Accessible and practical overview to help social reseachers make the most of information technology in relation to research design and selection, management and analysis of research data. The book pinpoints current and future trends in computer-assisted methods.; This book is intended for postgraduate and undergraduate social research methods courses and professional social researchers in sociology, social policy and administration, social psychology and geography. Particular appeal to courses in computer applications for social scientists and researchers.
Computational modelling allows researchers to combine the rich detail of qualitative research with the rigour of quantitative and formal research, as well as to represent complex structures and processes within a theoretical model. After an introduction to modelling, the authors discuss the role of computational methods in the social sciences. They treat computational methods, including dynamic simulation, knowledge-based models and machine learning, as a single broad class of research tools and develop a framework for incorporating them within established traditions of social science research. They provide a concise description of each method and a variety of social science illustrations, including four detailed examples.
Agent-based modelling on a computer appears to have a special role to play in the development of social science. It offers a means of discovering general and applicable social theory, and grounding it in precise assumptions and derivations, whilst addressing those elements of individual cognition that are central to human society. However, there are important questions to be asked and difficulties to overcome in achieving this potential. What differentiates agent-based modelling from traditional computer modelling? Which model types should be used under which circumstances? If it is appropriate to use a complex model, how can it be validated? Is social simulation research to adopt a realist epistemology, or can it operate within a social constructionist framework? What are the sociological concepts of norms and norm processing that could either be used for planned implementation or for identifying equivalents of social norms among co-operative agents? Can sustainability be achieved more easily in a hierarchical agent society than in a society of isolated agents? What examples are there of hybrid forms of interaction between humans and artificial agents? These are some of the sociological questions that are addressed.
Voting Systems, Health Care, Military, and Manufacturing
Author: Theodore T. Allen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Technology & Engineering
Discrete event simulation and agent-based modeling are increasingly recognized as critical for diagnosing and solving process issues in complex systems. Introduction to Discrete Event Simulation and Agent-based Modeling covers the techniques needed for success in all phases of simulation projects. These include: • Definition – The reader will learn how to plan a project and communicate using a charter. • Input analysis – The reader will discover how to determine defensible sample sizes for all needed data collections. They will also learn how to fit distributions to that data. • Simulation – The reader will understand how simulation controllers work, the Monte Carlo (MC) theory behind them, modern verification and validation, and ways to speed up simulation using variation reduction techniques and other methods. • Output analysis – The reader will be able to establish simultaneous intervals on key responses and apply selection and ranking, design of experiments (DOE), and black box optimization to develop defensible improvement recommendations. • Decision support – Methods to inspire creative alternatives are presented, including lean production. Also, over one hundred solved problems are provided and two full case studies, including one on voting machines that received international attention. Introduction to Discrete Event Simulation and Agent-based Modeling demonstrates how simulation can facilitate improvements on the job and in local communities. It allows readers to competently apply technology considered key in many industries and branches of government. It is suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as researchers and other professionals.
This second edition describes the fundamentals of modelling and simulation of continuous-time, discrete time, discrete-event and large-scale systems. Coverage new to this edition includes: a chapter on non-linear systems analysis and modelling, complementing the treatment of of continuous-time and discrete-time systems; and a chapter on the computer animation and visualization of dynamical systems motion.;College or university bookstores may order five or more copies at a special student price, available on request from Marcel Dekker Inc.
Business & Economics by Rosaria Conte,Rainer Hegselmann,Pietro Terna
In this book experts from quite different fields present simulations of social phenomena: economists, sociologists, political scientists, psychologists, cognitive scientists, organisational scientists, decision scientists, geographers, computer scientists, AI and AL scientists, mathematicians and statisticians. They simulate markets, organisations, economic dynamics, coalition formation, the emergence of cooperation and exchange, bargaining, decision making, learning, and adaptation. The history, problems, and perspectives of simulating social phenomena are explicitly discussed.
