Raphaël Lemkin (1900-1959) coined the word "genocide" in the winter of 1942 and led a movement in the United Nations to outlaw the crime, setting his sights on reimagining human rights institutions and humanitarian law after World War II. After the UN adopted the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide in 1948, Lemkin slipped into obscurity, and within a few short years many of the same governments that had agreed to outlaw genocide and draft a Universal Declaration of Human Rights tried to undermine these principles. This intellectual biography of one of the twentieth century's most influential theorists and human rights figures sheds new light on the origins of the concept and word "genocide," contextualizing Lemkin's intellectual development in interwar Poland and exploring the evolving connection between his philosophical writings, juridical works, and politics over the following decades. The book presents Lemkin's childhood experience of anti-Jewish violence in imperial Russia; his youthful arguments to expand the laws of war to protect people from their own governments; his early scholarship on Soviet criminal law and nationalities violence; his work in the 1930s to advance a rights-based approach to international law; his efforts in the 1940s to outlaw genocide; and his forays in the 1950s into a social-scientific and historical study of genocide, which he left unfinished. Revealing what the word "genocide" meant to people in the wake of World War II—as the USSR and Western powers sought to undermine the Genocide Convention at the UN, while delegations from small states and former colonies became the strongest supporters of Lemkin's law—Raphaël Lemkin and the Concept of Genocide examines how the meaning of genocide changed over the decades and highlights the relevance of Lemkin's thought to our own time.
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide by William A. Schabas
A Critical Theory of Genocide, Torture, and Terrorism
Author: Mathias Thaler
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Much is at stake when we choose a word for a form of violence: whether a conflict is labeled civil war or genocide, whether we refer to “enhanced interrogation techniques” or to “torture,” whether a person is called a “terrorist” or a “patriot.” Do these decisions reflect the rigorous application of commonly accepted criteria, or are they determined by power structures and partisanship? How is the language we use for violence entangled with the fight against it? In Naming Violence, Mathias Thaler articulates a novel perspective on the study of violence that demonstrates why the imagination matters for political theory. His analysis of the politics of naming charts a middle ground between moralism and realism, arguing that political theory ought to question whether our existing vocabulary enables us to properly identify, understand, and respond to violence. He explores how narrative art, thought experiments, and historical events can challenge and enlarge our existing ways of thinking about violence. Through storytelling, hypothetical situations, and genealogies, the imagination can help us see when definitions of violence need to be revisited by shedding new light on prevalent norms and uncovering the contingent history of ostensibly self-evident beliefs. Naming Violence demonstrates the importance of political theory to debates about violence across a number of different disciplines from film studies to history.
It is the aim of this volume to investigate how academic practices of Memory Studies are being applied, adapted, and transformed in the countries of East-Central Europe and the former Soviet Union. It affords a new, startlingly different perspective for scholars of both Eastern European history and Memory Studies.
The term "genocide"—"group killing"—which first appeared in Raphael Lemkin's 1944 book, Axis Rule in Occupied Europe, had by 1948 established itself in international law through the United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. Since then the charge of genocide has been both widely applied but also contested. In Genocide: The Act as Idea, Berel Lang examines and illuminates the concept of genocide, at once articulating difficulties in its definition and proposing solutions to them. In his analysis, Lang explores the relation of genocide to group identity, individual and corporate moral responsibility, the concept of individual and group intentions, and the concept of evil more generally. The idea of genocide, Lang argues, represents a notable advance in the history of political and ethical thought which proposed alternatives to it, like "crimes against humanity," fail to take into account.
Based on previously inaccessible material from international archives, Human Rights in the Shadow of Colonial Violence examines the relationship between emerging human rights concepts after 1945 and repressive British and French actions against anticolonial movements in Africa.
The End of Empire and the Ideological Origins of the United Nations
Author: Mark Mazower
Publisher: Princeton University Press
No Enchanted Palace traces the origins and early development of the United Nations, one of the most influential yet perhaps least understood organizations active in the world today. Acclaimed historian Mark Mazower forces us to set aside the popular myth that the UN miraculously rose from the ashes of World War II as the guardian of a new and peaceful global order, offering instead a strikingly original interpretation of the UN's ideological roots, early history, and changing role in world affairs. Mazower brings the founding of the UN brilliantly to life. He shows how the UN's creators envisioned a world organization that would protect the interests of empire, yet how this imperial vision was decisively reshaped by the postwar reaffirmation of national sovereignty and the unanticipated rise of India and other former colonial powers. This is a story told through the clash of personalities, such as South African statesman Jan Smuts, who saw in the UN a means to protect the old imperial and racial order; Raphael Lemkin and Joseph Schechtman, Jewish intellectuals at odds over how the UN should combat genocide and other atrocities; and Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first prime minister, who helped transform the UN from an instrument of empire into a forum for ending it. A much-needed historical reappraisal of the early development of this vital world institution, No Enchanted Palace reveals how the UN outgrew its origins and has exhibited an extraordinary flexibility that has enabled it to endure to the present day.
