Discovering the rates at which landscapes change and the causes of these changes is a key current focus in geoscientific, environmental, ecological and archaeological research. The mechanisms are intricate involving many components - a complex of positive and negative feedback mechanisms, and scales varying from the solar system and global tectonics to the activities of microscopic organisms. In this book Andrew Goudie draws together the findings of many disparate disciplines (and of his own research) to present a coherent and structured account of what is known and what remains to be discovered about change and the variable rate of change in the shape and environment of the earth's surface. This is not a research monograph but a research synthesis presented in terms comprehensible to workers in a wide range of disciplines.
Science by Committee on Challenges and Opportunities in Earth Surface Processes,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council
Author: Committee on Challenges and Opportunities in Earth Surface Processes,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
During geologic spans of time, Earth's shifting tectonic plates, atmosphere, freezing water, thawing ice, flowing rivers, and evolving life have shaped Earth's surface features. The resulting hills, mountains, valleys, and plains shelter ecosystems that interact with all life and provide a record of Earth surface processes that extend back through Earth's history. Despite rapidly growing scientific knowledge of Earth surface interactions, and the increasing availability of new monitoring technologies, there is still little understanding of how these processes generate and degrade landscapes. Landscapes on the Edge identifies nine grand challenges in this emerging field of study and proposes four high-priority research initiatives. The book poses questions about how our planet's past can tell us about its future, how landscapes record climate and tectonics, and how Earth surface science can contribute to developing a sustainable living surface for future generations.
Over the past twenty years, geography as an academic discipline has become more and more reflective, asking the key questions 'What are we doing?' 'Why are we doing it?'. These questions have, so far, been more enthusiastically taken up by human geography rather than physical geography. Contemporary Meanings in Physical Geography aims to redress the balance. Written and edited by a distinguished group of physical geographers, Contemporary Meanings in Physical Geography comprises of a collection of international writer's thoughts which reveal personal motivations, and look at tensions in the worlds of meaning in which physical geography is involved. How are the meanings of the physical environment derived? Is the future of physical geography one where the only, or at least the dominant, meanings are framed in the contexts of environmental issues. Covering a diverse and lively selection of topics, the contributors of this book offer guides to the contemporary debates in the philosophy of physical geography, and introduce the reader to its wider cultural significance. This book is an essential companion to anyone studying, or with an interest in, physical geography.
A Study of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland
Author: Renata Dulias
This book investigates the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB), one of the oldest and largest mining areas not only in Poland but also in Europe. Using uniform research methods for the whole study area, it also provides a summary of the landscape transformations. Intensive extraction of hard coal, zinc and lead ores, stowing sands and rock resources have caused such extensive transformations of landscape that it can be considered a model anthropogenic relief. The book has three main focuses: 1) Identifying anthropogenic forms of relief related to mining activity and presenting them from a spatial, genetic and age perspective; 2) Determining the changes in the morphometric characteristics of relief and the conditions for matter circulation in open systems (drainage basins) and closed systems (land-locked basins) caused by the extraction of mineral resources; and 3) Estimating the extent of anthropogenic denudation using two different methods based on raw-material output and morphometric analysis. In Poland, no other mining area has undergone such intensive mining activity as the Upper Silesian Coal Basin during the last half century. Its share in the total extraction of mineral resources was as high as 32%. The total extraction of hard coal in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin from the mid-18th century until 2009 was the sixth largest in the world, and the permanent, regional effects of mining anthropopressure on the relief are among the most severe in the world. The anthropogenic denudation rate in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, as well as the Ruhr Coal Basin (Ruhr District) and the Ostrava-Karvina Coal Basin, ranges from several dozen up to several hundred times higher than the rate of natural denudation, irrespective of the calculation method used. It would take the natural denudation processes tens of thousands of years to remove the same amount of material from the substratum as that removed through human mining activity.
The expert contributors to this cutting edge volume provide an overview of geomorphological process activity and landscape change in Britain over the past 1000 years. The range of the book is unusually broad, encompassing hillslope, valley floor and floodplain, fluvial, estuarine and coastal processes. Provides an overview of geomorphological process activity and landscape change in Britain over the past 1000 years. The range of the book is unusually broad, encompassing hillslope, valley floor and floodplain, fluvial, estuarine and coastal processes. Considers the relevance of technological and conceptual approaches to understanding landscape dynamics. Examines key process environments highlighting significant trends and the influence of human activity, and incorporating examples and modelling. Encourages geographers to look forward to the challenges that geomorphology faces in the new millennium. Find out more information about the RGS-IBG journals by following the links below: AREA: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0004-0894 The Geographical Journal: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0016-7398 Transactions of the Insititute of British Geographers: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0020-2754
Fluvial geomorphology by L. Allan James,W. Andrew Marcus
This fourth volume of five from the June 1997 conference was much delayed (the first four volumes were published in 1997). It comprises 23 special lectures solicited for the conference on various aspects of problematic soils, natural and man-made hazards, urban and regional planning, waste disposal, mines and quarries, large engineering works, and protection of geological, geographical, historical, and architectural heritage. There is no subject index. Annotation copyrighted by Book News Inc., Portland, OR
Science by Committee on Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences in the Next Decade,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council
Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences
Author: Committee on Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences in the Next Decade,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
From the oceans to continental heartlands, human activities have altered the physical characteristics of Earth's surface. With Earth's population projected to peak at 8 to 12 billion people by 2050 and the additional stress of climate change, it is more important than ever to understand how and where these changes are happening. Innovation in the geographical sciences has the potential to advance knowledge of place-based environmental change, sustainability, and the impacts of a rapidly changing economy and society. Understanding the Changing Planet outlines eleven strategic directions to focus research and leverage new technologies to harness the potential that the geographical sciences offer.