Mathematics by Micah Altman,Jeff Gill,Michael P. McDonald
Author: Micah Altman,Jeff Gill,Michael P. McDonald
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
At last—a social scientist's guide through the pitfalls ofmodern statistical computing Addressing the current deficiency in the literature onstatistical methods as they apply to the social and behavioralsciences, Numerical Issues in Statistical Computing for the SocialScientist seeks to provide readers with a unique practicalguidebook to the numerical methods underlying computerizedstatistical calculations specific to these fields. The authorsdemonstrate that knowledge of these numerical methods and how theyare used in statistical packages is essential for making accurateinferences. With the aid of key contributors from both the socialand behavioral sciences, the authors have assembled a rich set ofinterrelated chapters designed to guide empirical social scientiststhrough the potential minefield of modern statisticalcomputing. Uniquely accessible and abounding in modern-day tools, tricks,and advice, the text successfully bridges the gap between thecurrent level of social science methodology and the moresophisticated technical coverage usually associated with thestatistical field. Highlights include: A focus on problems occurring in maximum likelihoodestimation Integrated examples of statistical computing (using softwarepackages such as the SAS, Gauss, Splus, R, Stata, LIMDEP, SPSS,WinBUGS, and MATLAB®) A guide to choosing accurate statistical packages Discussions of a multitude of computationally intensivestatistical approaches such as ecological inference, Markov chainMonte Carlo, and spatial regression analysis Emphasis on specific numerical problems, statisticalprocedures, and their applications in the field Replications and re-analysis of published social scienceresearch, using innovative numerical methods Key numerical estimation issues along with the means ofavoiding common pitfalls A related Web site includes test data for use in demonstratingnumerical problems, code for applying the original methodsdescribed in the book, and an online bibliography of Web resourcesfor the statistical computation Designed as an independent research tool, a professionalreference, or a classroom supplement, the book presents awell-thought-out treatment of a complex and multifaceted field.
From Postgraduate to Social Scientist is essential reading for any postgraduate or new researcher who is interested in a career in the social sciences. The book describes the skills needed for success in moving from being a student to becoming an academic or professional social scientist. Written by experts in the field, Gilbert et al., this book offers a unique insider's view of how to make the transition. By adopting a clear and accessible approach, this book encourages students embarking on the journey towards becoming a social scientist to engage with every aspect of the process.
Business & Economics by Sandra Batie,Nicholas Mercuro
In the spring on 2006, a workshop was held at Michigan State University to honour the career of A. Allan Schmid and his writings about how institutions evolve and how alternative institutions, including property rights, shape political relationships and impact economic performance. This edited book is the outcome of the workshop. It is a collection of original essays that explores several approaches to understanding the impact of alternative legal-economic institutions. The collection investigates questions such as: What are the similarities and differences among the various strands and approaches? Could parts of the different approaches be integrated to achieve greater insight into economic behaviour? Do different analytical problems require different approaches? Are the various strands of institutionalism actually saying the same things, but using different language and perspective? In gathering together authors who represent different approaches or strands of institutionalism, this book addresses several different issues such as transactions as the unit of observation, bounded rationality and learning, power issues embedded in the concept of efficiency, comparative empirical analysis, multiple equilibria and institutional diversity within a given environment, specification of institutional rules and structures, evolutionary perspectives, decentralized processes, and the significance of historical content.
The use of simulation modeling and analysis is becoming increasingly more popular as a technique for improving or investigating process performance. This book is a practical, easy-to-follow reference that offers up-to-date information and step-by-step procedures for conducting simulation studies. It provides sample simulation project support material, including checklists, data-collection forms, and sample simulation project reports and publications to facilitate practitioners' efforts in conducting simulation modeling and analysis projects. Simulation Modeling Handbook: A Practical Approach has two major advantages over other treatments. First, it is independent of any particular simulation software, allowing readers to use any commercial package or programming language. Second, it was written to insulate practitioners from unnecessary simulation theory that does not focus on their average, practical needs. As the popularity of simulation studies continues to grow, the planning and execution of these projects, more and more engineering and management professionals will be called upon to perform these tasks. With its simple, no-nonsense approach and focus on application rather than theory, this comprehensive and easy-to-understand guide is the ideal vehicle for acquiring the background and skills needed to undertake effective simulation projects. Features Presents step-by-step procedures for conducting successful simulation modeling and analysis Addresses every phase of performing simulations, from formulating the problem to presenting study results and recommendations Uses approaches applicable regardless of the specific simulation or software used Includes a summary of the major simulation software packages and discusses the pros and cons of using general purpose programming languages
Political science by Joachim Behnke,Thomas Gschwend,Delia Schindler,Kai-Uwe Schnapp
Spatio-temporal Approaches presents a well-built set of concepts, methods and approaches, in order to represent and understand the evolution of social and environmental phenomena within the space. It is basedon examples in human geography and archeology (which will enable us to explore questions regarding various temporalities) and tackles social and environmental phenomena. Chapter 1 discusses how to apprehend change: objects, attributes, relations, processes. Chapter 2 introduces multiple points of view about modeling and the authors try to shed a new light on the different, but complementary approaches of geomaticians and thematicians. Chapter 3 is devoted to the construction of spatio-temporal indicators, to various measurements of the change, while highlighting the advantage of an approach crossing several points of view, in order to understand the phenomenon at hand. Chapter 4 presents different categories of simulation model in line with complexity sciences. These models rely notably on the concepts of emergence and self-organization and allow us to highlight the roles of interaction within change. Chapter 5 provides ideas on research concerning the various construction approaches of hybrid objects and model couplings.