For far too long the discipline of International Relations has failed to engage with the study of genocide. This is despite the fact that genocide holds a direct relationship with the central concepts of international relations: the state, war, power, and security. This bold, innovative and unique book sets out to tackle this by bringing the concept of genocide into the discipline of IR, via the English School, in order to theorise the relationship between genocide, justice, and order. Drawing on a wide-range of primary and secondary interdisciplinary material from International Relations, Genocide Studies, Security Studies, International Law, History, Politics and Political Theory, this book aims to understand genocide within the context of International Relations and the implications that this has on policymaking. Gallagher identifies the obstacles and challenges involved in bringing the study of genocide into IR and uniquely analyses the impact of genocide on the ordering structure of international society.
This book addresses the faith of a member of the “Second Generation”—the offspring of the original survivors of the Shoah . It is a re-examination of those categories of faith central to the Jewish Religious Experience in light of the Shoah: God, Covenant, Prayer, Halakhah and Mitzvot, Life-Cycle, Festival Cycle, Israel and Zionism, and Christianity from the perspective of a child of a survivor.
Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945) by Bettina Stangneth
The very name Cambodia has a resonance which commands attention, setting-off a whole series of connatations. Most of these are usually connected with the horrors of Pol Pot, the Khmwer Rouge, genocide and the severe US bombing Cambodia suffered during the Vietnam War period. At the beginning of 1998, the country is in the unenviable position of being ruled by an uneasy coalition between the former socialist Cambodian People's Party and the monarchist FUNCINPEC (National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful and Cooperative Cambodia). Furthermore, this administration constitutes the eighth different form of government since the nation became independent from France in 1953.
This is the paperback edition ofa globally recognized sourcebook on race and ethnic relations. It has been assembled by a world-class team of international scholars led by Ellis Cashmore to provide an authoritative, single-volume reference work on all aspects of race and ethnic studies. From Aboriginal Australians to xenophobia, Nelson Mandela to Richard Wagner, sexuality to racial profiling, the Encyclopedia is organized alphabetically and reflects cultural diversity in a global context. The entries range from succinct 400 word definitions to in-depth 2000 word essays to provide comprehensive coverage of: all the key terms, concepts and debates important figures, both historical and contemporary landmark cases historical events. Although unafraid to engage with cutting-edge theory,it is uncluttered by jargon and has been written in a lucid, 'facts-fronted' style to offer an accessible introduction to race and ethnic studies. Including a new introduction and fully cross-referenced index with most entries followed by annotated up-to-date suggestions for further reading to guide the user to the key sources, the book is already established as the authoritative sourcebook used by students, scholars, lawyers, journalists, members of the caring professions and many other groups involved in race and ethnic affairs.
Mit einem brüsken «Nein» antwortet B. auf die harmlose Frage eines Bekannten, ob er Kinder habe. Und so unerbittlich weigerte er sich in seiner Ehe, Kinder zu zeugen. In einem großen Monolog begründet der Erzähler seine scheinbar schockierende Absage. Eine «Todesfuge in Prosa, die in ihrer ergreifenden Schönheit noch einmal das geistige Erbe des Abendlandes aufleuchten läßt, bevor es im Grauen von Auschwitz untergeht» (Neue Zürcher Zeitung).
Genocide is both the gravest of crimes under international law and the ultimate violation of human rights. Recent years have seen major legal and political developments concerning genocide and other mass violations of rights. This collection brings together, for the first time, leading essays covering definitions, legislation, the sociology of genocide, prevention, humanitarian intervention, accountability, punishment and reconciliation.
The Temple Scroll, the last of the Dead Sea Scrolls found in 1967, contains two phenomena that are at variance with the Jewish tradition. Professor Jacobs presents a thorough study of ligature writing or "joined letters" and the insertion of both words and phrases between the lines of the text in The Biblical Masorah and the Temple Scroll.
In Search of Yesterday is a distillation of the author's writings about the Holocaust / Shoah in three distinct areas: family stories, the quest for meaning in seemingly inexplicable events, and rethinking and reinterpreting biblical texts in light of the Holocaust / Shoah.