Science

Symmetry and Fundamental Physics: Tom Kibble at 80

Author: Jerome Gauntlett

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814583073

Category: Science

Page: 172

View: 2709

Tom Kibble is an inspirational theoretical physicist who has made profound contributions to our understanding of the physical world. To celebrate his 80th birthday a one-day symposium was held on March 13, 2013 at the Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London. This important volume is a compilation of papers based on the presentations that were given at the symposium. The symposium profiled various aspects of Tom's long scientific career. The tenor of the meeting was set in the first talk given by Neil Turok, director of the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, who described Tom as “our guru and example”. He gave a modern overview of cosmological theories, including a discussion of Tom's pioneering work on how topological defects might have formed in the early universe during symmetry-breaking phase transitions. Wojciech Zurek of Los Alamos National Laboratory continued with this theme, surveying analogous processes within the context of condensed matter systems and explaining the Kibble–Zurek scaling phenomenon. The day's events were concluded by Jim Virdee of Imperial College, who summarized the epic and successful quest of finding the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. At the end of the talk, there was a standing ovation for Tom that lasted several minutes. In the evening, Steven Weinberg gave a keynote presentation to a capacity audience of 700 people. He talked eruditely on symmetry breaking and its role in elementary particle physics. At the banquet dinner, Frank Close of Oxford University concluded the banquet speeches by summarizing the significance of Tom's contributions to the creation of the Standard Model. Contents:Tom Kibble and the Early Universe as the Ultimate High Energy Experiment (Neil Turok)Universality of Phase Transition Dynamics: Topological Defects from Symmetry Breaking (Adolfo del Campo and Wojciech H Zurek)The Quest for the Higgs Boson at the LHC (Tejinder S Virdee)Tom Kibble: Breaking Ground and Breaking Symmetries (Steven Weinberg)Tom Kibble at 80: After Dinner Speech (Frank Close)Publication List — Tom W B Kibble Readership: Graduate students and researchers in particle physics, cosmology, high energy physics and astrophysics. Keywords:Tom Kibble;Higgs Boson;LHC;Symmetry-Breaking;Elementary Particle Physics;Cosmology;High Energy PhysicsReviews: “The overall structure of the volume is well-conceived as to capture and convey to a wide variety of audiences the fundamental long-range contributions given by Kibble. This book represents a precious cross-disciplinary reference for both specialists in different fields as well as for graduate students willing to get acquainted with the challenging ideas of contemporary theoretical physics.” Il Nuovo Saggiatore
Nuclear energy

CERN Courier

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Nuclear energy

Page: N.A

View: 305

Science

Physics and Our World

Reissue of the Proceedings of a Symposium in Honor of Victor F Weisskopf

Author: Kerson Huang

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814434981

Category: Science

Page: 188

View: 8730

As the proceedings of a symposium in honor of Victor Weisskopf at MIT, this volume contains papers by leaders of physics at the time, including M Delbrück, M Gell-Mann, H Bethe, T D Lee, B R Mottelson, W K H Panofsky, E Purcell, J Schwinger, S M Ulam, and others. Some papers address problems in the philosophy of physics, and physics and society, that are timeless in nature. But the symposium had a historical significance, in that it took place at a historic juncture of particle physics — the emergence of the Standard Model owing to experiments that point to the existence of quarks. Some of the papers reflect both the pre-quark and post-quark points of view. For these reasons, these proceedings merit reissue and reexamination. Contents:Introductory Remarks (James Killian)The Energy Problem (Hans Bethe)Model-Free Views of Deep Inelastic Scattering (Julian Schwinger)Life at Low Reynolds Number (E M Purcell)A Possible New Form of Matter at High Density (T D Lee)The World as Quarks, Leptons and Bosons (Murray Gell-Mann)What Angular Momentum Can Do to the Nucleus (Ben R Mottelson)Physics for Mathematicians (S M Ulam)How Aristotle Discovered DNA (Max Delbrück)Is Negotiated Arms Control Possible? (W K H Panofsky)The Third Culture (David Hawkins) Readership: Academics, graduate students and people interested in particle and nuclear physics. Keywords:History of Physics;Nobel Laureate;Victor Weisskopf;Hans Bethe;Julian Schwinger;Edward Purcell;T D Lee;Murray Gell-Mann;Ben Mottelson;Max Delbrück
Science

