Toward a General Theory of Hierarchical Social Systems
Author: Thomas Diefenbach
Category: Business & Economics
Most people take the conditions they work and live in as a given, believing it to be normal that societies are stratified and that organisations are hierarchical. Many even think that this is the way it should be - and are neither willing nor able to think that it could be otherwise. This book raises the awareness of hierarchy, its complexity and longevity. It focuses on a single but fundamental problem of social systems such as dyads, groups, organisations and whole societies: Why and how does hierarchical social order persist over time? In order to investigate the question, author Thomas Diefenbach develops a general theory of the persistence of hierarchical social order. This theory interrogates the problem of the persistence of hierarchical social order from very different angles, in multi-dimensional and interdisciplinary ways. Even more crucially, it traces the very causes of the phenomenon, the reasons and interests behind hierarchy as well as the various mechanisms which keep it going. This is the first time such a theory is attempted. With the help of the theory developed in this book, it is possible to interrogate systematically, comprehensively and in detail how mindsets and behaviours as well as societal and organisational structures enable the continuation of hierarchy
Causal explanations are essential for theory building. In focusing on causal mechanisms rather than descriptive effects, the goal of this volume is to increase our theoretical understanding of the way gender operates in interaction. Theoretical analyses of gender's effects in interaction, in turn, are necessary to understand how such effects might be implicated with individual-level and social structural-level processes in the larger system of gender inequality. Despite other differences, the contributors to this book all take what might be loosely called a "microstructural" approach to gender and interaction. All agree that individuals come to interaction with certain common, socially created beliefs, cultural meanings, experiences, and social rules. These include stereotypes about gendered activities and skills, beliefs about the status value of gender, rules for interacting in certain settings, and so on. However, as individuals apply these beliefs and rules to the specific contingent events of interaction, they combine and reshape their implications in distinctive ways that are particular to the encounter. As a result, individuals actively construct their social relations in the encounter through their interaction. The patterns of relations that develop are not completely determined or scripted in advance by the beliefs and rules of the larger society. Consequently, there is a reciprocal causal relationship between constructed patterns of interaction and larger social structural forms. The constructed patterns of social relations among a set of interactants can be thought of as micro-level social structures or, more simply, "microstructures.
Firms have discovered that open source (OS) communities can be valuable sources of innovation. However, the access for firms to these communities turned to be intricate. One proven way of how firms can enter OS communities is via their personnel (“men on the inside”). Focusing on firmsponsored OS communities, Viktor Lee detects the specific functions of MOI and how these individuals influence the community network by applying a comparative case study of two OSS firms. A netnographic and social network analysis of the community interactions of over 12,000 individuals was conducted. He concludes that firms can succeed in integrating a community into the firm’s development process with the help of the MOI.
Over the past two decades, Western countries have witnessed changes in the governance of local authorities. During that period, governmental authority and traditional governmental functions have gradually shifted to local authorities at the municipal level. In keeping with this trend, the governments have attempted to diminish their role in the provision of social, human, and communal services and encouraged nongovernmental organizations to penetrate the arena of services previously supplied by the government. In the community domain, neighborhood organizations that encourage citizen involvement and participation in policymaking and decisions concerning their life and well-being have gained increasing influence. In this regard, the emergence of the community council and its development as a unique entity in the municipal arena is particularly noteworthy. The community council reflects an advanced stage in the development of community and voluntary organizations that lacked the organizational and professional infrastructure, know-how, and technologies, as well as the competence to cope with the powerful governmental and municipal establish ment. The community council reflects the developed civic consciousness of the city's residents, who demand responses to their changing and heterogeneous needs. In this context, neighborhood residents have sought to establish a powerful and influential organization that serves them and represents their interests vis-a.-vis the municipal and governmental authorities.
Business & Economics by Davide Nicolini,Silvia Gherardi,Dvora Yanow
This work explores the relationship among knowing, learning, and practice in the development of organizational knowledge. It explores the implications for intervention growing out of the notion that organizational knowledge cannot be conceived as a mental process residing in members' heads.
