Business & Economics

The Architecture of Illegal Markets

Towards an Economic Sociology of Illegality in the Economy

Author: Matías Dewey

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198794975

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 304

View: 9234

From illegal drugs, stolen artwork, and forged trademarks, to fraud in financial markets - the phenomenon of illegality in market exchanges is pervasive. Illegal markets have great economic significance, have relevant social and political consequences, and shape economic and political structures. Despite the importance of illegality in the economy, the field of economic sociology unquestioningly accepts the premise that the institutional structures and exchanges taking place in markets are law-abiding in nature. This volume makes a contribution to changing this. Questions that stand at the centre of the chapters are: What are the interfaces between legal and illegal markets? How do demand and supply in illegal markets interact? What role do criminal organizations play in illegal markets? What is the relationship between illegality and governments? Is illegality a phenomenon central to capitalism? Anchored in economic sociology, this book contributes to the analysis and understanding of market exchanges in conditions of illegality from a perspective that focuses on the social organization of markets. Offering both, theoretical reflections and case studies, the chapters assembled in the volume address the consequences of the illegal production, distribution, and consumption of products for the architecture of markets. It also focuses on the underlying causes and the political and social concerns stemming from the infringement of the law.
Business & Economics

The Architecture of Illegal Markets

Towards an Economic Sociology of Illegality in the Economy

Author: Jens Beckert,Matías Dewey

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192514148

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 304

View: 2055

From illegal drugs, stolen artwork, and forged trademarks, to fraud in financial markets - the phenomenon of illegality in market exchanges is pervasive. Illegal markets have great economic significance, have relevant social and political consequences, and shape economic and political structures. Despite the importance of illegality in the economy, the field of economic sociology unquestioningly accepts the premise that the institutional structures and exchanges taking place in markets are law-abiding in nature. This volume makes a contribution to changing this. Questions that stand at the centre of the chapters are: What are the interfaces between legal and illegal markets? How do demand and supply in illegal markets interact? What role do criminal organizations play in illegal markets? What is the relationship between illegality and governments? Is illegality a phenomenon central to capitalism? Anchored in economic sociology, this book contributes to the analysis and understanding of market exchanges in conditions of illegality from a perspective that focuses on the social organization of markets. Offering both, theoretical reflections and case studies, the chapters assembled in the volume address the consequences of the illegal production, distribution, and consumption of products for the architecture of markets. It also focuses on the underlying causes and the political and social concerns stemming from the infringement of the law.
Business & Economics

Uncertain Futures

Imaginaries, Narratives, and Calculation in the Economy

Author: Jens Beckert,Richard Bronk

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192552740

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 368

View: 1167

Uncertain Futures considers how economic actors visualize the future and decide how to act in conditions of radical uncertainty. It starts from the premise that dynamic capitalist economies are characterized by relentless innovation and novelty and hence exhibit an indeterminacy that cannot be reduced to measurable risk. The organizing question then becomes how economic actors form expectations and make decisions despite the uncertainty they face. This edited volume lays the foundations for a new model of economic reasoning by showing how, in conditions of uncertainty, economic actors combine calculation with imaginaries and narratives to form fictional expectations that coordinate action and provide the confidence to act. It draws on groundbreaking research in economic sociology, economics, anthropology, and psychology to present theoretically grounded empirical case studies. These demonstrate how grand narratives, central bank forward guidance, economic forecasts, finance models, business plans, visions of technological futures, and new era stories influence behaviour and become instruments of power in markets and societies. The market impact of shared calculative devices, social narratives, and contingent imaginaries underlines the rationale for a new form of narrative economics.
Business & Economics

Manufacturing Morals

The Values of Silence in Business School Education

Author: Michel Anteby

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022609250X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 272

