Technology & Engineering

The Chinese Typewriter

A History

Author: Thomas S. Mullaney

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 026234078X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 504

View: 725

Chinese writing is character based, the one major world script that is neither alphabetic nor syllabic. Through the years, the Chinese written language encountered presumed alphabetic universalism in the form of Morse Code, Braille, stenography, Linotype, punch cards, word processing, and other systems developed with the Latin alphabet in mind. This book is about those encounters -- in particular thousands of Chinese characters versus the typewriter and its QWERTY keyboard. Thomas Mullaney describes a fascinating series of experiments, prototypes, failures, and successes in the century-long quest for a workable Chinese typewriter. The earliest Chinese typewriters, Mullaney tells us, were figments of popular imagination, sensational accounts of twelve-foot keyboards with 5,000 keys. One of the first Chinese typewriters actually constructed was invented by a Christian missionary, who organized characters by common usage (but promoted the less-common characters for "Jesus" to the common usage level). Later came typewriters manufactured for use in Chinese offices, and typewriting schools that turned out trained "typewriter girls" and "typewriter boys." Still later was the "Double Pigeon" typewriter produced by the Shanghai Calculator and Typewriter Factory, the typewriter of choice under Mao. Clerks and secretaries in this era experimented with alternative ways of organizing characters on their tray beds, inventing an input method that was the first instance of "predictive text." Today, after more than a century of resistance against the alphabetic, not only have Chinese characters prevailed, they form the linguistic substrate of the vibrant world of Chinese information technology. The Chinese Typewriter, not just an "object history" but grappling with broad questions of technological change and global communication, shows how this happened. A Study of the Weatherhead East Asian InstituteColumbia University
Science

The Chinese Typewriter

A History

Author: Thomas S. Mullaney

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262036363

Category: Science

Page: 504

View: 8951

Incompatible with modernity -- Puzzling Chinese -- Radical machines -- What do you call a typewriter with no keys? -- Controlling the Kanjisphere -- QWERTY is dead! Long live QWERTY! Lin Yutang and the birth of input -- The typing rebellion
Computers

The Chinese Typewriter

A History

Author: Thomas S. Mullaney

Publisher: Mit Press

ISBN: 9780262536103

Category: Computers

Page: 504

View: 6964

How Chinese characters triumphed over the QWERTY keyboard and laid the foundation for China's information technology successes today. Chinese writing is character based, the one major world script that is neither alphabetic nor syllabic. Through the years, the Chinese written language encountered presumed alphabetic universalism in the form of Morse Code, Braille, stenography, Linotype, punch cards, word processing, and other systems developed with the Latin alphabet in mind. This book is about those encounters--in particular thousands of Chinese characters versus the typewriter and its QWERTY keyboard. Thomas Mullaney describes a fascinating series of experiments, prototypes, failures, and successes in the century-long quest for a workable Chinese typewriter. The earliest Chinese typewriters, Mullaney tells us, were figments of popular imagination, sensational accounts of twelve-foot keyboards with 5,000 keys. One of the first Chinese typewriters actually constructed was invented by a Christian missionary, who organized characters by common usage (but promoted the less-common characters for "Jesus" to the common usage level). Later came typewriters manufactured for use in Chinese offices, and typewriting schools that turned out trained "typewriter girls" and "typewriter boys." Still later was the "Double Pigeon" typewriter produced by the Shanghai Calculator and Typewriter Factory, the typewriter of choice under Mao. Clerks and secretaries in this era experimented with alternative ways of organizing characters on their tray beds, inventing an input method that was the first instance of "predictive text." Today, after more than a century of resistance against the alphabetic, not only have Chinese characters prevailed, they form the linguistic substrate of the vibrant world of Chinese information technology. The Chinese Typewriter, not just an "object history" but grappling with broad questions of technological change and global communication, shows how this happened. A Study of the Weatherhead East Asian Institute Columbia University
History

Coming to Terms with the Nation

Ethnic Classification in Modern China

Author: Thomas Mullaney

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520262786

Category: History

Page: 232

View: 3046

Studies China's "Ethnic classification project" (minzu shibie) of 1954, conducted in Yunnan province.
History

A Passion for Facts

Social Surveys and the Construction of the Chinese Nation-State, 1900–1949

Author: Tong Lam

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520950356

Category: History

Page: 280

View: 3197

In this path-breaking book, Tong Lam examines the emergence of the "culture of fact" in modern China, showing how elites and intellectuals sought to transform the dynastic empire into a nation-state, thereby ensuring its survival. Lam argues that an epistemological break away from traditional modes of understanding the observable world began around the turn of the twentieth century. Tracing the Neo-Confucian school of evidentiary research and the modern departure from it, Lam shows how, through the rise of the social survey, "the fact" became a basic conceptual medium and source of truth. In focusing on China’s social survey movement, A Passion for Facts analyzes how information generated by a range of research practices—census, sociological investigation, and ethnography—was mobilized by competing political factions to imagine, manage, and remake the nation.
Art

