Excavations at Green Park (Reading Business Park) Phase 3 and Moores Farm, Burghfield, Berkshire
Author: Adam Brossler,Fraser Brown,Erika Guttman,Leo Webley
Publisher: Oxford Archaeological Unit
Category: Social Science
This volume presents the results of two excavations on the gravel terraces of the Lower Kennet Valley, at Green Park (Reading Business Park) Phase 3 and Moores Farm, Burghfield, Berkshire.The Green Park excavations uncovered a field system and occupation features dating to the middle to late Bronze Age. Five waterholes or wells were distributed across the field system, the waterlogged fills of which preserved wooden revetment structures and valuable environmental evidence. The pottery from the waterholes makes a significant contribution to our understanding of the middle to late Bronze Age transition in the region. Later activity included middle to late Iron Age boundaries, a late Iron Age cremation burial, a Romano-British field system and post-medieval trackways.The Moores Farm excavations revealed occupation from the Mesolithic, Neolithic, middle Bronze Age and early Iron Age. The middle Bronze Age settlement included pits, ovens and possible post structures, and was again situated within a contemporaneous field system dotted with waterholes.As well as discussing these two sites, the volume provides an overview of all of the work to date in the Green Park Farm/Reading Business Park area, exploring the development of this important prehistoric landscape.
Mobility is a fundamental facet of being human and should be central to archaeology. Yet mobility itself and the role it plays in the production of social life, is rarely considered as a subject in its own right. This is particularly so with discussions of the Neolithic people where mobility is often framed as being somewhere between a sedentary existence and nomadic movements. This latest collection of papers from the Neolithic Studies Group seminars examines the importance and complexities of movement and mobility, whether on land or water, in the Neolithic period. It uses movement in its widest sense, ranging from everyday mobilities – the routines and rhythms of daily life – to proscribed mobility, such as movement in and around monuments, and occasional and large-scale movements and migrations around the continent and across seas. Papers are roughly grouped and focus on ‘mobility and the landscape’, ‘monuments and mobility’, ‘travelling by water’, and ‘materials and mobility’. Through these themes the volume considers the movement of people, ideas, animals, objects, and information, and uses a wide range of archaeological evidence from isotope analysis; artefact studies; lithic scatters and assemblage diversity.
Advances in Quaternary Entomology addresses the science of fossil insects by demonstrating their immense contribution to our knowledge of the paleoenvironmental and climatological record of the past 2.6 million years. In this comprehensive survey of the field, Scott A. Elias recounts development of scholarship, reviews the fossil insect record from Quaternary deposits throughout the world, and points to rewarding areas for future research. The study of Quaternary entomology is becoming an important tool in understanding past environmental changes. Most insects are quite specific as to habitat requirements, and those in non-island environments have undergone almost no evolutionary change in the Quaternary period. We therefore can use their modern ecological requirements as a basis for interpreting what past environments must have been like. Describes and identifies principal characteristics of fossil insect groups of the Quaternary period Ties Quaternary insect studies to the larger field of paleoecology Offers global coverage of the subject with specific regional examples Illustrates specific methods and procedures for conducting research in Quaternary Entomology Offers unique insight into overlying trends and broader implications of Quaternary climate change based on insect life of the period
This publication will present the major findings of a project focusing on the characterisation, mapping and assessment of late prehistoric and Roman rural settlement. The volume redresses the balance in the study of rural Roman settlement, taking the discussion beyond high-status villas, and using a wider range of material evidence and diverse case studies to understand broader Roman rural land use. The evidence provides new insights into patterns of regionality in settlement, as well as an up-to-date overview of the nature and diversity of Iron Age and Roman rural life. The accessible discussion is also cross-referenced to a full set of online data from the full research project. The volume will highlight directions for future research in the discipline and provide a framework for further utilisation of a crucial archaeological resource. It will be invaluable reading for all scholars of Roman Britain.
