Reference

The Craft of Research, Fourth Edition

Author: Wayne C. Booth,Gregory G. Colomb,Joseph M. Williams,Joseph Bizup,William T. FitzGerald

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022623987X

Category: Reference

Page: 336

View: 558

With more than three-quarters of a million copies sold since its first publication, The Craft of Research has helped generations of researchers at every level—from first-year undergraduates to advanced graduate students to research reporters in business and government—learn how to conduct effective and meaningful research. Conceived by seasoned researchers and educators Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams, this fundamental work explains how to find and evaluate sources, anticipate and respond to reader reservations, and integrate these pieces into an argument that stands up to reader critique. The fourth edition has been thoroughly but respectfully revised by Joseph Bizup and William T. FitzGerald. It retains the original five-part structure, as well as the sound advice of earlier editions, but reflects the way research and writing are taught and practiced today. Its chapters on finding and engaging sources now incorporate recent developments in library and Internet research, emphasizing new techniques made possible by online databases and search engines. Bizup and FitzGerald provide fresh examples and standardized terminology to clarify concepts like argument, warrant, and problem. Following the same guiding principle as earlier editions—that the skills of doing and reporting research are not just for elite students but for everyone—this new edition retains the accessible voice and direct approach that have made The Craft of Research a leader in the field of research reference. With updated examples and information on evaluation and using contemporary sources, this beloved classic is ready for the next generation of researchers.
Reference

The Craft of Research, Third Edition

Author: Wayne C. Booth,Gregory G. Colomb,Joseph M. Williams

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226062643

Category: Reference

Page: 336

View: 2505

With more than 400,000 copies now in print, The Craft of Research is the unrivaled resource for researchers at every level, from first-year undergraduates to research reporters at corporations and government offices. Seasoned researchers and educators Gregory G. Colomb and Joseph M. Williams present an updated third edition of their classic handbook, whose first and second editions were written in collaboration with the late Wayne C. Booth. The Craft of Research explains how to build an argument that motivates readers to accept a claim; how to anticipate the reservations of readers and to respond to them appropriately; and how to create introductions and conclusions that answer that most demanding question, “So what?” The third edition includes an expanded discussion of the essential early stages of a research task: planning and drafting a paper. The authors have revised and fully updated their section on electronic research, emphasizing the need to distinguish between trustworthy sources (such as those found in libraries) and less reliable sources found with a quick Web search. A chapter on warrants has also been thoroughly reviewed to make this difficult subject easier for researchers Throughout, the authors have preserved the amiable tone, the reliable voice, and the sense of directness that have made this book indispensable for anyone undertaking a research project.
Science

The Craft of Research, 2nd edition

Author: Wayne C. Booth,Gregory G. Colomb,Joseph M. Williams

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226065693

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 4920

Since 1995, more than 150,000 students and researchers have turned to The Craft of Research for clear and helpful guidance on how to conduct research and report it effectively . Now, master teachers Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams present a completely revised and updated version of their classic handbook. Like its predecessor, this new edition reflects the way researchers actually work: in a complex circuit of thinking, writing, revising, and rethinking. It shows how each part of this process influences the others and how a successful research report is an orchestrated conversation between a researcher and a reader. Along with many other topics, The Craft of Research explains how to build an argument that motivates readers to accept a claim; how to anticipate the reservations of thoughtful yet critical readers and to respond to them appropriately; and how to create introductions and conclusions that answer that most demanding question, "So what?" Celebrated by reviewers for its logic and clarity, this popular book retains its five-part structure. Part 1 provides an orientation to the research process and begins the discussion of what motivates researchers and their readers. Part 2 focuses on finding a topic, planning the project, and locating appropriate sources. This section is brought up to date with new information on the role of the Internet in research, including how to find and evaluate sources, avoid their misuse, and test their reliability. Part 3 explains the art of making an argument and supporting it. The authors have extensively revised this section to present the structure of an argument in clearer and more accessible terms than in the first edition. New distinctions are made among reasons, evidence, and reports of evidence. The concepts of qualifications and rebuttals are recast as acknowledgment and response. Part 4 covers drafting and revising, and offers new information on the visual representation of data. Part 5 concludes the book with an updated discussion of the ethics of research, as well as an expanded bibliography that includes many electronic sources. The new edition retains the accessibility, insights, and directness that have made The Craft of Research an indispensable guide for anyone doing research, from students in high school through advanced graduate study to businesspeople and government employees. The authors demonstrate convincingly that researching and reporting skills can be learned and used by all who undertake research projects. New to this edition: Extensive coverage of how to do research on the internet, including how to evaluate and test the reliability of sources New information on the visual representation of data Expanded bibliography with many electronic sources
Reference

