Science

Physiological Plant Ecology

Ecophysiology and Stress Physiology of Functional Groups

Author: Walter Larcher

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540435167

Category: Science

Page: 513

View: 4938

With contributions by numerous experts.
Science

Physiological Plant Ecology

Author: Walter Larcher

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783642962837

Category: Science

Page: 254

View: 6637

Ecology is the science of the relationships between living organisms and their envi ronment . . It is concerned with the web of interactions involved in the circulation of matter and the flow of energy that makes possible life on earth, and with the adapta tions of organisms to the conditions under which they survive. Given the multitude of diverse organisms, the plant ecologist focuses upon the plants, investigating the influence of environmental factors on the character of the vegetation and the be havior of the individual plant species. Plant ecophysiology, a discipline within plant ecology, is concerned fundamentally with the physiology of plants as it is modified by fluctuating external influences. The aim of this book is to convey the conceptual framework upon which this discipline is based, to offer insights into the basic mechanisms and interactions within the system "plant and environment", and to present examples of current problems in this rap idly developing area. Among the topics discussed are the vital processes of plants, their metabolism and energy transformations as they are affected by environmental factors, and the ability of these organisms to adapt to such factors. It is assumed that the reader has a background in the fundamentals of plant physiology; the physiological bases of the phenomena of interest will be mentioned only to the extent necessary for an understanding of the ecological relationships.
Science

Physiological Plant Ecology III

Responses to the Chemical and Biological Environment

Author: O. L. Lange,P. S. Nobel,C. B. Osmond,H. Ziegler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642681530

Category: Science

Page: 799

View: 1916

O.L. LANGE, P.S. NOBEL, C.B. OSMOND, and H. ZIEGLER Growth, development and reproductive success of individual plants depend on the interaction, within tolerance limits, of the factors in the physical, chemical and biological environment. The first two volumes of this series addressed fea tures of the physical environment (Vol. 12A) and the special responses of land plants as they relate to water use and carbon dioxide assimilation (Vol. 12B). In this volume we consider specific aspects of the chemical and biological envi ronment, and whereas the previous volumes were primarily concerned with the atmospheric interactions, our emphasis here shifts very much to the soil. This complex medium for plant growth was briefly reviewed in Chapter 17, Volume 12A. Since it is difficult to determine the precise physical and chemical interactions in the soil, it is even more difficult to determine the important biological interactions among organisms. Nevertheless there is growing aware ness of the significance of these interactions and their effects on physiological processes in the individual plant.
Science

Physiological Plant Ecology I

Responses to the Physical Environment

Author: O. L. Lange,P. S. Nobel,C. B. Osmond,H. Ziegler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642680909

Category: Science

Page: 628

View: 4932

Science

Physiological Plant Ecology II

Water Relations and Carbon Assimilation

Author: Otto L. Lange

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642681506

Category: Science

Page: 750

View: 1384

O. L. LANGE, P. S. NOBEL, C. B. OSMOND, and H. ZIEGLER In the original series of the Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, plant water relations and photosynthesis were treated separately, and the connection between phenomena was only considered in special chapters. O. STOCKER edited Vol ume III, Pjlanze und Wasser/Water Relations of Plants in 1956, and 4 years later, Volume V, Parts I and 2, Die COrAssimilation/The Assimilation of Carbon Dioxide appeared, edited by A. PIRSON. Until recently, there has also been a tendency to cover these aspects of plant physiology separately in most text books. Without doubt, this separation is justifiable. If one is specifically inter ested, for example in photosynthetic electron transport, in details of photophos phorylation, or in carbon metabolism in the Calvin cycle, it is not necessary to ask how these processes relate to the water relations of the plant. Accordingly, this separate coverage has been maintained in the New Series of the Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology. The two volumes devoted exclusively to photosynthesis are Volume 5, Photosynthesis I, edited by A. TREBST and M. AVRON, and Volume 6, Photosynthesis II, edited by M. GIBBS and E. LATZKO. When consider ing carbon assimilation and plant water relations from an ecological point of view, however, we have to recognize that this separation is arbitrary.
Science

Plant Physiological Ecology

Author: Hans Lambers,F. Stuart Chapin III,Thijs L. Pons

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475728557

Category: Science

Page: 540

View: 1847

This textbook is remarkable for emphasising that the mechanisms underlying plant physiological ecology can be found at the levels of biochemistry, biophysics, molecular biology and whole-plant physiology. The authors begin with the primary processes of carbon metabolism and transport, plant-water relations, and energy balance. After considering individual leaves and whole plants, these physiological processes are then scaled up to the level of the canopy. Subsequent chapters discuss mineral nutrition and the ways in which plants cope with nutrient-deficient or toxic soils. The book then looks at patterns of growth and allocation, life-history traits, and interactions between plants and other organisms. Later chapters deal with traits that affect decomposition of plant material and with plant physiological ecology at the level of ecosystems and global environmental processes.
Nature