View: 5714

Corporate accountability is never far from the front page, and as one of the world’s most elite business schools, Harvard Business School trains many of the future leaders of Fortune 500 companies. But how does HBS formally and informally ensure faculty and students embrace proper business standards? Relying on his first-hand experience as a Harvard Business School faculty member, Michel Anteby takes readers inside HBS in order to draw vivid parallels between the socialization of faculty and of students. In an era when many organizations are focused on principles of responsibility, Harvard Business School has long tried to promote better business standards. Anteby’s rich account reveals the surprising role of silence and ambiguity in HBS’s process of codifying morals and business values. As Anteby describes, at HBS specifics are often left unspoken; for example, teaching notes given to faculty provide much guidance on how to teach but are largely silent on what to teach. Manufacturing Morals demonstrates how faculty and students are exposed to a system that operates on open-ended directives that require significant decision-making on the part of those involved, with little overt guidance from the hierarchy. Anteby suggests that this model—which tolerates moral complexity—is perhaps one of the few that can adapt and endure over time. Manufacturing Morals is a perceptive must-read for anyone looking for insight into the moral decision-making of today’s business leaders and those influenced by and working for them.
Political Science

The Wretched of the Earth

Author: Frantz Fanon

Publisher: Grove/Atlantic, Inc.

ISBN: 9780802198853

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 1341

Frantz Fanon was one of the twentieth century’s most important theorists of revolution, colonialism, and racial difference, and this, his masterwork, is a classic alongside Orientalism and The Autobiography of Malcolm X. The Wretched of the Earth is a brilliant analysis of the psychology of the colonized and their path to liberation. Bearing singular insight into the rage of colonized peoples and the role of violence in historical change, the book also incisively attacks postindependence disenfranchisement of the masses by the elite on one hand, and intertribal and interfaith animosities on the other. A veritable handbook of social reorganization for leaders of emerging nations, The Wretched of the Earth has had a major impact on civil rights, anticolonialism, and black-consciousness movements around the world. This new translation updates its language for a new generation of readers and its lessons are more vital now than ever.
Social Science

Advertising

What Everyone Needs to Know?

Author: Mara Einstein

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190625902

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 5410

3000. That's the number of marketing messages the average American confronts on a daily basis from TV commercials, magazine and newspaper print ads, radio commercials, pop-up ads on gaming apps, pre-roll ads on YouTube videos, and native advertising on mobile news apps. These commercial messages are so pervasive that we cannot help but be affected by perpetual come-ons to keeping buying. Over the last decade, advertising has become more devious, more digital, and more deceptive, with an increasing number of ads designed to appear to the untrained eye to be editorial content. It's easy to see why. As we have become smarter at avoiding ads, advertisers have become smarter about disguising them. Mara Einstein exposes how our shopping, political, and even dating preferences are unwittingly formed by brand images and the mythologies embedded in them. Advertising: What Everyone Needs to Know? helps us combat the effects of manipulative advertising and enables the reader to understand how marketing industries work in the digital age, particularly in their uses and abuses of "Big Data.' Most importantly, it awakens us to advertising's subtle and not-so-subtle impact on our lives--both as individuals and as a global society. What ideas and information are being communicated to us--and to what end?
Social Science

Illegal Migration and Gender in a Global and Historical Perspective

Author: Marlou Schrover

Publisher: Amsterdam University Press

ISBN: 9089640479

Category: Social Science

Page: 191

View: 3329

This incisive study combines the two subjects and views the migration scholarship through the lens of the gender perspective.
Business & Economics

Ringtone

Exploring the Rise and Fall of Nokia in Mobile Phones

Author: Yves Doz,Keeley Wilson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192524755

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 208

View: 953

In less than three decades, Nokia emerged from Finland to lead the mobile phone revolution. It grew to have one of the most recognizable and valuable brands in the world and then fell into decline, leading to the sale of its mobile phone business to Microsoft. This book explores and analyzes that journey and distils observations and learning points for anyone keen to understand what drove Nokia's amazing success and sudden downfall. With privileged access to Nokia's senior managers over the last twenty years followed by a more concerted research agenda from 2015, the authors describe and analyze, the various stages in Nokia's journey. The book describes leaders making strategic and organizational decisions, their behavior and interactions, and how they succeeded and failed to inspire and engage their employees. Perhaps most intriguingly, it opens the proverbial 'black box' of why and how things actually happen at the top of organizations. Why did things fall apart? To what extent were avoidable mistakes made? Did the world around Nokia change too fast for it to adapt? And, did Nokia's success contain the seeds of its failure?
Political Science