How to Write a BA Thesis

A Practical Guide from Your First Ideas to Your Finished Paper

Author: Charles Lipson

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226481272

Category: Reference

Page: 402

View: 3404

The senior thesis is the capstone of a college education, but writing one can be a daunting prospect. Students need to choose their own topic and select the right adviser. Then they need to work steadily for several months as they research, write, and manage a major independent project. Now there's a mentor to help. How to Write a BA Thesis is a practical, friendly guide written by Charles Lipson, an experienced professor who has guided hundreds of students through the thesis-writing process. This book offers step-by-step advice on how to turn a vague idea into a clearly defined proposal, then a draft paper, and, ultimately, a polished thesis. Lipson also tackles issues beyond the classroom-from good work habits to coping with personal problems that interfere with research and writing. Filled with examples and easy-to-use highlighted tips, the book also includes handy time schedules that show when to begin various tasks and how much time to spend on each. Convenient checklists remind students which steps need special attention, and a detailed appendix, filled with examples, shows how to use the three main citation systems in the humanities and social sciences: MLA, APA, and Chicago. How to Write a BA Thesis will help students work more comfortably and effectively-on their own and with their advisers. Its clear guidelines and sensible advice make it the perfect text for thesis workshops. Students and their advisers will refer again and again to this invaluable resource. From choosing a topic to preparing the final paper, How to Write a BA Thesis helps students turn a daunting prospect into a remarkable achievement.
Reference

Student's Guide to Writing College Papers

Fourth Edition

Author: Kate L. Turabian

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226816333

Category: Reference

Page: 288

View: 7318

High school students, two-year college students, and university students all need to know how to write a well-reasoned, coherent research paper—and for decades Kate Turabian’s Student’s Guide to Writing College Papers has helped them to develop this critical skill. In the new fourth edition of Turabian’s popular guide, the team behind Chicago’s widely respected The Craft of Research has reconceived and renewed this classic for today’s generation. Designed for less advanced writers than Turabian’s Manual of Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Seventh Edition, Gregory G. Colomb and Joseph M. Williams here introduce students to the art of defining a topic, doing high-quality research with limited resources, and writing an engaging and solid college paper. The Student’s Guide is organized into three sections that lead students through the process of developing and revising a paper. Part 1, "Writing Your Paper," guides students through the research process with discussions of choosing and developing a topic, validating sources, planning arguments, writing drafts, avoiding plagiarism, and presenting evidence in tables and figures. Part 2, "Citing Sources," begins with a succinct introduction to why citation is important and includes sections on the three major styles students might encounter in their work—Chicago, MLA, and APA—all with full coverage of electronic source citation. Part 3, "Style," covers all matters of style important to writers of college papers, from punctuation to spelling to presenting titles, names, and numbers. With the authority and clarity long associated with the name Turabian, the fourth edition of Student’s Guide to Writing College Papers is both a solid introduction to the research process and a convenient handbook to the best practices of writing college papers. Classroom tested and filled with relevant examples and tips, this is a reference that students, and their teachers, will turn to again and again.
Reference

Telling About Society

Author: Howard S. Becker

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226041263

Category: Reference

Page: 313

View: 3129

I Remember, one of French writer Georges Perec’s most famous pieces, consists of 480 numbered paragraphs—each just a few short lines recalling a memory from his childhood. The work has neither a beginning nor an end. Nor does it contain any analysis. But it nonetheless reveals profound truths about French society during the 1940s and 50s. Taking Perec’s book as its cue, Telling About Society explores the unconventional ways we communicate what we know about society to others. The third in distinguished teacher Howard Becker’s best-selling series of writing guides for social scientists, the book explores the many ways knowledge about society can be shared and interpreted through different forms of telling—fiction, films, photographs, maps, even mathematical models—many of which remain outside the boundaries of conventional social science. Eight case studies, including the photographs of Walker Evans, the plays of George Bernard Shaw, the novels of Jane Austen and Italo Calvino, and the sociology of Erving Goffman, provide convincing support for Becker’s argument: that every way of telling about society is perfect—for some purpose. The trick is, as Becker notes, to discover what purpose is served by doing it this way rather than that. With Becker’s trademark humor and eminently practical advice, Telling About Society is an ideal guide for social scientists in all fields, for artists interested in saying something about society, and for anyone interested in communicating knowledge in unconventional ways.
Reference