Aus dem Amerikanischen übersetzt und mit einem Nachwort von Werner Raub und Thomas Voss
Author: Robert Axelrod
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Wie ist Kooperation möglich in einer Welt von Egoisten, in der es keine zentrale Autorität gibt? Axelrod entwickelt aus der Spieltheorie - auf der Basis des "Gefangenendilemmas" - eine verblüffende Lösung. Nicht die raffinierteste, auch nicht die aggressivste, nicht die sanfteste Strategie sichert langfristig Erfolg, sondern die grundsätzlich wohlwollende, aber stets vergeltungsbereite: TIT FOR TAT, "wie Du mir, so ich Dir". Axelrod schließt daraus, dass in der globalen arbeitsteiligen Wirtschaftsweise geradezu ein innerer Zwang zur Kooperation besteht. Gewinnbringende Kooperationen sind für Unternehmen nützlicher als blinder Wettbewerb.
"The 5[superscript th] edition of this book is essential for management science students, MBAs and practitioners in this area. It shows how practical simulation models are built and used, and provides the theory needed to do this - whatever software is used. It covers the modelling methods, computing and statistical requirements for successful simulation and includes: a new chapter on Monte Carlo simulation using spreadsheets; a new look inside discrete simulation software; simulation models in Visual Basic, SIMUL8 and Micro Saint; and system dynamics using Powersim."--BOOK JACKET.
Technology & Engineering by Andrew P. Sage,William B. Rouse
The trusted handbook—now in a new edition This newly revised handbook presents a multifaceted view of systems engineering from process and systems management perspectives. It begins with a comprehensive introduction to the subject and provides a brief overview of the thirty-four chapters that follow. This introductory chapter is intended to serve as a "field guide" that indicates why, when, and how to use the material that follows in the handbook. Topical coverage includes: systems engineering life cycles and management; risk management; discovering system requirements; configuration management; cost management; total quality management; reliability, maintainability, and availability; concurrent engineering; standards in systems engineering; system architectures; systems design; systems integration; systematic measurements; human supervisory control; managing organizational and individual decision-making; systems reengineering; project planning; human systems integration; information technology and knowledge management; and more. The handbook is written and edited for systems engineers in industry and government, and to serve as a university reference handbook in systems engineering and management courses. By focusing on systems engineering processes and systems management, the editors have produced a long-lasting handbook that will make a difference in the design of systems of all types that are large in scale and/or scope.
»Um „Zehn Gründe...“ zu lesen, reicht ein einziger Grund: Jaron Lanier. Am wichtigsten Mahner vor Datenmissbrauch, Social-Media-Verdummung und der fatalen Umsonst-Mentalität im Netz führt in diesen Tagen kein Weg vorbei.« Frank Schätzing Jaron Lanier, Tech-Guru und Vordenker des Internets, liefert zehn bestechende Gründe, warum wir mit Social Media Schluss machen müssen. Facebook, Google & Co. überwachen uns, manipulieren unser Verhalten, machen Politik unmöglich und uns zu ekligen, rechthaberischen Menschen. Social Media ist ein allgegenwärtiger Käfig geworden, dem wir nicht entfliehen können. Lanier hat ein aufrüttelndes Buch geschrieben, das seine Erkenntnisse als Insider des Silicon Valleys wiedergibt und dazu anregt, das eigenen Verhalten in den sozialen Netzwerken zu überdenken. Wenn wir den Kampf mit dem Wahnsinn unserer Zeit nicht verlieren wollen, bleibt uns nur eine Möglichkeit: Löschen wir all unsere Accounts! Ein Buch, das jeder lesen muss, der sich im Netz bewegt! »Ein unglaublich gutes, dringendes und wichtiges Buch« Zadie Smith
Business & Economics by Emma Bell,Samantha Warren,Jonathan E. Schroeder
Author: Emma Bell,Samantha Warren,Jonathan E. Schroeder
Category: Business & Economics
The visual constitutes an increasingly significant element of contemporary organization, as post-industrial societies move towards economies founded on creative and knowledge-intensive industries. The visual has thereby entered into almost every aspect of corporate strategy, operations, and communication; reconfiguring basic notions of management practice and introducing new challenges in the study of organizations. This volume provides a comprehensive insight into the ways in which organizations and their members visualize their identities and practices and how they are viewed by those who are external to organizations, including researchers. With contributions from leading academics across the world, The Routledge Companion to Visual Organization is a valuable reference source for students and academics interested in disciplines such as film studies, entrepreneurship, marketing, sociology and most importantly, organizational behaviour.