Author: Alan Bundy,David Basin,Dieter Hutter,Andrew Ireland
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Rippling is a radically new technique for the automation of mathematical reasoning. It is widely applicable whenever a goal is to be proved from one or more syntactically similar givens. It was originally developed for inductive proofs, where the goal was the induction conclusion and the givens were the induction hypotheses. It has proved to be applicable to a much wider class of tasks, from summing series via analysis to general equational reasoning. The application to induction has especially important practical implications in the building of dependable IT systems, and provides solutions to issues such as the problem of combinatorial explosion. Rippling is the first of many new search control techniques based on formula annotation; some additional annotated reasoning techniques are also described here. This systematic and comprehensive introduction to rippling, and to the wider subject of automated inductive theorem proving, will be welcomed by researchers and graduate students alike.
Author: Frank van Harmelen,Vladimir Lifschitz,Bruce Porter
Handbook of Knowledge Representation describes the essential foundations of Knowledge Representation, which lies at the core of Artificial Intelligence (AI). The book provides an up-to-date review of twenty-five key topics in knowledge representation, written by the leaders of each field. It includes a tutorial background and cutting-edge developments, as well as applications of Knowledge Representation in a variety of AI systems. This handbook is organized into three parts. Part I deals with general methods in Knowledge Representation and reasoning and covers such topics as classical logic in Knowledge Representation; satisfiability solvers; description logics; constraint programming; conceptual graphs; nonmonotonic reasoning; model-based problem solving; and Bayesian networks. Part II focuses on classes of knowledge and specialized representations, with chapters on temporal representation and reasoning; spatial and physical reasoning; reasoning about knowledge and belief; temporal action logics; and nonmonotonic causal logic. Part III discusses Knowledge Representation in applications such as question answering; the semantic web; automated planning; cognitive robotics; multi-agent systems; and knowledge engineering. This book is an essential resource for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners in knowledge representation and AI. * Make your computer smarter * Handle qualitative and uncertain information * Improve computational tractability to solve your problems easily
7th International Joint Conference, IJCAR 2014, Held as Part of the Vienna Summer of Logic, Vienna, Austria, July 19-22, 2014, Proceedings
Author: Stéphane Demri,Deepak Kapur,Christoph Weidenbach
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Joint Conference on Automated Reasoning, IJCAR 2014, held as part of the Vienna Summer of Logic, VSL 2014, in Vienna, Austria, in July 2014. IJCAR 2014 was a merger of three leading events in automated reasoning, namely CADE (International Conference on Automated Deduction), FroCoS (International Symposium on Frontiers of Combining Systems) and TABLEAUX (International Conference on Automated Reasoning with Analytic Tableaux and Related Methods). The 26 revised full research papers and 11 system descriptions presented together with 3 invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 83 submissions. The papers have been organized in topical sections on HOL, SAT and QBF, SMT, equational reasoning, verification, proof theory, modal and temporal reasoning, SMT and SAT, modal logic, complexity, description logics and knowledge representation and reasoning.
9th Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, MICAI 2010, Pachuca, Mexico, November 8-13, 2010, Proceedings
Author: Grigori Sidorov,Arturo Hernández Aguirre,Carlos Alberto Reyes Garcia
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science that models the human ability of reasoning, usage of human language and organization of knowledge, solving problems and practically all other human intellectual abilities. Usually it is charact- ized by the application of heuristic methods because in the majority of cases there is no exact solution to this kind of problem. The Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence (MICAI), a yearly international conference series organized by the Mexican Society for Artificial Int- ligence (SMIA), is a major international AI forum and the main event in the academic life of the country’s growing AI community. In 2010, SMIA celebrated 10 years of activity related to the organization of MICAI as is represented in its slogan: “Ten years on the road with AI”. MICAI conferences traditionally publish high-quality papers in all areas of arti- cial intelligence and its applications. The proceedings of the previous MICAI events were also published by Springer in its Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence (LNAI) series, vols. 1793, 2313, 2972, 3789, 4293, 4827, 5317, and 5845. Since its foun- tion in 2000, the conference has been growing in popularity and improving in quality.
9th International Symposium, FLOPS 2008, Ise, Japan, April 14-16, 2008, Proceedings
Author: Jacques Garrigue,Manuel Hermenegildo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Functional and Logic Programming, FLOPS 2008. The 20 revised full papers, together with 3 invited contributions were carefully reviewed and selected from 59 submissions.