What Editors Do

The Art, Craft, and Business of Book Editing

Author: Peter Ginna

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022630003X

Category: Reference

Page: 320

View: 7666

Editing is an invisible art where the very best work goes undetected. Editors strive to create books that are enlightening, seamless, and pleasurable to read, all while giving credit to the author. This makes it all the more difficult to truly understand the range of roles they inhabit while shepherding a project from concept to publication. In What Editors Do, Peter Ginna gathers essays from twenty-seven leading figures in book publishing about their work. Representing both large houses and small, and encompassing trade, textbook, academic, and children’s publishing, the contributors make the case for why editing remains a vital function to writers—and readers—everywhere. Ironically for an industry built on words, there has been a scarcity of written guidance on how to actually approach the work of editing. This book will serve as a compendium of professional advice and will be a resource both for those entering the profession (or already in it) and for those outside publishing who seek an understanding of it. It sheds light on how editors acquire books, what constitutes a strong author-editor relationship, and the editor’s vital role at each stage of the publishing process—a role that extends far beyond marking up the author’s text. This collection treats editing as both art and craft, and also as a career. It explores how editors balance passion against the economic realities of publishing. What Editors Do shows why, in the face of a rapidly changing publishing landscape, editors are more important than ever.
Reference

The Subversive Copy Editor

Advice from Chicago (or, How to Negotiate Good Relationships with Your Writers, Your Colleagues, and Yourself)

Author: Carol Fisher Saller

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226734102

Category: Reference

Page: 148

View: 1026

Each year writers and editors submit over three thousand grammar and style questions to the Q&A page at The Chicago Manual of Style Online. Some are arcane, some simply hilarious—and one editor, Carol Fisher Saller, reads every single one of them. All too often she notes a classic author-editor standoff, wherein both parties refuse to compromise on the "rights" and "wrongs" of prose styling: "This author is giving me a fit." "I wish that I could just DEMAND the use of the serial comma at all times." "My author wants his preface to come at the end of the book. This just seems ridiculous to me. I mean, it’s not a post-face." In The Subversive Copy Editor, Saller casts aside this adversarial view and suggests new strategies for keeping the peace. Emphasizing habits of carefulness, transparency, and flexibility, she shows copy editors how to build an environment of trust and cooperation. One chapter takes on the difficult author; another speaks to writers themselves. Throughout, the focus is on serving the reader, even if it means breaking "rules" along the way. Saller’s own foibles and misadventures provide ample material: "I mess up all the time," she confesses. "It’s how I know things." Writers, Saller acknowledges, are only half the challenge, as copy editors can also make trouble for themselves. (Does any other book have an index entry that says "terrorists. See copy editors"?) The book includes helpful sections on e-mail etiquette, work-flow management, prioritizing, and organizing computer files. One chapter even addresses the special concerns of freelance editors. Saller’s emphasis on negotiation and flexibility will surprise many copy editors who have absorbed, along with the dos and don’ts of their stylebooks, an attitude that their way is the right way. In encouraging copy editors to banish their ignorance and disorganization, insecurities and compulsions, the Chicago Q&A presents itself as a kind of alter ego to the comparatively staid Manual of Style. In The Subversive Copy Editor, Saller continues her mission with audacity and good humor.
Reference

Developmental Editing

A Handbook for Freelancers, Authors, and Publishers

Author: Scott Norton

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226595161

Category: Reference

Page: 252

View: 1575

Editing is a tricky business. It requires analytical flair and creative panache, the patience of a saint and the vision of a writer. Transforming a manuscript into a book that edifies, inspires, and sells? That’s the job of the developmental editor, whose desk is the first stop for many manuscripts on the road to bookdom—a route ably mapped out in the pages of Developmental Editing. Author Scott Norton has worked with a diverse range of authors, editors, and publishers, and his handbook provides an approach to developmental editing that is logical, collaborative, humorous, and realistic. He starts with the core tasks of shaping the proposal, finding the hook, and building the narrative or argument, and then turns to the hard work of executing the plan and establishing a style. Developmental Editing includes detailed case studies featuring a variety of nonfiction books—election-year polemic, popular science, memoir, travel guide—and authors ranging from first-timer to veteran, journalist to scholar. Handy sidebars offer advice on how to become a developmental editor, create effective illustration programs, and adapt sophisticated fiction techniques (such as point of view, suspense, plotting, character, and setting) to nonfiction writing. Norton’s book also provides freelance copyeditors with a way to earn higher fees while introducing more creativity into their work lives. It gives acquisitions, marketing, and production staff a vocabulary for diagnosing a manuscript’s flaws and techniques for transforming it into a bestseller. And perhaps most importantly, Developmental Editing equips authors with the concrete tools they need to reach their audiences.
Reference

