Mathematics

Statistics: A Very Short Introduction

Author: David J. Hand

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191578924

Category: Mathematics

Page: 136

View: 8312

Modern statistics is very different from the dry and dusty discipline of the popular imagination. In its place is an exciting subject which uses deep theory and powerful software tools to shed light and enable understanding. And it sheds this light on all aspects of our lives, enabling astronomers to explore the origins of the universe, archaeologists to investigate ancient civilisations, governments to understand how to benefit and improve society, and businesses to learn how best to provide goods and services. Aimed at readers with no prior mathematical knowledge, this Very Short Introduction explores and explains how statistics work, and how we can decipher them. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Spieltheorie

Author: Ken Binmore

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783150185902

Category:

Page: 272

View: 2982

Mathematics

Probability: A Very Short Introduction

Author: John Haigh

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199588481

Category: Mathematics

Page: 128

View: 2577

Making good decisions under conditions of uncertainty requires an appreciation of the way random chance works. In this Very Short Introduction, John Haigh provides a brief account of probability theory; explaining the philosophical approaches, discussing probability distributions, and looking its applications in science and economics.

Mathematik

Author: Timothy Gowers

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783150187067

Category:

Page: 207

View: 7574

Quantentheorie

eine Einführung

Author: John C. Polkinghorne

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783150188613

Category:

Page: 176

View: 380

Mathematics

Measurement: A Very Short Introduction

Author: David J. Hand

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191085022

Category: Mathematics

Page: 144

View: 8224

Measurement is a fundamental concept that underpins almost every aspect of the modern world. It is central to the sciences, social sciences, medicine, and economics, but it affects everyday life. We measure everything - from the distance of far-off galaxies to the temperature of the air, levels of risk, political majorities, taxes, blood pressure, IQ, and weight. The history of measurement goes back to the ancient world, and its story has been one of gradual standardization. Today there are different types of measurement, levels of accuracy, and systems of units, applied in different contexts. Measurement involves notions of variability, accuracy, reliability, and error, and challenges such as the measurement of extreme values. In this Very Short Introduction, David Hand explains the common mathematical framework underlying all measurement, the main approaches to measurement, and the challenges involved. Following a brief historical account of measurement, he discusses measurement as used in the physical sciences and engineering, the life sciences and medicine, the social and behavioural sciences, economics, business, and public policy. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Science

Physical Chemistry

A Very Short Introduction

Author: Peter Atkins

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199689091

Category: Science

Page: 128

View: 2961

In this essential guide for students of chemistry, Peter Atkins' Very Short Introduction explains the principles and phenomena of physical chemistry. Using few formulas, Atkins shows how physical chemistry draws its ideas from physics, quantum mechanics, and mathematics, and how it has contributed to our understanding of the natural world.
Body, Mind & Spirit

Witchcraft: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Malcolm Gaskill

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191613681

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 168

View: 8918

Witchcraft is a subject that fascinates us all, and everyone knows what a witch is - or do they? From childhood most of us develop a sense of the mysterious, malign person, usually an old woman. Historically, too, we recognize witch-hunting as a feature of pre-modern societies. But why do witches still feature so heavily in our cultures and consciousness? From Halloween to superstitions, and literary references such as Faust and even Harry Potter, witches still feature heavily in our society. In this Very Short Introduction Malcolm Gaskill challenges all of this, and argues that what we think we know is, in fact, wrong. Taking a historical perspective from the ancient world to contemporary paganism, Gaskill reveals how witchcraft has meant different things to different people and that in every age it has raised questions about the distinction between fantasy and reality, faith and proof. Telling stories, delving into court records, and challenging myths, Gaskill examines the witch-hunts of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and explores the reinvention of witchcraft - as history, religion, fiction, and metaphor. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Medical

Epidemiology: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Rodolfo Saracci

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191609242

Category: Medical

Page: 160

View: 5952

What is epidemiology? What are the causes of a new disease? How can pandemics be prevented? Epidemiology is the study of the changing patterns of disease and its main aim is to improve the health of populations. It's a vital field, central to the health of society, to the identification of causes of disease, and to their management and prevention. Epidemiology has had an impact on many areas of medicine; from discovering the relationship between tobacco smoking and lung cancer, to the origin and spread of new epidemics. However, it is often poorly understood, largely due to misrepresentations in the media. In this Very Short Introduction Rodolfo Saracci dispels some of the myths surrounding the study of epidemiology. He provides a general explanation of the principles behind clinical trials, and explains the nature of basic statistics concerning disease. He also looks at the ethical and political issues related to obtaining and using information concerning patients, and trials involving placebos. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Medical

Medical Ethics: A Very Short Introduction

Author: R. A. Hope

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192802828

Category: Medical

Page: 152

View: 4560

Issues in medical ethics are rarely out of the media and it is an area of ethics that has particular interest for the general public as well as the medical practitioner. This short and accessible introduction deals with moral questions such as euthanasia as well as asking how health care resources can be distributed fairly.
Business & Economics

Work: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Stephen Fineman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199699364

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 137

View: 6344

Work is deeply embedded in the moral and political character of most societies. For many, work becomes fused with our personal and social identities - who we are and how we define ourselves. Steve Fineman explores the key debates about work and the factors that affect it including topics such as globalization, feminism, and technology.
Mathematics