Quark-gluon Plasma and Heavy Ion Collisions

A Meeting Held in the Framework of the Activities of the Italian Working Group on Strong Interactions, Laboratori Nazionali Di Frascati Del'INFN, Frascati, Italy, 14-18 January 2002

Author: Marzia Nardi,Maria-Paola Lombardo

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789812381743

Category: Science

Page: 314

View: 8942

This book offers the unique possibility of tackling the problem of hadronic deconfinement from different perspectives. After general introductions to the physical issues, from both the theoretical and the experimental point of view, the book presents the most recent expertise on field theory approaches to the QCD phase diagram, many-body techniques and applications, the dynamics of phase transitions, and phenomenological analysis of relativistic heavy ion collisions. One of the major goals of this book is to promote interchange among those fields of research, which have traditionally been cultivated by different communities of physicists. The contributions in the book help in obtaining deep comprehension of this new state of matter, a system of deconfined quarks and gluons. At the same time the book offers a few examples of how the seeds of the deconfined state are looked for in the phenomenological analysis of the observables measured in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The main topics are dealt with in a pedagogical style, suitable for beginners as well as experienced researchers.
Science

Classical Mechanics

Author: Tom W B Kibble,Frank H Berkshire

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 1911298283

Category: Science

Page: 500

View: 2671

This is the fifth edition of a well-established textbook. It is intended to provide a thorough coverage of the fundamental principles and techniques of classical mechanics, an old subject that is at the base of all of physics, but in which there has also in recent years been rapid development. The book is aimed at undergraduate students of physics and applied mathematics. It emphasizes the basic principles, and aims to progress rapidly to the point of being able to handle physically and mathematically interesting problems, without getting bogged down in excessive formalism. Lagrangian methods are introduced at a relatively early stage, to get students to appreciate their use in simple contexts. Later chapters use Lagrangian and Hamiltonian methods extensively, but in a way that aims to be accessible to undergraduates, while including modern developments at the appropriate level of detail. The subject has been developed considerably recently while retaining a truly central role for all students of physics and applied mathematics. This edition retains all the main features of the fourth edition, including the two chapters on geometry of dynamical systems and on order and chaos, and the new appendices on conics and on dynamical systems near a critical point. The material has been somewhat expanded, in particular to contrast continuous and discrete behaviours. A further appendix has been added on routes to chaos (period-doubling) and related discrete maps. The new edition has also been revised to give more emphasis to specific examples worked out in detail. Classical Mechanics is written for undergraduate students of physics or applied mathematics. It assumes some basic prior knowledge of the fundamental concepts and reasonable familiarity with elementary differential and integral calculus. Contents: Linear MotionEnergy and Angular MomentumCentral Conservative ForcesRotating FramesPotential TheoryThe Two-Body ProblemMany-Body SystemsRigid BodiesLagrangian MechanicsSmall Oscillations and Normal ModesHamiltonian MechanicsDynamical Systems and Their GeometryOrder and Chaos in Hamiltonian SystemsAppendices:VectorsConicsPhase Plane Analysis Near Critical PointsDiscrete Dynamical Systems — Maps Readership: Undergraduates in physics and applied mathematics.
Science

The God Particle

If the Universe is the Answer, what is the Question?