A Story of Ruins

Presence and Absence in Chinese Art and Visual Culture

Author: Wu Hung

Publisher: Reaktion Books

ISBN: 1861899769

Category: Art

Page: 296

View: 4374

This richly illustrated book examines the changing significance of ruins as vehicles for cultural memory in Chinese art and visual culture from ancient times to the present. The story of ruins in China is different from but connected to ‘ruin culture’ in the West. This book explores indigenous Chinese concepts of ruins and their visual manifestations, as well as the complex historical interactions between China and the West since the eighteenth century. Wu Hung leads us through an array of traditional and contemporary visual materials, including painting, architecture, photography, prints and cinema. A Story of Ruins shows how ruins are integral to traditional Chinese culture in both architecture and pictorial forms. It traces the changes in their representation over time, from indigenous methods of recording damage and decay in ancient China, to realistic images of architectural ruins in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, to the strong interest in urban ruins in contemporary China, as shown in the many artworks that depict demolished houses and decaying industrial sites. The result is an original interpretation of the development of Chinese art, as well as a unique contribution to global art history.
Literary Criticism

Courtesans and Opium

Romantic Illusions of the Fool of Yangzhou

Author: Anonymous

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231519834

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 344

View: 5248

In his preface, the anonymous author of Courtesans and Opium describes his book as an act of penance for thirty years spent patronizing the brothels of Yangzhou. Written in the 1840s, his story is filled with vice and dark consequence, portraying the hazards of the city's seedy underbelly and warning others against the example of the Fool. Chinese literature's first true "city novel," Courtesans and Opium recounts the illustrious career of a debauched soul enveloped by enthralling pursuits and romantic illusions. While socially acceptable marriages were arranged and often loveless, brothels offered men accomplished courtesans who served as both enchanting companions and sensual lovers. These professional sirens dressed in the latest styles and dripped with gold, silver, and jewels. From an early age, they were taught to excel at various arts and graces, which transformed the brothel into a kind of club for men to meet, exchange gossip, and smoke opium at their leisure. The Fool's fable follows five sworn brothers and their respective relationships with Yangzhou courtesans, revealing in acute detail the lurid materialism of this dangerous world—its violence and corruption as well as its seductive but illusory promise. Never before translated into English, Courtesans and Opium offers a brilliant window into the decadence of nineteenth-century China.
Political Science

Popular Protest And Political Culture In Modern China

Second Edition

Author: Jeffrey N Wasserstrom

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0429974450

Category: Political Science

Page: 350

View: 3378

This innovative and widely praised volume uses the dramatic occupation of Tiananmen Square as the foundation for rethinking the cultural dimensions of Chinese politics. Now in a revised and expanded second edition, the book includes enhanced coverage of key issues, such as the political dimensions of popular culture (addressed in a new chapter on Chinese rock-and-roll by Andrew Jones) and the struggle for control of public discourse in the post-1989 era (discussed in a new chapter by Tony Saich). Two especially valuable additions to the second edition are art historian Tsao Tsing-yuan's eyewitness account of the making of the Goddess of Democracy, and an exposition of Chinese understandings of the term ?revolution? contributed by Liu Xiaobo, one of China's most controversial dissident intellectuals. The volume also includes an analysis (by noted social theorist and historical sociologist Craig C. Calhoun) of the similarities and differences between the ?new? social movements of recent decades and the ?old? social movements of earlier eras.TEXT CONCLUSION: To facilitate classroom use, the volume has been reorganized into groups of interrelated essays. The editors introduce each section and offer a list of suggested readings that complement the material in that section.