Getting It Published, 2nd Edition

A Guide for Scholars and Anyone Else Serious about Serious Books

Author: William Germano

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226288420

Category: Reference

Page: 232

View: 1997

Since 2001 William Germano’s Getting It Published has helped thousands of scholars develop a compelling book proposal, find the right academic publisher, evaluate a contract, handle the review process, and, finally, emerge as published authors. But a lot has changed in the past seven years. With the publishing world both more competitive and more confusing—especially given the increased availability of electronic resources—this second edition of Germano’s best-selling guide has arrived at just the right moment. As he writes in a new chapter, the “via electronica” now touches every aspect of writing and publishing. And although scholars now research, write, and gain tenure in a digital world, they must continue to ensure that their work meets the requirements of their institutions and the needs of their readers. Germano, a veteran editor with experience in both the university press and commercial worlds, knows this audience. This second edition will teach readers how to think about, describe, and pitch their manuscripts before they submit them. They’ll discover the finer points of publishing etiquette, including how to approach a busy editor and how to work with other publishing professionals on matters of design, marketing, and publicity. In a new afterword, they’ll also find helpful advice on what they can—and must—do to promote their work. A true insider’s guide to academic publishing, the second edition of Getting It Published will help authors understand what to expect from the publishing process, from manuscript to finished book and beyond.
Language Arts & Disciplines

The Copyeditor's Handbook

A Guide for Book Publishing and Corporate Communications, with Exercises and Answer Keys

Author: Amy Einsohn

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520218345

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 560

View: 9254

"A basic text for beginning copyeditors and a good read for old pros, this handbook will also enlighten any editor contemplating freelance work." -- Margaret Mahan, former Managing Editor, University of Chicago Press, and editor of The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition "The Copyeditor's Handbook brims with valuable information, good advice, and helpful suggestions for novice copyeditors and experienced practitioners. It is comforting to know that current and future copyeditors will be able to turn to this handbook. I'm placing this work, which fills a huge gap in the literature, right beside my dictionary, and will highly recommend it to all my colleagues and students." --Alice Levine, Lecturer, The Denver Publishing Institute, and freelance editor "A definite 'must have' for the beginning to intermediate editor or author, and even the experienced editor. An indispensable reference tool." --Kim Hawley, President, The Chicago Book Clinic "This is the book that every teacher of editing has been waiting for: thorough, clear, authoritative, up-to-date, and sane." --Beth Luey, Director, Scholarly Publishing Program, Arizona State University "This book warms the cockles of the copyediting heart. It is thorough, useful, helpful, and smart. And it fills a huge vacuum." --Constance Hale, author of Sin and Syntax and Wired Style "An excellent resource. The Copyeditor's Handbook should sit on every business editor's shelf, next to the in-house style guide." --Erika Henik, Research Publications Manager, Banc of America Securities LLC
History

Essaying the Past

How to Read, Write, and Think about History

Author: Jim Cullen

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119111943

Category: History

Page: 216

View: 4001

Part research manual, part study guide, and part introduction to the study of history, Essaying the Past guides the reader through the nuts and bolts of producing good historical prose, offering key strategies and useful tips. Includes expert advice on writing about history, conducting good research, and learning how to think analytically Covers important topics such as framing questions, developing a strong introduction and topic sentences, choosing good evidence, and the crucial role of revision An annotated case study takes the reader through one student’s process of writing an essay and illustrates how strategies discussed in the book can be successfully implemented Six appendices cover the major issues facing students today, such as the dangers of plagiarism and the role of the internet
Language Arts & Disciplines

Writing for Social Scientists: How to Start and Finish Your Thesis, Book, Or Article (Large Print 16pt)