Author: Leon M. Lederman,Dick Teresi

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

ISBN: 9780618711680

Category: Science

Page: 434

View: 7682

The world's foremost experimental physicist uses humor, metaphor, and storytelling to delve into the mysteries of matter, discussing the as-yet-to-be-discovered God particle.
Science

Symmetries in Physics

Philosophical Reflections

Author: Katherine Brading,Elena Castellani

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139442022

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 9298

Symmetry considerations dominate modern fundamental physics, both in quantum theory and in relativity. This book presents a collection of philosophy-on-physics papers, highlighting the main issues and controversies, and providing an entry into the subject for both physicists and philosophers. It covers topical issues such as the significance of gauge symmetry, particle identity in quantum theory, how to make sense of parity violation, the role of symmetry-breaking, the empirical status of symmetry principles, and so forth, along with more traditional problems in the philosophy of science. These include the status of the laws of nature, the relationships between mathematics, physical theory, and the world, and the extent to which mathematics dictates physics. A valuable reference for students and researchers, it will also be of interest to those studying the foundations of physics, philosophy of physics and philosophy of science.
Science

Physics Meets Philosophy at the Planck Scale

Contemporary Theories in Quantum Gravity

Author: Craig Callender,Nick Huggett

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521664455

Category: Science

Page: 365

View: 369

Was the first book to examine the exciting area of overlap between philosophy and quantum mechanics with chapters by leading experts from around the world.
Science

Noncommutative Cosmology

Author: Marcolli Matilde

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9813202866

Category: Science

Page: 292

View: 8688

Modified gravity models play an important role in contemporary theoretical cosmology. The present book proposes a novel approach to the topic based on techniques from noncommutative geometry, especially the spectral action functional as a gravity model. The book discusses applications to early universe models and slow-roll inflation models, to the problem of cosmic topology, to non-isotropic cosmologies like mixmaster universes and Bianchi IX gravitational instantons, and to multifractal structures in cosmology. Relations between noncommutative and algebro-geometric methods in cosmology is also discussed, including the occurrence of motives, periods, and modular forms in spectral models of gravity. Contents: PrefaceAcknowledgmentsGravity and Matter in Noncommutative GeometryRenormalization Group Flows and Early Universe ModelsCosmic TopologyAlgebro-geometric Models in CosmologyMixmaster CosmologiesThe Spectral Action on Bianchi IX CosmologiesFractal and Multifractal Structures in CosmologyNoncommutative Quantum CosmologyBibliography Readership: Graduate students and researchers in mathematical physics and theoretical cosmology. Keywords: Cosmology;Gravity;Particle Physics;GeometryReview: Key Features: While there are recent books that focus on applications of noncommutative geometry to particle physics models, there is presently no other book that focuses on applications to cosmology
Science

