Simply put, quantum calculus is ordinary calculus without taking limits. This undergraduate text develops two types of quantum calculi, the q-calculus and the h-calculus. As this book develops quantum calculus along the lines of traditional calculus, the reader discovers, with a remarkable inevitability, many important notions and results of classical mathematics. This book is written at the level of a first course in calculus and linear algebra and is aimed at undergraduate and beginning graduate students in mathematics, computer science, and physics. It is based on lectures and seminars given by MIT Professor Kac over the last few years at MIT.
The main objective of this book is to extend the scope of the q-calculus based on the definition of q-derivative [Jackson (1910)] to make it applicable to dense domains. As a matter of fact, Jackson's definition of q-derivative fails to work for impulse points while this situation does not arise for impulsive equations on q-time scales as the domains consist of isolated points covering the case of consecutive points. In precise terms, we study quantum calculus on finite intervals. In the first part, we discuss the concepts of qk-derivative and qk-integral, and establish their basic properties. As applications, we study initial and boundary value problems of impulsive qk-difference equations and inclusions equipped with different kinds of boundary conditions. We also transform some classical integral inequalities and develop some new integral inequalities for convex functions in the context of qk-calculus. In the second part, we develop fractional quantum calculus in relation to a new qk-shifting operator and establish some existence and qk uniqueness results for initial and boundary value problems of impulsive fractional qk-difference equations. Contents:PreliminariesQuantum Calculus on Finite IntervalsInitial Value Problems for Impulsive qk-Difference Equations and InclusionsBoundary Value Problems for First-Order Impulsive qk-Integro-Difference Equations and InclusionsImpulsive qk-Difference Equations with Different Kinds of Boundary ConditionsNonlinear Second-Order Impulsive qk-Difference Langevin Equation with Boundary ConditionsQuantum Integral Inequalities on Finite IntervalsImpulsive Quantum Difference Systems with Boundary ConditionsNew Concepts of Fractional Quantum Calculus and Applications to Impulsive Fractional qk-Difference EquationsIntegral Inequalities via Fractional Quantum CalculusNonlocal Boundary Value Problems for Impulsive Fractional qk-Difference EquationsExistence Results for Impulsive Fractional qk-Difference Equations with Anti-periodic Boundary ConditionsImpulsive Fractional qk-Integro-Difference Equations with Boundary ConditionsImpulsive Hybrid Fractional Quantum Difference Equations Readership: Mathematics and physics researchers.
To date, the theoretical development of q-calculus has rested on a non-uniform basis. Generally, the bulky Gasper-Rahman notation was used, but the published works on q-calculus looked different depending on where and by whom they were written. This confusion of tongues not only complicated the theoretical development but also contributed to q-calculus remaining a neglected mathematical field. This book overcomes these problems by introducing a new and interesting notation for q-calculus based on logarithms.For instance, q-hypergeometric functions are now visually clear and easy to trace back to their hypergeometric parents. With this new notation it is also easy to see the connection between q-hypergeometric functions and the q-gamma function, something that until now has been overlooked. The book covers many topics on q-calculus, including special functions, combinatorics, and q-difference equations. Apart from a thorough review of the historical development of q-calculus, this book also presents the domains of modern physics for which q-calculus is applicable, such as particle physics and supersymmetry, to name just a few.
The approximation of functions by linear positive operators is an important research topic in general mathematics and it also provides powerful tools to application areas such as computer-aided geometric design, numerical analysis, and solutions of differential equations. q-Calculus is a generalization of many subjects, such as hypergeometric series, complex analysis, and particle physics. This monograph is an introduction to combining approximation theory and q-Calculus with applications, by using well- known operators. The presentation is systematic and the authors include a brief summary of the notations and basic definitions of q-calculus before delving into more advanced material. The many applications of q-calculus in the theory of approximation, especially on various operators, which includes convergence of operators to functions in real and complex domain forms the gist of the book. This book is suitable for researchers and students in mathematics, physics and engineering, and for professionals who would enjoy exploring the host of mathematical techniques and ideas that are collected and discussed in the book.
