areas in unprecedented breadth and depth: - Molecular ecophysiology (stress physiology: light, temperature, oxygen deficiency, drought, salt, heavy metals, xenobiotica and biotic stress factors) - Autecology (whole plant ecology: thermal balance, water, nutrient, carbon relations) - Ecosystem ecology (plants as part of ecosystems, element cycles, biodiversity) - Synecology (development of vegetation in time and space, interactions between vegetation and the abiotic and biotic environment) - Global aspects of plant ecology (global change, global biogeochemical cycles, land use, international conventions, socio-economic interactions) The book is carefully structured and well written: complex issues are elegantly presented and easily understandable. It contains more than 500 photographs and drawings, mostly in colour, illustrating the fascinating subject. The book is primarily aimed at graduate students of biology but will also be of interest to post-graduate students and researchers in botany, geosciences and landscape ecology. Further, it provides a sound basis for those dealing with agriculture, forestry, land use, and landscape management.
Science

Encyclopedia of plant physiology

Author: Wilhelm Ruhland,A. Pirson,Martin Huldrych Zimmermann

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 1383

Science

Plant Physiological Ecology

Author: Hans Lambers,F. Stuart Chapin III,Thijs L. Pons

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475728557

Category: Science

Page: 540

View: 2950

This textbook is remarkable for emphasising that the mechanisms underlying plant physiological ecology can be found at the levels of biochemistry, biophysics, molecular biology and whole-plant physiology. The authors begin with the primary processes of carbon metabolism and transport, plant-water relations, and energy balance. After considering individual leaves and whole plants, these physiological processes are then scaled up to the level of the canopy. Subsequent chapters discuss mineral nutrition and the ways in which plants cope with nutrient-deficient or toxic soils. The book then looks at patterns of growth and allocation, life-history traits, and interactions between plants and other organisms. Later chapters deal with traits that affect decomposition of plant material and with plant physiological ecology at the level of ecosystems and global environmental processes.