How Economists Work and Think
Author: Mary S. Morgan
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Business & Economics
During the last two centuries, the way economic science is done has changed radically: it has become a social science based on mathematical models in place of words. This book describes and analyses that change - both historically and philosophically - using a series of case studies to illuminate the nature and the implications of these changes. It is not a technical book; it is written for the intelligent person who wants to understand how economics works from the inside out. This book will be of interest to economists and science studies scholars (historians, sociologists and philosophers of science). But it also aims at a wider readership in the public intellectual sphere, building on the current interest in all things economic and on the recent failure of the so-called economic model, which has shaped our beliefs and the world we live in.
Author: Dimitris Psillos,Petros Kariotoglou,Vasilis Tselfes,E. Hatzikraniotis,George Fassoulopoulos,Maria Kallery
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book offers a global presentation of issues under study for improving science education research in the context of the knowledge-based society at a European and international level. It includes discussions of several theoretical approaches, research overviews, research methodologies, and the teaching and learning of science. It is based on papers presented at the Third International Conference of the European Science Education Research Association (Thessaloniki, Greece, August 2001).
Author: Robert Goldbort
Publisher: Yale University Press
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
This book encompasses the entire range of writing skills that today's experimental scientist may need to employ. Chapters cover routine forms, such as laboratory notes, abstracts, and memoranda; dissertations; journal articles; and grant proposals. Robert Goldbort discusses how best to approach various writing tasks as well as how to deal with the everyday complexities that may get in the way of ideal practice--difficult collaborators, experiments gone wrong, funding rejections. He underscores the importance of an ethical approach to science and scientific communication and insists on the necessity of full disclosure.
Author: National Academy of Engineering,National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Computer Science and Telecommunications Board,Committee on Improving Cybersecurity Research in the United States
Publisher: National Academies Press
Given the growing importance of cyberspace to nearly all aspects of national life, a secure cyberspace is vitally important to the nation, but cyberspace is far from secure today. The United States faces the real risk that adversaries will exploit vulnerabilities in the nationâ€™s critical information systems, thereby causing considerable suffering and damage. Online e-commerce business, government agency files, and identity records are all potential security targets. Toward a Safer and More Secure Cyberspace examines these Internet security vulnerabilities and offers a strategy for future research aimed at countering cyber attacks. It also explores the nature of online threats and some of the reasons why past research for improving cybersecurity has had less impact than anticipated, and considers the human resource base needed to advance the cybersecurity research agenda. This book will be an invaluable resource for Internet security professionals, information technologists, policy makers, data stewards, e-commerce providers, consumer protection advocates, and others interested in digital security and safety.
Author: Jonathan M. Borwein
Category: Experimental mathematics
A quiet revolution in mathematical computing and scientific visualization took place in the latter half of the 20th century. These developments have dramatically enhanced modes of mathematical insight and opportunities for "exploratory" computational experimentation. This volume collects the experimental and computational contributions of Jonathan and Peter Borwein over the past quarter century.
Theory and Techniques
Author: Syed A. Ahson,Mohammad Ilyas
Publisher: CRC Press
Whether you’re already in the cloud, or determining whether or not it makes sense for your organization, Cloud Computing and Software Services: Theory and Techniques provides the technical understanding needed to develop and maintain state-of-the-art cloud computing and software services. From basic concepts and recent research findings to future directions, it gathers the insight of 50 experts from around to present a global perspective on the range of technical topics related to cloud computing and Software as a Service (SaaS). The book also: Reviews real cases and applications of cloud computing Discusses the infrastructure cloud and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Considers data- and compute-intensive environments Examines security and reliability in the cloud Witten in a manner that makes this complex subject easy to understand, this is an ideal one-stop reference for anyone interested in cloud computing. The accessible language and wealth of illustrations also make it suitable for academic and research-oriented settings. The comprehensive coverage supplies you with the understanding of cloud computing technologies and trends in parallel computing needed to establish and maintain effective and efficient computing and software services.
