This book is a study of the beginnings of law and the 'primitive' stages of its development, from the first rudimentary rules of conduct to the codes of the legal systems. Its scope extends to both cultures and legal systems from the ancient and medieval past: those of the Babylonians and Assyrians, Hittites, Hebrews, Romans, Hindus, English and other German peoples, and those of Africa, Australia and America. Correlating early economic and legal development, the book illustrates how laws change with the development of material culture. Originally published in 1971.
The first section of the book deals with the history of the relationship of classical studies and anthropology. In the second section the more material aspects of ancient Greek life are considered and the author relates the economic history of the period to new approaches in archaeology and economic anthropology. The place of kinship in the social structure of the Greek city-state; the social factors involved in the genesis of Greek philosophy; and the structural and institutional components of 'freedom' in classical Athens are all examined. First published in 1978.
This book considers the beginnings of anthropology as a cultural tradition, and examines how it was developed and transmitted. It begins in the twelfth century, when commercial capitalism and extensive acculturation spread a secular world view among intellectuals. It ends with the eighteenth century, because most anthropologists are familiar with the subsequent history of their science. Originally published in 1963.
Inhabiting a secluded valley in the Eastern Himalayas, the Apa Tanis remained virtually unknown to the outside world until 1944-45 when the author spent several months in their villages, studying their internal social structure as well as their political and economic relations with neighbouring tribes. The economy of the Apa Tanis, who knew neither the principle of animal traction nor the wheel, resembled that of certain Neolithic societies, but the methods used in the exploitation of their natural environment were far from primitive, and a developed agriculture enabled a population of some 20,000 to live in one valley of 20 square miles. Originally published in 1962.
A classic work in the anthropology of law, this book offered one of the first ambitiously conceived analyses of the fundamental rights and duties that are treated as law among nonliterate peoples (labeled "primitive" at the time of the original publication). The heart of the book is a description and analysis of the law of five societies: the Eskimo; the Ifugao of northern Luzon in the Philippines; the Comanche, Kiowa, and Cheyenne tribes of the western plains of the United States; the Trobriand Islanders of the southwest Pacific; and the Ashanti of western Africa. Hoebel's lucid analysis reveals the variety and complexity of these societies' political and legal institutions. It emphasizes their use of due process in adjudication and enforcement and highlights the importance of general explicit standards of conduct in these societies. In offering these detailed case studies of societies studied by other anthropologists, and in outlining an influential approach to the subject, it remains an illuminating book for both scholars and students.
Challenging the idea that fieldwork is the only way to gather data, and that standard methods are the sole route to fruitful analysis, Serendipity in Anthropological Research explores the role of fortune and happenstance in anthropology. It conceives of anthropological research as a lifelong nomadic journey of discovery in which the world yields an infinite number of unexplored issues and innumerable ways of studying them, each study producing its own questions and demanding its own methodologies. Drawing together the latest research from a team of senior scholars from around the world to reflect on the experience of research, Serendipity in Anthropological Research presents rich new case studies from Europe and the Middle East to examine both new and old questions in novel and enriching ways. An engaging examination of methodology and anthropological fieldwork, this book will appeal to all those concerned with writing ethnography.
Literary Criticism by Richard Fulton,Peter Hoffenberg,Stephen Hancock,Allison Paynter
Author: Richard Fulton,Peter Hoffenberg,Stephen Hancock,Allison Paynter
Category: Literary Criticism
South Seas Encounters examines several key types of encounters between the many-faceted worlds of Oceania, Britain and the United States in the formative nineteenth century. The eleven essays collected in this volume focus not only on the effect of the two powerful, industrialized colonial powers on the cultures of the Pacific, but the effect of those cultures on the Western cultural perceptions of themselves and the wider world, including understanding encounters and exchanges in ways which do not underemphasize the agency and consequences for all participating parties. The essays also provide insights into the causes, unfolding, and consequences for both sides of a series of significant ethnographic, political, cultural, scientific, educational, and social encounters. This volume makes a significant contribution to increasing scholarly interest in Oceania’s place in British and American nineteenth-century cultural experiences. South Seas Encounters investigates these significant interactions and how they changed the ways that Oceanic, British, and American cultures reflected on themselves and their place in the wider world.
Social Science by James P. Spradley,David W. McCurdy
Demonstrate the nature of culture and its influence on people's lives. For over 40 years, the best-selling Conformity and Conflict has brought together original readings and cutting edge research alongside classic works as a powerful way to study human behavior and events. Its readings cover a broad range of theoretical perspectives and demonstrate basic anthropological concepts. The Fourteenth Edition incorporates successful articles from past editions and fresh ideas from the field to show fascinating perspectives on the human experience. Teaching and Learning Experience Personalize Learning - MyAnthroLab delivers proven results in helping students succeed, provides engaging experiences that personalize learning, and comes from a trusted partner with educational expertise and a deep commitment to helping students and instructors achieve their goals. Improve Critical Thinking - Articles, article introductions and review questions encourage students to examine their assumptions, discern hidden values, evaluate evidence, assess their conclusions, and more! Engage Students - Section parts, key terms, maps, a glossary and subject index all spark student interest and illustrate the reader's main points with examples and visuals from daily life. Support Instructors - Teaching your course just got easier! You can create a Customized Text or use our Instructor's Manual, Electronic “MyTest” Test Bank or PowerPoint Presentation Slides. Additionally, Conformity and Conflict's part introductions parallel the basic concepts taught in introductory courses – which allow the book to be used alone as a reader or in conjunction with a main text. Note: MyAnthroLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MyAnthroLab, please visit www.MyAnthroLab.com or you can purchase a valuepack of the text + MyAnthroLab (at no additional cost): VP ISBN-10: 0205176011/ISBN-13: 9780205176014
From Ethnography to Expert Testimony in Native Title
Author: Paul Burke
Publisher: ANU E Press
Category: Social Science
Anthropologists have been appearing as key expert witnesses in native title claims for over 20 years. Until now, however, there has been no theoretically-informed, detailed investigation of how the expert testimony of anthropologists is formed and how it is received by judges. This book examines the structure and habitus of both the field of anthropology and the juridical field and how they have interacted in four cases, including the original hearing in the Mabo case. The analysis of background material has been supplemented by interviews with the key protagonists in each case. This allows the reader a unique, insider's perspective of the courtroom drama that unfolds in each case. The book asks, given the available ethnographic research, how will the anthropologist reconstruct it in a way that is relevant to the legal doctrine of native title when that doctrine gives a wide leeway for interpretation on the critical questions.