Author: Howard S. Becker

Publisher: ReadHowYouWant.com

ISBN: 1459605551

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 326

View: 9183

Students and researchers all write under pressure, and those pressures - most lamentably, the desire to impress your audience rather than to communicate with them - often lead to pretentious prose, academic posturing, and, not infrequently, writer's block. Sociologist Howard S. Becker has written the classic book on how to conquer these pressures and simply write. First published nearly twenty years ago, Writing for Social Scientists has become a lifesaver for writers in all fields, from beginning students to published authors. Becker's message is clear; in order to learn how to write, take a deep breath and then begin writing. Revise. Repeat. It is not always an easy process, as Becker wryly relates. Decades of teaching, researching, and writing have given him plenty of material, and Becker neatly exposes the foibles of academia and its ''publish or perish'' atmosphere. Wordiness, the passive voice, inserting a ''the way in which'' when a simple ''how'' will do - all these mechanisms are a part of the social structure of academic writing. By shrugging off such impediments - or at the very least, putting them aside for a few hours - we can reform our work habits and start writing lucidly without worrying about grades, peer approval, or the ''literature.''In this new edition, Becker takes account of major changes in the computer tools available to writers today, and also substantially expands his analysis of how academic institutions create problems for them. As competition in academia grows increasingly heated, Writing for Social Scientists will provide solace to a new generation of frazzled, would-be writers.
Reference

The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking

Author: Brooke Borel

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022629109X

Category: Reference

Page: 192

View: 9621

“A column by Glenn Garvin on Dec. 20 stated that the National Science Foundation ‘funded a study on Jell-O wrestling at the South Pole.’ That is incorrect. The event took place during off-duty hours without NSF permission and did not involve taxpayer funds.” Corrections such as this one from the Miami Herald have become a familiar sight for readers, especially as news cycles demand faster and faster publication. While some factual errors can be humorous, they nonetheless erode the credibility of the writer and the organization. And the pressure for accuracy and accountability is increasing at the same time as in-house resources for fact-checking are dwindling. Anyone who needs or wants to learn how to verify names, numbers, quotations, and facts is largely on their own. Enter The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking, an accessible, one-stop guide to the why, what, and how of contemporary fact-checking. Brooke Borel, an experienced fact-checker, draws on the expertise of more than 200 writers, editors, and fellow checkers representing the New Yorker, Popular Science, This American Life, Vogue, and many other outlets. She covers best practices for fact-checking in a variety of media—from magazine articles, both print and online, to books and documentaries—and from the perspective of both in-house and freelance checkers. She also offers advice on navigating relationships with writers, editors, and sources; considers the realities of fact-checking on a budget and checking one’s own work; and reflects on the place of fact-checking in today’s media landscape. “If journalism is a cornerstone of democracy, then fact-checking is its building inspector,” Borel writes. The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking is the practical—and thoroughly vetted—guide that writers, editors, and publishers need to maintain their credibility and solidify their readers’ trust.
Science

How to Write and Illustrate a Scientific Paper

Author: Björn Gustavii

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139468588

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 6863

This second edition of How to Write and Illustrate a Scientific Paper will help both first-time writers and more experienced authors, in all biological and medical disciplines, to present their results effectively. Whilst retaining the easy-to-read and well-structured approach of the previous edition, it has been broadened to include comprehensive advice on writing compilation theses for doctoral degrees, and a detailed description of preparing case reports. Illustrations, particularly graphs, are discussed in detail, with poor examples redrawn for comparison. The reader is offered advice on how to present the paper, where and how to submit the manuscript, and finally, how to correct the proofs. Examples of both good and bad writing, selected from actual journal articles, illustrate the author's advice - which has been developed through his extensive teaching experience - in this accessible and informative guide.
Literary Criticism

The Rhetoric of Fiction

Author: Wayne C. Booth

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226065596

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 572

View: 4667

The first edition of The Rhetoric of Fiction transformed the criticism of fiction and soon became a classic in the field. One of the most widely used texts in fiction courses, it is a standard reference point in advanced discussions of how fictional form works, how authors make novels accessible, and how readers recreate texts, and its concepts and terms—such as "the implied author," "the postulated reader," and "the unreliable narrator"—have become part of the standard critical lexicon. For this new edition, Wayne C. Booth has written an extensive Afterword in which he clarifies misunderstandings, corrects what he now views as errors, and sets forth his own recent thinking about the rhetoric of fiction. The other new feature is a Supplementary Bibliography, prepared by James Phelan in consultation with the author, which lists the important critical works of the past twenty years—two decades that Booth describes as "the richest in the history of the subject."
Language Arts & Disciplines