A Billion Voices: China's Search for a Common Language

Penguin Special China

Author: David Moser

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 1743771754

Category:

Page: 130

View: 9338

Mandarin, Guoyu or Putonghua? 'Chinese' is a language known by many names, and China is a country home to many languages. Since the turn of the twentieth century linguists and politicians have been on a mission to create a common language for China. From the radical intellectuals of the May Fourth Movement, to leaders such as Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong, all fought linguistic wars to push the boundaries of language reform. Now, Internet users take the Chinese language in new and unpredictable directions. David Moser tells the remarkable story of China's language unification agenda and its controversial relationship with modern politics, challenging our conceptions of what it means to speak and be Chinese. 'If you want to know what the language situation of China is on the ground and in the trenches, and you only have time to read one book, this is it. A veritable tour de force, in just a little over a hundred pages, David Moser has filled this brilliant volume with linguistic, political, historical, and cultural data that are both reliable and enlightening. Written with captivating wit and exacting expertise, A Billion Voices is a masterpiece of clear thinking and incisive exposition.' Victor H. Mair, American sinologist, professor of Chinese language and literature at the University of Pennsylvania and author of The Columbia History of Chinese Literature 'David Moser explains the complex aspects of Putonghua against the backdrop of history, delivering the information with authority and simplicity in a style accessible both to speakers of Chinese and those who are simply fascinated by the language. All of the questions that people have asked me about Chinese over the years, and more, are answered in this book. The history of Putonghua and the vital importance of creating a common language is a story David Moser brings to life in an enjoyable way.' Laszlo Montgomery, The China History Podcast 'Could it be true that "Chinese" is many languages, in fact? That they differ from one another as much as English, French, and German do? That "Mandarin" is a fairly recent invention? That Chinese people have disagreed, sometimes heatedly, about what the features and uses of Mandarin should be? This witty little book shows that all of this is so. A banquet of history and ethnography is salted with nuance that the author has drawn from several years' work with Central Chinese Television.' - Perry Link, author of An Anatomy of Chinese: Rhythm, Metaphor, Politics
Education

Student Protests in Twentieth-century China

The View from Shanghai

Author: Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 9780804731669

Category: Education

Page: 428

View: 7639

This is a history of student protests in Shanghai from the turn of the century to 1949, showing how these students experienced and help shape the course of the Chinese Revolution.
History

Critical Han Studies

Author: Thomas Mullaney,James Patrick Leibold,Stéphane Gros

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520289757

Category: History

Page: 418

View: 930

Constituting over ninety percent of China's population, Han is not only the largest ethnonational group in that country but also one of the largest categories of human identity in world history. In this pathbreaking volume, a multidisciplinary group of scholars examine this ambiguous identity, one that shares features with, but cannot be subsumed under, existing notions of ethnicity, culture, race, nationality, and civilization.
History

Revolutionary Discourse in Mao's Republic

Author: David Ernest Apter,Tony Saich

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674767805

Category: History

Page: 403

View: 1719

What does the Chinese Communist Revolution teach us about the relationship between political discourse and real experiences and events? This unique interpretation of the revolutionary process in China uses empirical evidence as well as concepts from contemporary cultural studies to probe this significant question. David Apter and Tony Saich base their analysis on recently available primary sources on party history, English- and Chinese-language accounts of the Long March and Yan'an period, and interviews with veterans and their relatives. Written by an eminent political theorist well seasoned in comparative development and an internationally recognized China scholar, and abounding in new approaches to central issues, this incisive analysis will be welcomed by social theorists and China scholars alike.
Psychology

Conceptual Spaces

The Geometry of Thought

Author: Peter Gärdenfors

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262572194

Category: Psychology

Page: 307

View: 7302

A new theory of conceptual representations as a bridge between the symbolic and connectionist approaches.
Computers

Histories of Computing

Author: Michael Sean Mahoney,Thomas Haigh

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780674055681

Category: Computers

Page: 250

View: 9978

Thirteen of Mahoney's essays and papers covering historiography, software engineering, and theoretical computer science.
Technology & Engineering

Mobile Communication and Society

A Global Perspective

Author: Manuel Castells,Mireia Fernández-Ardèvol,Jack Linchuan Qiu,Araba Sey

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262262304

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 352

View: 2498

Wireless networks are the fastest growing communications technology in history. Are mobile phones expressions of identity, fashionable gadgets, tools for life -- or all of the above? Mobile Communication and Society looks at how the possibility of multimodal communication from anywhere to anywhere at any time affects everyday life at home, at work, and at school, and raises broader concerns about politics and culture both global and local. Drawing on data gathered from around the world, the authors explore who has access to wireless technology, and why, and analyze the patterns of social differentiation seen in unequal access.They explore the social effects of wireless communication -- what it means for family life, for example, when everyone is constantly in touch, or for the idea of an office when workers can work anywhere. Is the technological ability to multitask further compressing time in our already hurried existence? The authors consider the rise of a mobile youth culture based on peer-to-peer networks, with its own language of texting, and its own values. They examine the phenomenon of flash mobs, and the possible political implications. And they look at the relationship between communication and development and the possibility that developing countries could "leapfrog" directly to wireless and satellite technology. This sweeping book -- moving easily in its analysis from the United States to China, from Europe to Latin America and Africa -- answers the key questions about our transformation into a mobile network society.
History