Introduction to Process Geomorphology provides an integrative approach to the process dynamics and the origin of landforms by the contemporary processes involved in their evolution. The author highlights the physical and chemical laws governing the activity of the earth-surface processes in specific environmental stress conditions, puts forward competing hypotheses on the evolution of landforms, and discusses the bases of internal geologic processes for the explanation of the tectogenic features of the earth. Landforms evolve over a long period of cyclic and geologic time, inheriting the imprints of past process rates and/or process domains. The principles and methods of evaluating the signature of environmental change are highlighted in the text by citing suitable studies. The process-form relationships provide the building blocks also for the optimum utilization of the land resources of the earth, and quantitative assessment of the stability of geomorphic systems and the quality of environment. The approach in this part of the text enables readers to gain an in-depth understanding of the application of the principles of geomorphology to the evaluation, planning, and management of the earth’s resources for sustainable development. This book discusses process dynamics in quantitative terms and reviews theories on the evolution of landforms that flow from theoretical and empirical data. It offers examples and case studies that enable students to comprehend the related components of process-landform relationships. The review and synthesis of information found in each chapter provides a better understanding of the complexity of still inadequately understood process activities and the manner of landform evolution.
Geomorphology is the study of the Earth's diverse physical land-surface features and the dynamic processes that shape these features. Examining natural and anthropogenic processes, The SAGE Handbook of Geomorphology is a comprehensive exposition of the fundamentals of geomorphology that examines form, process, and applications of the discipline. Organized into five substantive sections, the Handbook is an overview of: * Foundations and Relevance: including the nature and scope of geomorphology; the origins and development of geomorphology; the role and character of theory in geomorphology; geomorphology and environmental management; and geomorphology and society * Techniques and Approaches: including observations and experiments; geomorphological mapping; the significance of models; process and form; dating surfaces and sediment; remote sensing in geomorphology; GIS in geomorphology; biogeomorphology; human activity * Process and Environment: including the evolution of regolith; weathering; fluids, flows and fluxes; sediment transport and deposition; hill slopes; riverine environments; glacial geomorphology; periglacial environments; coastal environments; aeolian environments; tropical environments; karst and karst processes * Environmental Change: including landscape evolution and tectonics; interpreting quaternary environments; environmental change; disturbance and responses to geomorphic systems * Conclusion: including challenges and perspectives; and a concluding review The Handbook has contributions from 48 international authors and was initially organized by the International Association of Geomorphologists. This will be a much-used and much-cited reference for researchers in Geomorphology, Physical Geography and the Environmental Sciences.
The papers in this volume revisit one of the concerns which dominated environmental archaeology through the 1960s and 1970s, namely the timing, nature and extent of human impact on the environment. The thirteen contributions reflect the diversity of approaches and ideas today and show how our understanding of the place of people in ecosystems is now more subtle. There are papers on palynological evidence from the Strymon Delta in Macedonia; prehistoric copper mining at Mount Gabriel, Ireland; fungal spores as anthropogenic indicators on Shetland; prehistoric human impact on the prehistoric environments of Orkney, North York Moors and the Mid-Devon landscape; mites as indicators of human impact in the Netherlands; the disappearance of Elmid Riffle Beetles' from lowland river systems in Britain; and case studies from further afield: palaeoenvironmental reconstruction in the Central Mexican Highlands; food plant availability in the Murchison Basin, Western Australia, prior to European arrival and Paleoindian expansion into South America.
Late Quaternary Environmental Change addresses the interaction between human agency and other environmental factors in the landscapes, particularly of the temperate zone. Taking an ecological approach, the authors cover the last 20,000 years during which the climate has shifted from arctic severity to the conditions of the present interglacial environment.
About one-third of the Earth’s land surface experiences a desert climate, and this area supports approximately 15% of the planet’s population. This percentage continues to grow, and with this growth comes the need to acquire and apply an understanding of desert geomorphology. Such an understanding is vital in managing scarce and fragile resources and in mitigating natural hazards. This authoritative reference book is comprehensive in its coverage of the geomorphology of desert environments, and is arranged thematically. It begins with an overview of global deserts, proceeds through treatments of weathering, hillslopes, rivers, piedmonts, lake basins, and aeolian surfaces, and concludes with a discussion of the role of climatic change. Written by a team of international authors, all of whom are active in the field, the chapters cover the spectrum of desert geomorphology.
Fireworks erupt over Rio de Janeiro's Copacabana Beach on December 31, delighting the hundreds of thousands of people who have come to celebrate both the Feast of lemanja and New Year's Eve. Reflecting Brazil's cultural diversity, this traditional spectacle combines native, African, and Christian beliefs and rituals. Clad in blue and white, the colors of lemanja, the goddess of all waters, celebrants cast offerings into the water just before midnight, asking lemanja for her protection and blessing. The oferendas includes flowers, food, candles, and perfume. At the stroke of midnight, fireworks explode overhead, and the throngs sing and dance to celebrate the new year. Book jacket.
Originally published in 1989, Karst Geomorphology and Hydrology became the leading textbook on karst studies. This new textbook has been substantially revised and updated. The first half of the book is a systematic presentation of the dissolution kinetics, chemical equilibria and physical flow laws relating to karst environments. It includes details of the many environmental factors that complicate their chemical evolution, with a critique of measurement of karst erosion rates. The second half of the book looks at the classification system for cave systems and the influence of climate and climatic change on karst development. The book ends with chapters on karst water resource management and a look at the important issues of environmental management, including environmental impact assessment, environmental rehabilitation, tourism impacts and conservation values. Practical application of karst studies are explained throughout the text. "This new edition strengthens the book's position as the essential reference in the field. Karst geoscientists will not dare to stray beyond arm's reach of this volume. It is certain to remain the professional standard for many decades." Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, August 2007