The New Spirit of Capitalism

Author: Luc Boltanski,Eve Chiapello

Publisher: Verso Books

ISBN: 1786633272

Category: Political Science

Page: 688

View: 3658

New edition of this major work examining the development of neoliberalism In this established classic, sociologists Luc Boltanski and Eve Chiapello get to the heart of contemporary capitalism. Delving deep into the latest management texts informing the thinking of employers, the authors trace the contours of a new spirit of capitalism. They argue that beginning in the mid-1970s, capitalism abandoned the hierarchical Fordist work structure and developed a new network-based form of organization founded on employee initiative and autonomy in the workplace—a putative freedom bought at the cost of material and psychological security. This was a spirit in tune with the libertarian and romantic currents of the period (as epitomized by dressed-down, cool capitalists such as Bill Gates and Ben and Jerry) and, as the authors argue, a more successful, pernicious, and subtle form of exploitation. In this new edition, the authors reflect on the reception of the book and the debates it has stimulated.
Social Science

Beyond the Market

The Social Foundations of Economic Efficiency

Author: Jens Beckert

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400825448

Category: Social Science

Page: 376

View: 7741

Beyond the Market launches a sociological investigation into economic efficiency. Prevailing economic theory, which explains efficiency using formalized rational choice models, often simplifies human behavior to the point of distortion. Jens Beckert finds such theory to be particularly weak in explaining such crucial forms of economic behavior as cooperation, innovation, and action under conditions of uncertainty--phenomena he identifies as the proper starting point for a sociology of economic action. Beckert levels an enlightened critique at neoclassical economics, arguing that understanding efficiency requires looking well beyond the market to the social, cultural, political, and cognitive factors that influence the coordination of economic action. Beckert searches social theory for the components of an alternative theory of action, one that accounts for the social embedding of economic behavior. In Durkheim and Parsons he finds especially useful approaches to cooperation; in Luhmann, a way to understand how people act under highly contingent conditions; and in Giddens, an understanding of creative action and innovation. Together, these provide building blocks for a research program that will yield a theoretically sophisticated understanding of how economic processes are coordinated and the ways that markets are embedded in social, cultural, and cognitive structures. Containing one of the most fully informed critiques of the neoclassical analysis of economic efficiency--as well as one of the most thoughtful blueprints for economic sociology--this book reclaims for sociology the study of one of the most important arenas of human action.
Social Science

Radical Left Movements in Europe

Author: Magnus Wennerhag,Christian Fröhlich,Grzegorz Piotrowski

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317071883

Category: Social Science

Page: 284

View: 4248

When the Iron Curtain lifted in 1989, it was seen by some as proof of the final demise of the ideas and aspirations of the radical left. Not many years passed, however, before the critique of social inequalities and capitalism was once again a main protest theme of social movements. This book provides an account of radical left movements in today’s Europe and how they are trying to accomplish social and political change. The book’s international group of leading experts provide detailed analysis on social movement organizations, activist groups, and networks that are rooted in the left-wing ideologies of anarchism, Marxism, socialism, and communism in both newly democratized post-communist and longstanding liberal-democratic polities. Through a range of case studies, the authors explore how radical left movements are influenced by their situated political and social contexts, and how contemporary radical left activism differs from both new and old social movements on one hand, and the activities of radical left parliamentary parties on the other. Ultimately, this volume investigates what it means to be ‘radical left’ in current day liberal-democratic and capitalist societies after the fall of European state socialism. This is valuable reading for students and researchers interested in European politics, contemporary social movements and political sociology.
Social Science

Discipline & Punish

The Birth of the Prison

Author: Michel Foucault

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0307819299

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 7774

In this brilliant work, the most influential philosopher since Sartre suggests that such vaunted reforms as the abolition of torture and the emergence of the modern penitentiary have merely shifted the focus of punishment from the prisoner's body to his soul.
Business & Economics

The Worth of Goods

Valuation and Pricing in the Economy

Author: Jens Beckert,Patrik Aspers

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199594643

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 346

View: 5902

Drawing on theory and empirical research, this interdisciplinary book brings together leading social scientists to examine how prices are set and how values emerge inside and outside of markets, which have become the central force in the contemporary economy.
Social Science