Handbook for Academic Authors

Author: Beth Luey

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521194989

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 276

View: 2461

Whether you are a graduate student seeking to publish your first article, a new Ph.D. revising your dissertation for publication, or an experienced author working on a new monograph, textbook, or digital publication, Handbook for Academic Authors provides reliable, concise advice about selecting the best publisher for your work, maintaining an optimal relationship with your publisher, submitting manuscripts to book and journal publishers, working with editors, navigating the production process, and helping to market your book. It also offers information about illustrations, indexes, permissions, and contracts and includes a chapter on revising dissertations and one on the financial aspects of publishing. The book covers not only scholarly monographs but also textbooks, anthologies, multiauthor books, and trade books. This fifth edition has been revised and updated to align with new technological and financial realities, taking into account the impact of digital technology and the changes it has made in authorship and publishing.
Language Arts & Disciplines

The Craft of Argument

Author: Joseph M. Williams,Gregory G. Colomb

Publisher: Longman Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780321101471

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 491

View: 3275

Written by the authors of such successful composition titles as Style: Ten Lessons in Clarity and Grace (AWL) and The Craft of Research (Chicago UP), The Craft of Argument, Second Edition is an argument rhetoric based on a new, more teachable version of the Toulmin model of argument. The Craft of Argument, Second Edition offers an updated and revised version of the Toulmin model, making it the most accessible and teachable presentation of Toulmin available. With a focus on argument as civic conversation, this text addresses problem finding and problem solving as the heart of planning, drafting, and revising written arguments. The writing process sections have been enhanced to offer more strategies to writing effective arguments, providing students the opportunity to practice what they've learned in each chapterThe first eleven chapters explain the nature of argument, how to develop an argument, and how to think about argument, using the revised Toulmin model. Chapters 12 and 13 discuss the language of argument, including a discussion on some of the basic elements of style. models of argument, many of which are discussed in boxes that appear in the rhetoric (In the Readings).
Social Science

Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes

Author: Robert M. Emerson,Rachel I. Fretz,Linda L. Shaw

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226206851

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 8734

In this companion volume John van Maanen's Tales of the Field, three scholars reveal how the ethnographer turns direct experience and observation into written fieldnotes upon which an ethnography is based. Drawing on years of teaching and field research experience, the authors develop a series of guidelines, suggestions, and practical advice about how to write useful fieldnotes in a variety of settings, both cultural and institutional. Using actual unfinished, "working" notes as examples, they illustrate options for composing, reviewing, and working fieldnotes into finished texts. They discuss different organizational and descriptive strategies, including evocation of sensory detail, synthesis of complete scenes, the value of partial versus omniscient perspectives, and of first person versus third person accounts. Of particular interest is the author's discussion of notetaking as a mindset. They show how transforming direct observations into vivid descriptions results not simply from good memory but more crucially from learning to envision scenes as written. A good ethnographer, they demonstrate, must learn to remember dialogue and movement like an actor, to see colors and shapes like a painter, and to sense moods and rhythms like a poet. The authors also emphasize the ethnographer's core interest in presenting the perceptions and meanings which the people studied attach to their own actions. They demonstrate the subtle ways that writers can make the voices of people heard in the texts they produce. Finally, they analyze the "processing" of fieldnotes—the practice of coding notes to identify themes and methods for selecting and weaving together fieldnote excerpts to write a polished ethnography. This book, however, is more than a "how-to" manual. The authors examine writing fieldnotes as an interactive and interpretive process in which the researcher's own commitments and relationships with those in the field inevitably shape the character and content of those fieldnotes. They explore the conscious and unconscious writing choices that produce fieldnote accounts. And they show how the character and content of these fieldnotes inevitably influence the arguments and analyses the ethnographer can make in the final ethnographic tale. This book shows that note-taking is a craft that can be taught. Along with Tales of the Field and George Marcus and Michael Fisher's Anthropology as Cultural Criticism, Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes is an essential tool for students and social scientists alike.
Language Arts & Disciplines

Editors on Editing

What Writers Need to Know about what Editors Do

Author: Gerald Gross

Publisher: Grove Press

ISBN: 9780802132635

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 377

View: 5094

Essays discuss writers' conferences, editing for specific markets, the role of the editorial assistant, and editing specific genres