Physiological Plant Ecology

39th Symposium of the British Ecological Society

Author: Malcolm C. Press,Julie D. Scholes,Martin G. Barker

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521549295

Category: Nature

Page: 494

View: 4207

The last decade has seen rapid and major advances in our understanding of the physiological ecology of plants. This volume reviews some of these advances and new challenges. The chapters cover five broad themes: resource acquisition and utilization; interactions between organisms; responses to global environmental changes; ecosystems; and integration and scaling. This book brings together an unrivalled collection of leading practitioners in the discipline from North America, Europe and Australia and adopts a broad approach, ranging from the molecular to the ecosystem level. It has proven a valuable tool for researchers and advanced students in the discipline.
Science

Plant Physiological Ecology

Field methods and instrumentation

Author: R. Pearcey,H.A. Mooney,Philip Rundel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400922213

Category: Science

Page: 458

View: 7303

Physiological plant ecology is primarily concerned with the function and performance of plants in their environment. Within this broad focus, attempts are made on one hand to understand the underlying physiological, biochemical and molecular attributes of plants with respect to performance under the constraints imposed by the environment. On the other hand physiological ecology is also concerned with a more synthetic view which attempts to under stand the distribution and success of plants measured in terms of the factors that promote long-term survival and reproduction in the environment. These concerns are not mutually exclusive but rather represent a continuum of research approaches. Osmond et al. (1980) have elegantly pointed this out in a space-time scale showing that the concerns of physiological ecology range from biochemical and organelle-scale events with time constants of a second or minutes to succession and evolutionary-scale events involving communities and ecosystems and thousands, if not millions, of years. The focus of physiological ecology is typically at the single leaf or root system level extending up to the whole plant. The time scale is on the order of minutes to a year. The activities of individual physiological ecologists extend in one direction or the other, but few if any are directly concerned with the whole space-time scale. In their work, however, they must be cognizant both of the underlying mechanisms as well as the consequences to ecological and evolutionary processes.
Science

Environmental Physiology of Plants

Author: Alastair H. Fitter,Robert K.M. Hay

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080549810

Category: Science

Page: 367

View: 6949

This is the third edition of an established and successful university textbook. The original structure and philosophy of the book continue in this new edition, providing a genuine synthesis of modern ecological and physiological thinking, while entirely updating the detailed content. New features include a fresh, unified treatment of toxicity, emphasizing common features of plant response to ionic, gaseous, and other toxins, explicit treatment of issues relating to global change, and a section on the role of fire in plant physiology and communities. The illustrations in the text are improved over previous editions, including color plates for the first time, and the authors' continuing commitment to providing wide citation of the relevant literature has further improved the reference list. This revision of Environmental Physiology of Plants will ensure the reputation of this title as a useful and relevant text well into the 21st century. Includes enhanced illustrations, now with color plates Examines new molecular approaches which can be harnessed to solve problems in physiology Features new topics such as the unified treatment of toxicity, an explicit treatment of the issues relating to global change, and a section on the role of fire
Science

The Physiological Ecology of Woody Plants

Author: Theodore T. Kozlowski,Paul J. Kramer,Stephen G. Pallardy

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0323138004

Category: Science

Page: 657

View: 1616

The efficient management of trees and other woody plants can be improved given an understanding of the physiological processes that control growth, the complex environmental factors that influence those processes, and our ability to regulate and maintain environmental conditions that facilitate growth. Emphasizes genetic and environmental interactions that influence woody plant growth Outlines responses of individual trees and tree communities to environmental stress Explores cultural practices useful for efficient management of shade, forest, and fruit trees, woody vines, and shrubs
Science

Physiological Processes in Plant Ecology

Toward a Synthesis with Atriplex

Author: C.B. Osmond,O. Björkman,D.J. Anderson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642676375

Category: Science

Page: 470

View: 8798

In the spring of 1969 a small meeting was convened at the CSIRO Riverina Laboratory, Deniliquin, New South Wales, to discuss the biology of the genus Atriplex, a group of plants considered by those who attended to be of profound importance both in relation to range management in the region and as a tool in physiological research. The brief report of this meeting (Jones, 1970) now serves as a marker for the subsequent remarkable increase in research on this genus, and served then to interest the editors of the Ecological Studies Series in the present volume. This was an exciting time in plant physiology, particularly in the areas of ion absorption and photosynthesis, and unknowingly several laboratories were engaged in parallel studies of these processes using the genus Atriplex. It was also a time at which it seemed that numerical methods in plant ecology could be used to delineate significant processes in arid shrubland ecosystems. Nevertheless, to presume to illustrate and integrate plant physiology and ecology using examples from a single genus was to presume much. The deficiencies which became increasingly apparent during the preparation of the present book were responsible for much new research described in these pages.
Science