Understanding the Universe

From Quarks to the Cosmos

Author: Don Lincoln

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814458058

Category: Science

Page: 596

View: 6280

The Big Bang, the birth of the universe, was a singular event. All of the matter of the universe was concentrated at a single point, with temperatures so high that even the familiar protons and neutrons of atoms did not yet exist, but rather were replaced by a swirling maelstrom of energy, matter and antimatter. Exotic quarks and leptons flickered briefly into existence, before merging back into the energy sea. This book explains the fascinating world of quarks and leptons and the forces that govern their behavior. Told from an experimental physicist's perspective, it forgoes mathematical complexity, using instead particularly accessible figures and apt analogies. In addition to the story of quarks and leptons, which are regarded as well-accepted fact, the author (who is a leading researcher at one of the world's highest energy particle physics laboratories) also discusses mysteries at both the experimental and theoretical frontiers, before tying it all together with the exciting field of cosmology and indeed the birth of the universe itself. The text spans the tiny world of the quark to the depths of the universe with breathtaking clarity. The casual student of science will appreciate the careful distinction between what is known (quarks, leptons and antimatter), what is suspected (Higgs bosons, neutrino oscillations and the reason why the universe has so little antimatter) and what is merely dreamed (supersymmetry, superstrings and extra dimensions). Included is an unprecedented chapter explaining the accelerators and detectors of modern particle physics experiments. The chapter discussing the hunt for the Higgs boson — currently consuming the efforts of nearly 6000 physicists — reveals drama that only big-stakes science can give. Understanding the Universe leaves the reader with a deep appreciation of the fascinating particle realm and reverence for just how much it determines the rich beauty of our universe. Since the release of the first edition, the landscape has changed. The venerable Fermilab Tevatron has ceased operations after a quarter century of extraordinary performance, to be replaced by the CERN Large Hadron Collider, an accelerator with a design energy of seven times greater than the Tevatron and a collision rate of nearly a billion collisions per second. The next few years promise to be very exciting as scientists explore this new realm. This revised edition of Understanding the Universe will leave the reader with a deep appreciation of just why physicists are so excited. Contents:Early HistoryThe Path to Knowledge (History of Particle Physics)Quarks and LeptonsForces: What Holds It All TogetherHunting for the HiggsAccelerators and Detectors: Tools of the TradeNear Term MysteriesExotic Physics (The Next Frontier)Recreating the Universe 10,000,000 Times a SecondEpilogue: Why Do We Do It? Readership: Students, scientists and lay people. Keywords:Quarks;Leptons;Accelerators;UniverseReviews: “Lincoln has an infectious love for physics … (and) demonstrates a humorous writing style that successfully engages the reader.” Publishers Weekly “The author is well equipped to write a book on the topic … It is not light reading, but worth the effort … Lincoln is careful to distinguish between what is known versus what is merely dreamed.” Mensa Bulletin “A veteran of many popular talks on physics, (Lincoln) charmingly relates the tale of humankind's almost insatiable curiosity about the ultimate nature of nature and the quest to determine the basic particles of matter. His style is engaging and obviously directed to informed lay readers, but the more scientifically minded will find it equally appealing … If digested with the notion that this topic is presented in a broad swath, both historically and scientifically, and not meant to be definitive, the work offers readers an appreciation of the investigative procedure, the accumulated body of research, and the people who did the investigating.” Library Journal “Don Lincoln, an experimentalist on DZero at Fermilab, motivates his tale of the development of particle physics, from its origins to its current state, almost entirely by experiments, a refreshing alternative to the usual theoretical treatments. Rather than posing thought experiments, Lincoln describes real experiments that have led to deeper questions and the consequent progress of particle physics … With his light and easy-to-read style, Lincoln's humor and personal tales do much to convey the flavor of modern particle physics research — a picture that is not often painted so realistically in other popular physics books. The content is more complicated than in most similar books, but this is a virtue for its intended audience, as it allows for greater depth.” Symmetry “Knowledgeably written … ‘Understanding the Universe’ provides the nonspecialist general reader with a fascinating and informative introduction to the complex world of quarks, leptons, and the forces that govern particle physics. Written especially to introduce lay readers to subatomic mysteries, (the book) discusses the Big Bang, known and proven theories, suspected hypotheses that have yet to be firmly established, cutting-edge discussions of modern particle physics experiments, and much more. Black-and-white diagrams help illustrate the amazing ideas presented with a minimum of mathematics and a maximum of awe.” Midwest Book Review “Don Lincoln takes us on a rollicking tour of the universe: The reader finds out what we particle physicists understand about it, how we arrived at that understanding and where we think we're going next with our research … Lincoln enlivens the landscape with fresh details, irreverent (yet never unkind) remarks on the cast of characters, and explanations that are homey, humorous and often completely original … In his epilogue Lincoln addresses explicitly the question of why particle physicists ask why … the real reason we do research is simply this: It's tremendously fun to figure the universe out.” American Scientist “… Lincoln offers lay readers a complete tour of particle physics …(he) writes very well, using a mixture of humor, history and analogies as well basic scientific explanations … (and) does a particularly good job of covering the full gamut of particle physics.” Choice “This book is addressed to the curious layman, with only a murky recollection of school physics, who wants to know how far mankind has gone in understanding the world around us … It is an excellent reference for any scientist who is occasionally unsure how best to explain a particular physics concept to a non-specialist audience … his understanding and explanations of complex phenomena are excellent and the book strikes a balance between depth and accessibility.” CERN Courier “The author faces complex topics in a very simple and clever way without using mathematics but by simple (and suitable) analogies. The reading is intriguing and very flowing and, sometimes, very entertaining. The book is peppered with amusing anecdotes that make reading smoother and funny. This book is a masterpiece of scientific disclosure. I recommend its reading for those people who want to delve into the wonders of modern Physics.” Zentralblatt MATH
Science