Phase 2 Excavations 1995 : Neolithic and Bronze Age Sites
Author: Adam Brossler,Robert Early,Carol Allen
Publisher: Oxford Archaeological Unit
In 1995 a second phase of excavations was undertaken by Oxford Archaeological Unit (OAU) at Reading Business Park in advance of development. This volume reports on the evidence they found for occupation, dating to the Neolithic, Bronze Age and medieval periods. The Neolithic features included an unusual segmented ring ditch, and a number of pits and postholes. The ring ditch was radiocarbon dated to the middle to late Neolithic, and an interesting flint assemblage from all features on the site was dated mainly to the later Neolithic. A field system, composed of rectangular boundary ditches, was laid out in the area prior to the establishment of a late Bronze Age settlement. The evidence for the late Bronze Age settlement included five roundhouses, and a number of post-built structures. The excavators also found numerous deposits of burnt flint that were made in one area in the later Bronze Age, and over time these grew into a substantial and unusually large elongated burnt mound. The authors discuss the origin of these deposits, together with the management of the overall landscape in the later Bronze Age.
the nature of the subsistence base throughout mainland Britain during prehistory
Author: Andrew Richmond
Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Ltd
Category: Social Science
Stemming from the author's doctoral research, this volume assesses the environmental evidence for changes in the subsistence base of prehistoric communities in Britain, from the 5th to the 1st millennium BC. With much regional comparative analysis, Andrew Richmond re-evaluates the concept of the Neolithic as defined by the adoption of agriculture, arguing that it may not have become the mainstay of the economy until an advanced stage of the Neolithic.
A major phase of economic expansion occurred in Southern England during the second & early first millennium BC, accompanied by a fundamental shift in regional power & wealth towards the eastern lowlands. This book offers a synthesis of the data on Bronze Age lowland field systems in England, including a gazetteer of sites.
Social Science by Andrew J. Howard,M.G. Macklin,D.G. Passmore
Proceedings of an International Conference, Leeds, 18-19 December 2000
Author: Andrew J. Howard,M.G. Macklin,D.G. Passmore
Publisher: CRC Press
Category: Social Science
This book documents and assesses over ten years of research in the field, bringing together expertise and knowledge from the disciplines of archaeology and geomorphology, and highlighting important recent advances, discoveries and new directions. Reflecting the wide scope of current research in this area, the book contains over twenty papers focusing on various aspects of alluvial archaeology from the methodology of dating, prospecting, excavating etc, to previously under-analysed geographical areas such as intertidal wetlands.
A Review of New Discoveries and New Thinking in Gloucestershire, South Gloucestershire and Bristol 1979-2004
Author: Neil Holbrook,A. R. John Juřica
Twenty-five years is a long time in the study of prehistory and these papers, given at a conference in Cheltenham in 2004, seek to review the excavations, surveys, chance finds and serious investigations carried out over two and a half decades.
Aspects of the Field Archaeology of the Marlborough Downs
Author: Graham Brown,David Field,David McOmish
Publisher: Oxbow Books Limited
It is over one hundred years since the publication of the wide ranging archaeological field investigation undertaken on the Marlborough Downs by the Rev A C Smith. His work Guide to the British and Roman Antiquities of the North Wiltshire Downs in a Hundred Square Miles round Abury was originally published in two volumes in 1884 by the Marlborough College Natural History Society, then reprinted and bound into a single volume and published in 1885 by the Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society after half the original print run was destroyed in a fire. As in most works of inventory the volume has certainly stood the test of time and is still one of the basic reference texts for students of the area. Since then, apart from a few notable exceptions, archaeological literature about the area has been largely site-based and there has been little concerning the Marlborough Downs as a whole. In order to try and redress this imbalance, a day conference was organised in April 2002 at the University of Bath, Swindon, where it was possible to acknowledge and mark the ongoing validity of Smith's work and where a number of papers on various aspects of recent research on the Marlborough Downs were presented. The results of the conference are presented in this volume, together with a number of other commissioned contributions from individuals who have undertaken research in the area during the last decade or so. Each essay stands alone, but they are connected by a common theme, that of the land and how it has changed over millennia.