Physiological Plant Ecology IV

Ecosystem Processes: Mineral Cycling, Productivity and Man’s Influence

Author: O. L. Lange,P. S. Nobel,C. B. Osmond,H. Ziegler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642681565

Category: Science

Page: 646

View: 6553

O. L. LANGE, P. S. NOBEL, C. B. OSMOND, and H. ZIEGLER In the last volume of the series 'Physiological Plant Ecology' we have asked contributors to address the bases of ecosystem processes in terms of key plant physiological properties. It has often been suggested that it is not profitable to attempt analysis of complex living systems in terms of the properties of component individuals or populations, i. e. , the whole is more than the sum of its parts. Nevertheless, assessments of ecological research over the last century show that other approaches are seldom more helpful. Although it is possible to describe complex systems of living organisms in holistic terms, the most useful descriptions are found in terms of the birth, growth and death of individ uals. This allows analysis of performance of the parts of the whole considering their synergistic and antagonistic interrelationships and is the basis for a synthe sis which elucidates the specific properties of a system. Thus it seems that the description of ecosystem processes is inevitably anchored in physiological under standing. If enquiry into complex living systems is to remain a scientific exercise, it must retain tangible links with physiology. Of course, as was emphasized in Vol. 12A, not all of our physiological understanding is required to explore ecosystem processes. For pragmatic purposes, the whole may be adequantely represented as a good deal less than the sum of its parts.
Science

C4 Plant Biology

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080528397

Category: Science

Page: 596

View: 7275

Due to many issues related to long-term carbon dynamics, an improved understanding of the biology of C4 photosynthesis is required by more than the traditional audience of crop scientists, plant physiologists, and plant ecologists. This work synthesizes the latest developments in C4 biochemistry, physiology, systematics, and ecology. The book concludes with chapters discussing the role of C4 plants in the future development of the biosphere, particularly their interactive effects on soil, hydrological, and atmospheric processes.
Science

Scaling Physiological Processes

Leaf to Globe

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0323139574

Category: Science

Page: 388

View: 6574

Traditional plant physiological ecology is organism centered and provides a useful framework for understanding the interactions between plants and their environment and for identifying characteristics likely to result in plant success in a particular habitat. This book focuses on extending concepts from plant physiological ecology as a basis for understanding carbon, energy, and biogeochemical cycles at ecosystem, regional, and global levels. This will be a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students in ecology, plant ecophysiology, ecosystem research, biometerology, earth system science, and remote sensing. Key Features * The integration of metabolic activities across spatial scales, from leaf to ecosystem * Global constraints and regional processes * Functional units in ecological scaling * Models and technologies for scaling
Nature

Plants in Changing Environments

Linking Physiological, Population, and Community Ecology

Author: F. A. Bazzaz

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521398435

Category: Nature

Page: 320

View: 5089

Describes the effects of disturbance, species competition and coexistence, and the processes of plant succession.
Science

Plant Ecology

Author: Ernst-Detlef Schulze,Erwin Beck,Klaus Müller-Hohenstein

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540208334

Category: Science

Page: 702

View: 4035

This textbook covers Plant Ecology from the molecular to the global level. It covers the following areas in unprecedented breadth and depth: - Molecular ecophysiology (stress physiology: light, temperature, oxygen deficiency, drought, salt, heavy metals, xenobiotica and biotic stress factors) - Autecology (whole plant ecology: thermal balance, water, nutrient, carbon relations) - Ecosystem ecology (plants as part of ecosystems, element cycles, biodiversity) - Synecology (development of vegetation in time and space, interactions between vegetation and the abiotic and biotic environment) - Global aspects of plant ecology (global change, global biogeochemical cycles, land use, international conventions, socio-economic interactions) The book is carefully structured and well written: complex issues are elegantly presented and easily understandable. It contains more than 500 photographs and drawings, mostly in colour, illustrating the fascinating subject. The book is primarily aimed at graduate students of biology but will also be of interest to post-graduate students and researchers in botany, geosciences and landscape ecology. Further, it provides a sound basis for those dealing with agriculture, forestry, land use, and landscape management.
Science

Physiological Ecology of Tropical Plants

Author: Ulrich Lüttge

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662033402

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 1971

Technology & Engineering

Plant Resource Allocation

Author: Fakhri A. Bazzaz,John Grace

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080539076

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 303

View: 5392

Plant Resource Allocation is an exploration of the latest insights into the theory and functioning of plant resource allocation. An international team of physiological ecologists has prepared chapters devoted to the fundamental topics of resource allocation. Comprehensive coverage of all aspects of resource allocation in plants All contributors are leaders in their respective fields