Social Science by Professor Mary Douglas,Mary Douglas
Purity and Danger is acknowledged as a modern masterpiece of anthropology. It is widely cited in non-anthropological works and gave rise to a body of application, rebuttal and development within anthropology. In 1995 the book was included among the Times Literary Supplement's hundred most influential non-fiction works since WWII. Incorporating the philosophy of religion and science and a generally holistic approach to classification, Douglas demonstrates the relevance of anthropological enquiries to an audience outside her immediate academic circle. She offers an approach to understanding rules of purity by examining what is considered unclean in various cultures. She sheds light on the symbolism of what is considered clean and dirty in relation to order in secular and religious, modern and primitive life.
An Account of Native Enterprise and Adventure in the Archipelagoes of Melanesian New Guinea
Author: Bronislaw Malinowski
Category: Social Science
First published in 1922, this classic text examines the extensive and complex trading system maintained by the Trobriand Islanders. While the main theme is economics and social organization, the power of magic, mythology and folklore are also examined.
The main feature of this book is a discussion of 'role analysis' and its relevance to social structure. Arguing that the role system of a society is the matrix of its social structure, the author presents a detailed theoretical analysis of the problems inherent in this approach. Chapters cover: · The problems of role analysis. · Conformity and deviance · The coherence of role systems · Degrees of abstraction · Structure, time and reality Originally published in 1957.
The contributors to this book focus on the relationship between nature and society from a variety of theoretical and ethnographic perspectives. Their work draws upon recent developments in social theory, biology, ethnobiology, epistemology, sociology of science, and a wide array of ethnographic case studies -- from Amazonia, the Solomon Islands, Malaysia, the Mollucan Islands, rural comunities from Japan and north-west Europe, urban Greece, and laboratories of molecular biology and high-energy physics. The discussion is divided into three parts, emphasising the problems posed by the nature-culture dualism, some misguided attempts to respond to these problems, and potential avenues out of the current dilemmas of ecological discourse.
Exploring Discourses, Counter-tendencies, and Violence
Author: Paul Kline
Publisher: Psychology Press
Category: Business & Economics
Supported by case studies from Guatemala, Sri Lanka, West Africa, and contemporary Europe, uses anthropological perspectives to explore diverse interpretaions of modernity and development in today's world.
This book aims to redefine Australia’s earliest art history by chronicling for the first time the birth of the category "Aboriginal art," tracing the term’s use through published literature in the late eighteenth, nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Susan Lowish reveals how the idea of "Aboriginal art" developed in the European imagination, manifested in early literature, and became a distinct classification with its own criteria and form. Part of the larger story of Aboriginal/European engagement, this book provides a new vision for an Australian art history reconciled with its colonial origins and in recognition of what came before the contemporary phenomena of Aboriginal art.
Anthropolgy and Archaeology provides a valuable and much-needed introduction to the theories and methods of these two inter-related subjects. This volume covers the historical relationship and contemporary interests of archaeology and anthropology. It takes a broad historical approach, setting the early history of the disciplines with the colonial period during which the Europeans encountered and attempted to make sense of many other peoples. It shows how the subjects are linked through their interest in kinship, economics and symbolism, and discusses what each contribute to debates about gender, material culture and globalism in the post-colonial world.
The question of ethnicity is highly controversial in contemporary archaeology. Indigenous and nationalist claims to territory, often rely on reconstructions of the past based on the traditional identification of 'cultures' from archaeological remains. Sian Jones responds to the need for a reassessment of the ways in which social groups are identified in the archaeological record, with a comprehensive and critical synthesis of recent theories of ethnicity in the human sciences. In doing so, she argues for a fundamentally different view of ethnicity, as a complex dynamic form of identification, requiring radical changes in archaeological analysis and interpretation.
Based on a detailed account of an actual development project, this book addresses an important question: Is development practice actually driven by policy? Development agencies and researchers are preoccupied with policy; with exerting influence over policy; linking research to policy, and with implementing policy around the world. In this book, David Mosse argues that rather than being driven by policy, development practice is actually shaped by the exigencies of organisations and the need to maintain relationships. At the same time, however, development actors work hard at maintaining the fiction of representing authorised policy in their actions. This book (which can be characterised as being a social investigation) asks pertinent questions about international aid, in particular of British aid for rural development. It does so by examining in depth the experience of a development project in western India over a period of more than ten years and as it falls under different policy regimes. Mosse analyses development processes in the light of the broad experience of the project workers (which included himself), even if it means destabilising policy representations. The book is a compelling re-examination of the politics and ethics of engaging with development and a rare self-critical reflection practice.