Out of China

How the Chinese Ended the Era of Western Domination

Author: Robert Bickers

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674982339

Category: History

Page: 576

View: 4716

China’s new nationalism is rooted not in its present power but in shameful memories of its former weaknesses. Invaded, humiliated, and looted by foreign powers in the past, China looks out at the twenty-first century through the lens of the past two centuries. History matters deeply to Beijing’s current rulers, and Robert Bickers explains why.
Computers

How Not to Network a Nation

The Uneasy History of the Soviet Internet

Author: Benjamin Peters

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262034182

Category: Computers

Page: 312

View: 2280

How, despite thirty years of effort, Soviet attempts to build a national computer network were undone by socialists who seemed to behave like capitalists.
Literary Criticism

A New Literary History of Modern China

Author: David Der-Wei Wang

Publisher: Belknap Press

ISBN: 9780674967915

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 1032

View: 9374

A New Literary History of Modern China is a collective project that introduces the "long" modern period of Chinese literature from the late seventeenth century to the new millennium. The volume, with roughly 160 essays contributed by 145 authors on a wide spectrum of topics, is intended for readers who are interested in understanding modern China through its literary and cultural dynamics. At the same time, it takes up the challenge of rethinking the conceptual framework and pedagogical assumptions that underlie the extant paradigm of writing and reading literary history. Beyond the familiar canon of literature as representation, the volume seeks to include the tradition of literature as manifestation, on both textual and contextual levels, in a history of modern Chinese literature. In addition to familiar genres, A New Literary History features a diverse lineup of forms, from presidential speeches to pop song lyrics, from photographs to films, and from political treatises to prison house jottings--forms that not only represent the material world, but can also shape it and complete it. By combining both the pointillism of the chronicle and the comprehensiveness of grand recit, this revisionist endeavor introduces the four themes of "worlding" literary China: architectonics of temporalities; dynamics of travel and transculturation; contestation between wen and mediality; and remapping of the literary cartography of modern China.--
Computers

A Prehistory of the Cloud

Author: Tung-Hui Hu

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262330105

Category: Computers

Page: 240

View: 6466

We may imagine the digital cloud as placeless, mute, ethereal, and unmediated. Yet the reality of the cloud is embodied in thousands of massive data centers, any one of which can use as much electricity as a midsized town. Even all these data centers are only one small part of the cloud. Behind that cloud-shaped icon on our screens is a whole universe of technologies and cultural norms, all working to keep us from noticing their existence. In this book, Tung-Hui Hu examines the gap between the real and the virtual in our understanding of the cloud. Hu shows that the cloud grew out of such older networks as railroad tracks, sewer lines, and television circuits. He describes key moments in the prehistory of the cloud, from the game "Spacewar" as exemplar of time-sharing computers to Cold War bunkers that were later reused as data centers. Countering the popular perception of a new "cloudlike" political power that is dispersed and immaterial, Hu argues that the cloud grafts digital technologies onto older ways of exerting power over a population. But because we invest the cloud with cultural fantasies about security and participation, we fail to recognize its militarized origins and ideology. Moving between the materiality of the technology itself and its cultural rhetoric, Hu's account offers a set of new tools for rethinking the contemporary digital environment.
Literary Collections

The Big Red Book of Modern Chinese Literature: Writings from the Mainland in the Long Twentieth Century

Author: Yunte Huang

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393248739

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 752

View: 7592

A panoramic vision of the Chinese literary landscape across the twentieth century. Award-winning literary scholar and poet Yunte Huang here gathers together an intimate and authoritative selection of significant works, in outstanding translations, from nearly fifty Chinese writers, that together express a search for the soul of modern China. From the 1912 overthrow of a millennia-long monarchy to the Cultural Revolution, to China’s rise as a global military and economic superpower, the Chinese literary imagination has encompassed an astonishing array of moods and styles—from sublime lyricism to witty surrealism, poignant documentary to the ironic, the transgressive, and the defiant. Huang provides the requisite context for these revelatory works of fiction, poetry, essays, letters, and speeches in helpful headnotes, chronologies, and brief introductions to the Republican, Revolutionary, and Post-Mao Eras. From Lu Xun’s Call to Arms (1923) to Gao Xinjiang’s Nobel Prize–winning Soul Mountain (1990), this remarkable anthology features writers both known and unknown in its celebration of the versatility of writing. From belles lettres to literary propaganda, from poetic revolution to pulp fiction, The Big Red Book of Modern Chinese Literature is an eye-opening, mesmerizing, and indispensable portrait of China in the tumultuous twentieth century.