This Brief puts together two subjects, quantum and variational calculi by considering variational problems involving Hahn quantum operators. The main advantage of its results is that they are able to deal with nondifferentiable (even discontinuous) functions, which are important in applications. Possible applications in economics are discussed. Economists model time as continuous or discrete. Although individual economic decisions are generally made at discrete time intervals, they may well be less than perfectly synchronized in ways discrete models postulate. On the other hand, the usual assumption that economic activity takes place continuously, is nothing else than a convenient abstraction that in many applications is far from reality. The Hahn quantum calculus helps to bridge the gap between the two families of models: continuous and discrete. Quantum Variational Calculus is self-contained and unified in presentation. It provides an opportunity for an introduction to the quantum calculus of variations for experienced researchers but may be used as an advanced textbook by graduate students and even ambitious undergraduates as well. The explanations in the book are detailed to capture the interest of the curious reader, and complete to provide the necessary background material needed to go further into the subject and explore the rich research literature, motivating further research activity in the area.
"In this thesis, the pantograph equation in quantum calculus is investigated. The pantograph equation is a famous delay differential equation that has been known since 1971. Till the present day, the continuous and the discrete cases of the pantograph equation are well studied. This thesis deals with different pantograph equations in quantum calculus. An explicit solution representation and the exponential behavior of solutions of a pantograph equation are proved. Furthermore, several pantograph equations regarding asymptotic stability are considered. In fact, conditions for the asymptotic stability of the zero solution are derived and subsequently illustrated by examples. Moreover, an explicit solution in terms of the exponential function for a special pantograph equation is obtained"--Abstract, page iii.
In this book the details of many calculations are provided for access to work in quantum groups, algebraic differential calculus, noncommutative geometry, fuzzy physics, discrete geometry, gauge theory, quantum integrable systems, braiding, finite topological spaces, some aspects of geometry and quantum mechanics and gravity.
"The objective of this thesis is to derive a version of the Black-Scholes formula in quantum calculus. Following a brief introduction in finance, quantum calculus, and probability theory, Itô's lemma is proven under different assumptions. To do so, Taylor's theorem and basic stochastic methods are used. The consequential results are accompanied by examples concerning a change of the range of the needed processes. Moreover, a comparison of these results with those in the continuous case is described. Finally, the quality of the model is evaluated"--Abstract, leaf iii.
This book is the first systematic treatment of measures on projection lattices of von Neumann algebras. It presents significant recent results in this field. One part is inspired by the Generalized Gleason Theorem on extending measures on the projection lattices of von Neumann algebras to linear functionals. Applications of this principle to various problems in quantum physics are considered (hidden variable problem, Wigner type theorems, decoherence functional, etc.). Another part of the monograph deals with a fascinating interplay of algebraic properties of the projection lattice with the continuity of measures (the analysis of Jauch-Piron states, independence conditions in quantum field theory, etc.). These results have no direct analogy in the standard measure and probability theory. On the theoretical physics side, they are instrumental in recovering technical assumptions of the axiomatics of quantum theories only by considering algebraic properties of finitely additive measures (states) on quantum propositions.
A categorification of the Beilinson-Lusztig-MacPherson form of the quantum sl(2) was constructed in a paper (arXiv:0803.3652) by Aaron D. Lauda. Here the authors enhance the graphical calculus introduced and developed in that paper to include two-morphisms between divided powers one-morphisms and their compositions. They obtain explicit diagrammatical formulas for the decomposition of products of divided powers one-morphisms as direct sums of indecomposable one-morphisms; the latter are in a bijection with the Lusztig canonical basis elements.
These formulas have integral coefficients and imply that one of the main results of Lauda's paper--identification of the Grothendieck ring of his 2-category with the idempotented quantum sl(2)--also holds when the 2-category is defined over the ring of integers rather than over a field. A new diagrammatic description of Schur functions is also given and it is shown that the the Jacobi-Trudy formulas for the decomposition of Schur functions into elementary or complete symmetric functions follows from the diagrammatic relations for categorified quantum sl(2).