The Infinity Puzzle

The Personalities, Politics, and Extraordinary Science Behind the Higgs Boson

Author: Frank Close

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199673306

Category: Science

Page: 413

View: 5914

Forty years ago, three physicists - Peter Higgs, Gerard 't Hooft, and James Bjorken - made the spectacular breakthroughs that led to the world's largest experiment, CERN's Large Hadron Collider. Against a backdrop of high politics and billion dollar budgets, this is the story of their work, the quest for the Higgs boson, and its eventual discovery.
Science

Selected Papers of Abdus Salam

(With Commentary)

Author: A Ali,C Isham,T Kibble,Riazuddin

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814502367

Category: Science

Page: 696

View: 6126

This is a selection from over 250 papers published by Abdus Salam. Professor Salam has been Professor of Theoretical Physics at Imperial College, London and Director of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, for which he was largely responsible for creating. He is one of the most distinguished theoretical physicists of his generation and won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1979 for his work on the unification of electromagnetic and weak interactions. He is well known for his deep interest in the development of scientific research in the third world (to which ICTP is devoted) and has taken a leading part in setting up the Third World Academy. His research work has ranged widely over quantum field theory and all aspects of the theory of elementary particles and more recently into other fields, including high-temperature superconductivity and theoretical biology. The papers selected represent a cross section of his work covering the entire period of 50 years from his student days to the present. Contents:Quantum Field Theory and Dispersion RelationsSymmetries and Electroweak UnificationLepton-Hadron UnificationGravity, Supersymmetry and StringsCondensed Matter and Biology Readership: Physicists. keywords:Abdus Salam;Quantum Field Theory;Renormalization;Gauge Theory;Electroweak Theory;Gauge Unification;Particle Symmetries;Supergravity;String Theory;Baryon Conservation;Compactification “Abdus Salam's scientific work spans much of the history of particle physics, from early days of quantum field theory to the present. He contributed to what are now basic ideas about functional determinants, symmetries in physics, the construction of the standard model, superspace constructions of supersymmetric theories, and more. This collection contains many papers that are still fresh after the passing of time.” Edward Witten
Science

Physics and Chemistry of Circumstellar Dust Shells

Author: Hans-Peter Gail,Erwin Sedlmayr

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521833795

Category: Science

Page: 684

View: 7597

This book explores why dust forms around stars, and how to model stellar dust formation and dust-forming environments consistently.
Science

Explicit Symmetry Breaking in Electrodynamic Systems and Electromagnetic Radiation

Author: Dhiraj Sinha,Gehan A J Amaratunga

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1681743582

Category: Science

Page: 93

View: 3412

This book is an introduction to the concept of symmetries in electromagnetism and explicit symmetry breaking. It begins with a brief background on the origin of the concept of symmetry and its meaning in fields such as architecture, mathematics and physics. Despite the extensive developments of symmetry in these fields, it has yet to be applied to the context of classical electromagnetism and related engineering applications. This book unravels the beauty and excitement of this area to scientists and engineers.
Science

Science Education Research in the Knowledge-Based Society

Author: Dimitris Psillos,Petros Kariotoglou,Vasilis Tselfes,E. Hatzikraniotis,George Fassoulopoulos,Maria Kallery