Described as the `anchor' of the Runnymede Research series, this volume forms a report on the Holocene environment and changes in the riverscape around the Runnymede site. The build-up of alluvial sediments, molluscan and palynological evidence, and the physical changes to the river and floodplain are all described and related to human activities at the site, such as clearance and agricultural schemes. The volume concludes with a history of the changing riverscape from the 8th millennium BC to the 2nd millennium AD and broader conclusions regarding the physical and biological setting are made.
The Evidential Base for the Recognition of Warfare in Prehistory
Author: Julie Wileman
Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Limited
Category: Political Science
The goal of this study is to examine the potential for the understanding and recognition of the processes and occurrence of prehistoric warfare through the development of a series of correlates, resulting in testable models that can be applied to the archaeological record. Such models need to be flexible and applicable across different periods and in a variety of geographical areas. To this purpose, examples of evidence are included from a wide spectrum of sources. After offering definitions of warfare and considering the nature of its archaeological evidence, the correlates and models will, for comparative purposes, be applied to a number of case studies which are located in later prehistoric societies. This study, therefore, provides models (from the UK, France and the US), for investigation, suggests some areas for research and data-gathering, and highlight potentials and problems for the interpretation of evidence, providing some frameworks for future appreciations of the concept of prehistoric war. If evidence can be sought and recognised for warfare on more extended scales, it may be possible to approach the questions of the prevalence, scale and influence of conflict on the development of societies with a little more certainty. The aim is to encourage further debate on the range of potential evidence and its value in this sphere of archaeological research.
In 1992 the perfectly preserved remains of a large prehistoric, sewn plank boat were discovered buried six metres below the streets of Dover in Kent. The boat has been dated to c. 1550 BC and is one of the most important and spectacular prehistoric wooden objects ever found in Europe. This richly illustrated book, including carefully researched reconstruction drawings, tells the dramatic story of its discovery and excavation, and the pioneering work on its conservation, re-assembly and display in the multi-award winning Bronze Age gallery at Dover Museum. The boat was made from huge oak planks hewn into elaborate shapes that fitted together with exacting tolerances. These were made fast with an intricate system of timber wedges and twisted yew withies, the seams waterproofed with pads of moss held in place by thin strips of oak and stopping made of beeswax and animal fat. Together these elements formed a broad-beamed, flat-bottomed boat of unique design, employing a woodworking tradition now long forgotten. In addition to a detailed description of the boat itself, the book explores the method of its construction, its original form, capabilities and performance, and its function and place in Bronze Age society. It presents new and innovative techniques for the study of ancient timbers and describes an experiment in building a copy of the boat using replicas of Bronze Age tools. Far more than a straightforward technical report on an ancient vessel, the book examines in depth the implications of this unique find for our understanding of prehistoric communities 3500 years ago.
Britain has been inhabited by humans for over half a million years, during which time there were a great many changes in lifestyles and in the surrounding landscape. This book, now in its second edition, examines the development of human societies in Britain from earliest times to the Roman conquest of AD 43, as revealed by archaeological evidence. Special attention is given to six themes which are traced through prehistory: subsistence, technology, ritual, trade, society, and population. Prehistoric Britain begins by introducing the background to prehistoric studies in Britain, presenting it in terms of the development of interest in the subject and the changes wrought by new techniques such as radiocarbon dating, and new theories, such as the emphasis on social archaeology. The central sections trace the development of society from the hunter-gatherer groups of the last Ice Age, through the adoption of farming, the introduction of metalworking, and on to the rise of highly organized societies living on the fringes of the mighty Roman Empire in the 1st century AD. Throughout, emphasis is given to documenting and explaining changes within these prehistoric communities, and to exploring the regional variations found in Britain. In this way the wealth of evidence that can be seen in the countryside and in our museums is placed firmly in its proper context. It concludes with a review of the effects of prehistoric communities on life today. With over 120 illustrations, this is a unique review of Britain's ancient past as revealed by modern archaeology. The revisions and updates to Prehistoric Britain ensure that this will continue to be the most comprehensive and authoritative account of British prehistory for those students and interested readers studying the subject.