This book presents a wide-ranging and critical exploration of a topic that lies at the heart of contemporary education. The use of digital technology is now a key feature of schools and schooling around the world. Yet despite its prominence, technology use continues to be an area of education that rarely receives sustained critical attention and thought, especially from those people who are most involved and affected by it. Technology tends to be something that many teachers, learners, parents, policy-makers and even academics approach as a routine rather than reflective matter. Tackling the wider picture, addressing the social, cultural, economic, political and commercial aspects of schools and schooling in the digital age, this book offers to make sense of what happens, and what does not happen, when the digital and the educational come together in the guise of schools technology. In particular, the book examines contemporary schooling in terms of social justice, equality and participatory democracy. Seeking to re-politicise an increasingly depoliticised area of educational debate and analysis, setting out to challenge the many contradictions that characterise the field of education technology today, the author concludes by suggesting what forms schools and schooling in the digital age could, and should, take. This is the perfect volume for anyone interested in the application and use of technology in education, as well as the education policy and politics that surround it; many will also find its innovative proposals for technology use an inspiration for their own teaching and learning.
Firms - like all living systems - must be congruent with, aligned with, compatible with their environments, or they will not survive. Among the features examined in depth are practices and structural arrangements that enable firms to more rapidly and effectively: sense and interpret threats and opportunities; get decisions made; acquire and manage knowledge; innovate; and change - while simultaneously dealing with the needs for efficiency, flexibility, and employee commitment.
Building upon the strengths of the first edition while continuing to extend the influence and reach of organizational behavior (OB), the Second Edition of this groundbreaking reference/ text analyzes OB from a business marketing perspective-offering a thorough treatment of central, soon-to-be central, contiguous, and emerging topics of OB to facilitate greater viability and demand of OB practice. New edition incorporates more comparative perspectives throughout! Contributing to the dynamic, interdisciplinary state of OB theory and practice, the Handbook of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition comprehensively covers strategic and critical issues of the OB field with descriptive analyses and full documentation details the essential principles defining core OB such as organizational design, structure, culture, leadership theory, and risk taking advances solutions to setting operational definitions throughout the field comparatively discusses numerous situations and variables to provide clarity to mixed or inconclusive research findings utilizes cross-cultural approaches to examine recent issues concerning race, ethnicity, and gender reevaluates value standards and paradigms of change in OB investigates cross-national examples of OB development, including case studies from the United States and India and much more! Written by 45 worldwide specialists and containing over 3500 references, tables, drawings, and equations, the Handbook of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition is a definitive reference for public administrators, consultants, organizational behavior specialists, behavioral psychologists, political scientists, and sociologists, as well as a necessary and worthwhile text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students taking organizational behavior courses in the departments of public administration, psychology, management, education, and sociology.
This comprehensive text provides a detailed review and analysis of the building-block theories in the macro-organizational behavior field. John Miner has identified the key theories that any student or scholar needs to understand to be considered literate in the discipline. Each chapter includes the background of the theorist represented, the context in which the theory arose, the initial and subsequent theoretical statements, research on the theory by the theory's author and others (including meta-analysis and reviews), and practical applications. Special features, including boxed summaries of each theory at the beginning of each chapter; two introductory chapters on the scientific method and the development of knowledge; and detailed, comprehensive references, help make this text especially useful for every student and scholar in the field.
Author: Anthony R. Pratkanis,Steven J. Breckler,Anthony G. Greenwald
Publisher: Psychology Press
Utilizing "new wave" research including new psychological theories, new statistical techniques, and a stronger methodology, this collection unites a diversity of recent research perspectives on attitudes and the psychological functions of an attitude. The objective of the editors was to bring together the bits and pieces of validated data into one systematic and adequate set of general principles leading to the view of attitudes as predictions. As the volume reformulates old concepts, explores new angles, and seeks a relationship among various sub-areas, it also shows improvements in the sophistication of research designs and methodologies, the specifications of variables, and the precision in defining concepts.