Author: Robert Nozick
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Repeatedly and successfully, the celebrated Harvard philosopher Robert Nozick has reached out to a broad audience beyond the confines of his discipline, addressing ethical and social problems that matter to every thoughtful person. Here Nozick continues his search for the connections between philosophy and "ordinary" experience. In the lively and accessible style that his readers have come to expect, he offers a bold theory of rationality, the one characteristic deemed to fix humanity's "specialness." What are principles for? asks Nozick. We could act simply on whim, or maximize our self-interest and recommend that others do the same. As Nozick explores rationality of decision and rationality of belief, he shows how principles actually function in our day-to-day thinking and in our efforts to live peacefully and productively with each other. Throughout, the book combines daring speculations with detailed investigations to portray the nature and status of rationality and the essential role that imagination plays in this singular human aptitude.
A User's Guide
Author: Anthony Bonner
This book attempts to explain the functioning of the combinatorial, semi-mechanical demonstrative techniques of Ramon Llull's 'Art', how it began as an apologetic instrument, how it developed through two main stages, and how it ended trying to reformulate key aspects of medieval Aristotelian logic.
Structure, Function, and Dynamics
Author: Michael A. Arbib,Péter Érdi,J?nos Szent?gothai
Publisher: MIT Press
In "Neural Organization," Arbib, É rdi, and Szentá gothai integrate structural, functional, and dynamical approaches to the interaction of brain models and neurobiologcal experiments. Both structure-based "bottom-up" and function- based "top-down" models offer coherent concepts by which to evaluate the experimental data. The goal of this book is to point out the advantages of a multidisciplinary, multistrategied approach to the brain. Part I of "Neural Organization" provides a detailed introduction to each of the three areas of structure, function, and dynamics. "Structure" refers to the anatomical aspects of the brain and the relations between different brain regions. "Function" refers to skills and behaviors, which are explained by means of functional schemas and biologically based neural networks. "Dynamics" refers to the use of a mathematical framework to analyze the temporal change of neural activities and synaptic connectivities that underlie brain development and plasticity--in terms of both detailed single-cell models and large-scale network models. In part II, the authors show how their systematic approach can be used to analyze specific parts of the nervous system--the olfactory system, hippocampus, thalamus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and basal ganglia--as well as to integrate data from the study of brain regions, functional models, and the dynamics of neural networks. In conclusion, they offer a plan for the use of their methods in the development of cognitive neuroscience.
Author: Charles H. Lineweaver,Paul C. W. Davies,Michael Ruse
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
There is a widespread assumption that the universe in general, and life in particular, is 'getting more complex with time'. This book brings together a wide range of experts in science, philosophy and theology and unveils their joint effort in exploring this idea. They confront essential problems behind the theory of complexity and the role of life within it: what is complexity? When does it increase, and why? Is the universe evolving towards states of ever greater complexity and diversity? If so, what is the source of this universal enrichment? This book addresses those difficult questions, and offers a unique cross-disciplinary perspective on some of the most profound issues at the heart of science and philosophy. Readers will gain insights in complexity that reach deep into key areas of physics, biology, complexity science, philosophy and religion.
6th European Conference, EuroGP 2003, Essex, UK, April 14-16, 2003. Proceedings
Author: Conor Ryan,Terence Soule,Riccardo Poli,Edward Tsang,Maarten Keijzer,Ernesto Costa
In this volume we present the accepted contributions to the Sixth European Conference on Genetic Programming (EuroGP 2003) which took place at the University of Essex, UK on 14-16 April 2003. EuroGP is now a well-established conference and, without any doubt, the most important international event - voted to Genetic Programming occurring in Europe. The proceedings have all been published by Springer-Verlag in the LNCS series. EuroGP began as an - ternational workshop in Paris, France in 1998 (14–15 April, LNCS 1391). Sub- quently the workshop was held in G ̈ oteborg, Sweden in 1999 (26–27 May, LNCS 1598) and then EuroGP became an annual conference: in 2000 in Edinburgh, UK (15–16 April, LNCS 1802), in 2001 in Lake Como, Italy (18–19 April, LNCS 2038) and in 2002 in Kinsale, Ireland (3–5 April, LNCS 2278). From the outset, there have always been specialized workshops, co-located with EuroGP, focusing on applications of evolutionary algorithms (LNCS 1468, 1596, 1803, 2037, and 2279). This year was no exception and EvoWorkshops 2003, incorporating Evo- BIO, EvoCOP, EvoIASP, EvoMUSART, EvoSTIM and EvoROB, took place at the University of Essex (LNCS 2611). Genetic Programming (GP) is that part of Evolutionary Computation which solves particular complex problems or tasks by evolving and adapting popu- tions of computer programs, using Darwinian evolution and Mendelian genetics as a source of inspiration.