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401701652

Category: Science

Page: 481

View: 3520

This book offers a global presentation of issues under study for improving science education research in the context of the knowledge-based society at a European and international level. It includes discussions of several theoretical approaches, research overviews, research methodologies, and the teaching and learning of science. It is based on papers presented at the Third International Conference of the European Science Education Research Association (Thessaloniki, Greece, August 2001).
Science

The Theory of Almost Everything

The Standard Model, the Unsung Triumph of Modern Physics

Author: Robert Oerter

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781101126745

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 6346

There are two scientific theories that, taken together, explain the entire universe. The first, which describes the force of gravity, is widely known: Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. But the theory that explains everything else—the Standard Model of Elementary Particles—is virtually unknown among the general public. In The Theory of Almost Everything, Robert Oerter shows how what were once thought to be separate forces of nature were combined into a single theory by some of the most brilliant minds of the twentieth century. Rich with accessible analogies and lucid prose, The Theory of Almost Everything celebrates a heretofore unsung achievement in human knowledge—and reveals the sublime structure that underlies the world as we know it.
Science

A Student's Guide to Atomic Physics

Author: Mark Fox

Publisher: Student's Guides

ISBN: 1107188733

Category: Science

Page: 292

View: 5226

A concise overview of the fundamental concepts and applications of atomic physics for students including examples, problems, and diagrams of key concepts.
Science

Endless Universe

Beyond the Big Bang

Author: Paul J. Steinhardt,Neil Turok

Publisher: Broadway Books

ISBN: 9780385523110

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 1921

Two world-renowned scientists present an audacious new vision of the cosmos that “steals the thunder from the Big Bang theory.” —Wall Street Journal The Big Bang theory—widely regarded as the leading explanation for the origin of the universe—posits that space and time sprang into being about 14 billion years ago in a hot, expanding fireball of nearly infinite density. Over the last three decades the theory has been repeatedly revised to address such issues as how galaxies and stars first formed and why the expansion of the universe is speeding up today. Furthermore, an explanation has yet to be found for what caused the Big Bang in the first place. In Endless Universe, Paul J. Steinhardt and Neil Turok, both distinguished theoretical physicists, present a bold new cosmology. Steinhardt and Turok “contend that what we think of as the moment of creation was simply part of an infinite cycle of titanic collisions between our universe and a parallel world” (Discover). They recount the remarkable developments in astronomy, particle physics, and superstring theory that form the basis for their groundbreaking “Cyclic Universe” theory. According to this theory, the Big Bang was not the beginning of time but the bridge to a past filled with endlessly repeating cycles of evolution, each accompanied by the creation of new matter and the formation of new galaxies, stars, and planets. Endless Universe provides answers to longstanding problems with the Big Bang model, while offering a provocative new view of both the past and the future of the cosmos. It is a “theory that could solve the cosmic mystery” (USA Today).
Science

Quantum Social Science

Author: Emmanuel Haven,Andrei Khrennikov

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139851497

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 4733

Written by world experts in the foundations of quantum mechanics and its applications to social science, this book shows how elementary quantum mechanical principles can be applied to decision-making paradoxes in psychology and used in modelling information in finance and economics. The book starts with a thorough overview of some of the salient differences between classical, statistical and quantum mechanics. It presents arguments on why quantum mechanics can be applied outside of physics and defines quantum social science. The issue of the existence of quantum probabilistic effects in psychology, economics and finance is addressed and basic questions and answers are provided. Aimed at researchers in economics and psychology, as well as physics, basic mathematical preliminaries and elementary concepts from quantum mechanics are defined in a self-contained way.
Science

The Particle at the End of the Universe

How the Hunt for the Higgs Boson Leads Us to the Edge of a New World

Author: Sean M. Carroll

Publisher: Dutton Adult

ISBN: 0142180300

Category: Science

Page: 353

View: 7212

Examines the effort to discover the Higgs boson particle by tracing the development and use of the Large Hadron Collider and how its findings are dramatically shaping scientific understandings while enabling world-changing innovations.