This series is dedicated to serving the growing community of scholars and practitioners concerned with the principles and applications of environ mental management. Each volume is a thorough treatment of a specific topic of importance for proper management practices. A fundamental ob jective of these books is to help the reader discern and implement man's stewardship of our environment and the world's renewable resources. For we must strive to understand the relationship between man and nature, act to bring harmony to it, and nurture an environment that is both stable and productive. These objectives have often eluded us because the pursuit of other in dividual and societal goals has diverted us from a course of living in balance with the environment. At times, therefore, the environmental manager may have to exert restrictive control, which is usually best applied to man, not nature. Attempts to alter or harness nature have often failed or backfired, as exemplified by the results of imprudent use of herbicides, fertilizers, water, and other agents. Each book in this series will shed light on the fundamental and applied aspects of environmental management. It is hoped that each will help solve a practical and serious environmental problem. Robert S. DeSanto East Lyme, Connecticut Acknowledgments Compilation of the materials reviewed in this inventory was facilitated greatly by several staff members of the Disaster Research Center, University of Delaware (formerly at The Ohio State University) and the Natural Haz ards Research and Applications Information Center, University of Colorado.
Providing a unique blend of cases, concepts, and essential readings The Social Movements Reader, Third Edition, delivers key classic and contemporary articles and book selections from around the world. Includes the latest research on contemporary movements in the US and abroad, including the Arab spring, Occupy, and the global justice movement Provides original texts, many of them classics in the field, which have been edited for the non-technical reader Combines the strengths of a reader and a textbook with selected readings and extensive editorial material Sidebars offer concise definitions of key terms, as well as biographies of famous activists and chronologies of several key movements Requires no prior knowledge about social movements or theories of social movements
Articulating Social Work Practice with Youth in Copenhagen
Author: M. Nissen
Category: Social Science
What is a 'we' a collective and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas of a community of social/youth workers in Copenhagen between 1987 and 2003, who developed a pedagogy through creating collectives and mobilizing young people as participants. The theoretical and practical traditions are combined in a unique methodology viewing research as a contentious modeling of prototypical practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework.
For a full list of entries and contributors, sample entries, and more, visit the Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women website. Featuring comprehensive global coverage of women's issues and concerns, from violence and sexuality to feminist theory, the Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women brings the field into the new millennium. In over 900 signed A-Z entries from US and Europe, Asia, the Americas, Oceania, and the Middle East, the women who pioneered the field from its inception collaborate with the new scholars who are shaping the future of women's studies to create the new standard work for anyone who needs information on women-related subjects.
The simple act of going to work every day is an integral part of all societies across the globe. It is an ingrained social contract: we all work to survive. But it goes beyond physical survival. Psychologists have equated losing a job with the trauma of divorce or a family death, and enormous issues arise, from financial panic to sinking self-esteem. Through work, we build our self-identity, our lifestyle, and our aspirations. How did it come about that work dominates so many parts of our lives and our psyche? This multi-disciplinary encyclopedia covers curricular subjects that seek to address that question, ranging from business and management to anthropology, sociology, social history, psychology, politics, economics, and health. Features & Benefits: International and comparative coverage. 335 signed entries, A-to-Z, fill 2 volumes in print and electronic formats. Cross-References and Suggestions for Further Readings guide readers to additional resources. A Chronology provides students with historical perspective of the sociology of work. In the electronic version, the comprehensive Index combines with the Cross-References and thematic Reader's Guide themes to provide robust search-and-browse capabilities.
Social Science by Michael R. Hill,Susan Hoecker-Drysdale
The Essays in this volume explore the work of Harriet Martineau from a sociological perspective, highlighting her theoretical contributions in the areas of the sociology of labor, gender and political economy. The contributors each offer a contextual, theoretical and methodological assessment of her work beginning with the opportunities and challenges of utilizing Martineau pedagogically in the sociology classroom.