Chaos

A Very Short Introduction

Author: Leonard Smith

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192853783

Category: Mathematics

Page: 180

View: 1891

An introduction to chaotic behavior dynamics describes its behavior in both science and the real world.
Philosophy

Causation: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Stephen Mumford,Rani Lill Anjum

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019968443X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 128

View: 7860

Without cause and effect, there would be no science or technology, no moral responsibility, and no system of law. Causation is therefore the most fundamental connection in the universe and a core topic of philosophical thought. This Very Short Introduction introduces all of the main theories of causation and its key debates.
Psychology

Anxiety: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Daniel Freeman,Jason Freeman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199567158

Category: Psychology

Page: 155

View: 2768

Are we born with our fears or do we learn them? Why do our fears persist? What purpose does anxiety serve? In this Very Short Introduction we discover what anxiety is, what causes it, and how it can be treated. Looking at six major anxiety disorders, the authors introduce us to this most ubiquitous and essential of emotions.
Business & Economics

Risk: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Baruch Fischhoff,John Kadvany

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199576203

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 162

View: 9110

Risks are everywhere. They come from many sources, including crime, diseases, accidents, terror, climate change, finance, and intimacy. They arise from our own acts and they are imposed on us. In this Very Short Introduction Fischhoff and Kadvany draw on both the sciences and humanities to show what all risks have in common. Do we care about losing money, health, reputation, or peace of mind? How much do we care about things happening now or in the future? To ourselves or to others? All risks require thinking hard about what matters to us before we make decisions about them based on past experience, scientific knowledge, and future uncertainties. Using conceptual frameworks such as decision theory and behavioural decision research, we examine the science and practice of creating measures of risk and look at how scientists apply probability by combining historical records, scientific theories, and expert judgement. Showing what science has learned about how people deal with risks, and applying these to diverse everyday examples, the authors demonstrate how we move from understanding a risk to making a choice in everyday life.
Philosophy

Intelligence: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Ian J. Deary

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191579491

Category: Philosophy

Page: 148

View: 3726

People value their powers of thinking and most of us are interested in why some people seem to drive a highly tuned Rolls Royce brain while others potter along with a merely serviceable Ford Fiesta. This Very Short Introduction describes what psychologists have discovered about how and why people differ in their thinking powers. The book takes readers from no knowledge about the science of human intelligence to a stage where they are able to make judgements for themselves about some of the key questions about human mental ability differences. Each chapter deals with a central issue that is both scientifically lively and of considerable general interest, and is structured around a diagram which is explained in the course of the chapter. The issues discussed include whether there are several different types of intelligence, whether intelligence differences are caused by genes or the environment, the biological basis of intelligence differences, and whether intelligence declines or increases as we grow older. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Philosophy

Objectivity: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Stephen Gaukroger

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199606692

Category: Philosophy

Page: 112

View: 5042

Objectivity is both an essential and elusive philosophical concept. This Very Short Introduction explores the theoretical and practical problems raised by objectivity, and also deals with the way in which particular understandings of objectivity impinge on social research, science, and art.
Emigration and immigration

Internationale Migration

Author: Khalid Koser

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783150186930

Category: Emigration and immigration

Page: 204

View: 5523

"Es gibt aktuell auf der Welt mehr Migranten denn jemals zuvor; Kriege und Bürgerkriege sind genauso Gründe dafür wie Armut, wirtschaftliche Ansprüche oder gar Unternehmensgeist. Neu ist das Phänomen gleichwohl nicht, es hat die Geschichte von Kulturen und Staaten immer schon mitgeprägt. Khalid Koser, ein international gefragter Migrationsexperte des Genfer Zentrums für Sicherheitspolitik, stellt das Phänomen mit all seinen Problemen und Auswirkungen knapp, abgewogen und differenziert dar, widerlegt zahlreiche dazu umlaufende Mythen und plädiert dafür, den Wert der Migration für Volkswirtschaften und Kulturen zu erkennen und zu würdigen."--Verl.
Mathematics

Numbers: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Peter M. Higgins

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191614963

Category: Mathematics

Page: 152

View: 6942

Numbers are integral to our everyday lives and feature in everything we do. In this Very Short Introduction Peter M. Higgins, the renowned mathematics writer, unravels the world of numbers; demonstrating its richness, and providing a comprehensive view of the idea of the number. Higgins paints a picture of the number world, considering how the modern number system matured over centuries. Explaining the various number types and showing how they behave, he introduces key concepts such as integers, fractions, real numbers, and imaginary numbers. By approaching the topic in a non-technical way and emphasising the basic principles and interactions of numbers with mathematics and science, Higgins also demonstrates the practical interactions and modern applications, such as encryption of confidential data on the internet. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Science

Quantum Theory: A Very Short Introduction

Author: John Polkinghorne

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191577677

Category: Science

Page: 128

View: 8714

Quantum Theory is the most revolutionary discovery in physics since Newton. This book gives a lucid, exciting, and accessible account of the surprising and counterintuitive ideas that shape our understanding of the sub-atomic world. It does not disguise the problems of interpretation that still remain unsettled 75 years after the initial discoveries. The main text makes no use of equations, but there is a Mathematical Appendix for those desiring stronger fare. Uncertainty, probabilistic physics, complementarity, the problematic character of measurement, and decoherence are among the many topics discussed. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.