Imagined Futures

Author: Jens Beckert

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674545893

Category: Social Science

Page: 383

View: 8258

Consumers, investors, and corporations orient their activities toward a future that contains opportunities and risks. How do these actors assess uncertainty? Jens Beckert adds a new chapter to the theory of capitalism by showing how fictional expectations drive modern economies—or throw them into crisis when imagined futures fail to materialize.
Law

The Law of Good People

Challenging States' Ability to Regulate Human Behavior

Author: Yuval Feldman

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 1107137101

Category: Law

Page: 254

View: 9797

Overcoming people's inability to recognize their own wrongdoing is the most important but regrettably neglected area of the behavioral approach to law.
Business & Economics

Draining development?

Controlling flows of illicit funds from developing countries

Author: Peter Reuter

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821389327

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 548

View: 4027

A growing concern among those interested in economic development is the realization that hundreds of billions of dollars are illicitly flowing out of developing countries to tax havens and other financial centers in the developed world. This volume assesses the dynamics of these flows, much of which is from corruption and tax evasion.
Social Science

Moral Gray Zones

Side Productions, Identity, and Regulation in an Aeronautic Plant

Author: Michel Anteby

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400828883

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 5241

Anyone who has been employed by an organization knows not every official workplace regulation must be followed. When management consistently overlooks such breaches, spaces emerge in which both workers and supervisors engage in officially prohibited, yet tolerated practices--gray zones. When discovered, these transgressions often provoke disapproval; when company materials are diverted in the process, these breaches are quickly labeled theft. Yet, why do gray zones persist and why are they unlikely to disappear? In Moral Gray Zones, Michel Anteby shows how these spaces function as regulating mechanisms within workplaces, fashioning workers' identity and self-esteem while allowing management to maintain control. The book provides a unique window into gray zones through its in-depth look at the manufacture and exchange of illegal goods called homers, tolerated in a French aeronautic plant. Homers such as toys for kids, cutlery for the kitchen, or lamps for homes, are made on company time with company materials for a worker's own purpose and use. Anteby relies on observations at retirees' homes, archival data, interviews, and surveys to understand how plant workers and managers make sense of this tacit practice. He argues that when patrolled, gray zones like the production of homers offer workplaces balanced opportunities for supervision as well as expression. Cautioning against the hasty judgment that gray zone practices are simply wrong, Moral Gray Zones contributes to a deeper understanding of the culture, group dynamics, and deviance found in organizations.
Business & Economics

Social Movements, Stakeholders and Non-Market Strategy

Author: Forrest Briscoe,Brayden King,Jocelyn Leitzinger

Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing

ISBN: 1787543501

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 310

View: 1801

This edited collection brings together research that bridges the domains of stakeholder theory, non-market strategy and social movement theory.
Business & Economics

The End Of Shareholder Value

Corporations At The Crossroads

Author: Allan A. Kennedy,A Kennedy

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465011691

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 256

View: 8602

"Allan Kennedy provocatively proposes that running corporations to benefit shareholders damages companies and the societies they operate in. [He] has raised questions about managing for shareholder value that someone will have to answer."-Mark Henricks, American Way"Allan Kennedy has always seen the corporation in its full cultural context. Now he demonstrates that corporate managers have mistaken the shareholder value formula for the building of true wealth. His fascinating stories of companies make both great reading and a compelling case for the broadening of corporate objectives."-Stan Davis, co-author of Future Wealth and BlurIn The End of Shareholder Value, Allan Kennedy calls for a revolution in business-for customers, employees, political and social leaders, and governing boards to challenge the cozy relationship between executives and investors that has crippled companies in the name of maximizing shareholder value. From GE to the hottest new Web-based start-up, those companies that subscribe to the shareholder value ethic cannot be sustained and will, inevitably, be replaced by those who figure out how to create and share wealth among all stakeholders. Provocative and wide-ranging, The End of Shareholder Value challenges everyone to rethink the purpose of business in the new millennium.