Law

The Criminology of Criminal Law

Author: Freda Adler,William S. Laufer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781560003298

Category: Law

Page: 535

View: 662

Criminology has developed strong methodological tools over the past decades, establishing itself as a competitive, sophisticated, and independent social science. Despite, and perhaps because of, its emphasis on matters of design, methodology, and quantitative analysis, criminology has had few significant advances in theory. Advances in Criminological Theory is the first series exclusively dedicated to the dissemination of original work on criminological theory. It was created to overcome the neglect of theory construction and validation in existing criminological publications, as well as to further the free exchange of ideas, propositions, and postulates. The Criminology of Criminal Law, the eighth volume in this landmark series, considers the relation between criminal law and theories of crime, criminality, and justice. This book contains chapters on a wide range of topics, including: the way in which white-collar crime is defined; new perspectives on stranger violence; the reasons why criminologists have neglected the study of genocide; the idea of boundary crossings in the control of deviance; the relation between punishment and social solidarity; the connection between the notion of justice and modern sentencing theory; the social reaction to treason; and the association between politics and punitiveness. Contributors to this volume include: Bonnie Berry, Don Gottfredson, David F. Greenberg, Marc Riedel, Jason Rourke, Kip Schlegel, Vered Vinitzky-Seroussi, Leslie T. Wilkins, Marvin E. Wolfgang, and Richard A. Wright. The Criminology of Criminal Law concludes with an analysis of the results of a study on the most cited scholars in Advances in Criminological Theory. This fascinating work will be beneficial to the studies of criminologists, sociologists, and scholars of legal studies.
Law

Measuring Crime and Criminality

Advances in Criminological Theory

Author: John MacDonald

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 1412844436

Category: Law

Page: 403

View: 7740

Measuring Crime and Criminality focuses on how different approaches to measuring crime and criminality are used to test existing criminological theories. Each chapter reviews a key approach for measuring criminal behavior and discusses its strengths or weaknesses for explaining the facts of crime or answers to central issues of criminological inquiry. The book describes the state of the field on different approaches for measuring crime and criminality as seen by prominent scholars in the field. Among the featured contributions are: The Use of Official Reports and Victimization Data for Testing Criminological Theories; The Design and Analysis of Experiments in Criminology; and Growth Curve/Mixture Models for Measuring Criminal Careers. Also included are papers titled: Counterfactual Methods of Causal Inference and Their Application to Criminology; Measuring Gene-Environment Interactions in the Cause of Antisocial Behavior and What Has Been Gained and Lost through Longitudinal Research and Advanced Statistical Models? This volume of Advances in Criminological Theory illustrates how understanding the various ways criminal behavior is measured is useful for developing theoretical insights on the causes of crime.
Social Science

Beyond Empiricism

Institutions and Intentions in the Study of Crime

Author: Joan McCord

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9780765802514

Category: Social Science

Page: 188

View: 5456

Beyond Empiricism expands the discourse on theories of criminal behavior. It considers institutional, social, and individual issues related to criminal behavior, while individually each raises questions about the adequacy of current theoretical claims. The topics have significant implications both for policy and research in criminology. Per-Olof Wikstrom introduces a cross-level action theory of crime. He suggests that better understanding of causal mechanisms can lead to a situational theory of action based on perception of alternatives and the process of choice. David Wolcott and Steven Schlossman provide new perspectives on the issues of racial disparity and the incarceration of adolescents in adult prisons. These authors highlight gaps in our understanding of early twentieth-century juvenile justice and negate some popular claims about recent changes in the criminal law. Peter Grabosky spotlights privatization policies in the criminal justice system, suggesting a framework for analyzing the balance of advantage resulting from three basic forms of institutional relationships in policing. Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld discuss why institutional analysis has been seriously underdeveloped in etiological analyses of crime. Jordan Pederson and Matthew Shane scrutinize the concept of aggression. Their descriptions of aggressive behavior among non-human animals provide a fascinating backdrop for understanding human actions. Joan McCord emphasizes the intentionality of crimes as she argues that to understand what causes crime, one must have a theory about what it means to act intentionally. After critically appraising prior theories, McCord introduces and defends a new theory of motivation based on a post-empiricist theory of language. This latest volume in the distinguished Advances in Criminological Theory series continues to add to the theoretical underpinnings of the field, and will be important to all collections of social science research on criminology.
Social Science

Resisting Punitiveness in Europe?

Welfare, Human Rights and Democracy

Author: Sonja Snacken,Els Dumortier

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136656871

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 6913

This volume provides an important and exciting contribution to the knowledge on punishment across Europe. Over the past decade, punitiveness has been studied through analyses of ‘increased’ or ‘new’ forms of punishment in western countries. Comparative studies on the other hand have illustrated important differences in levels of punitiveness between these countries and have tried to explain these differences by looking at risk and protective factors. Covering both quantitative and qualitative dimensions, this book focuses on mechanisms interacting with levels of punitiveness that seem to allow room for less punitive (political) choices, especially within a European context: social policies, human rights and a balanced approach to victim rights and public opinion in constitutional democracies. The book is split into three sections: Punishment and Welfare. Chapters look into possible lessons to be learned from characteristics and developments in Scandinavian and some Continental European countries. Punishment and Human Rights. Contributions analyze how human rights in Europe can and do act as a shield against – but sometimes also as a possible motor for – criminalization and penalization. Punishment and Democracy. The increased political attention to victims’ rights and interests and to public opinion surveys in European democracies is discussed as a possible risk for enhanced levels of punitiveness in penal policies and evaluated against the background of research evidence about the wishes and expectations of victims of crime and the ambivalence and ‘polycentric consistency’ of public opinion formations about crime and punishments. This book will be a valuable addition to the literature in this field and will be of interest to students, scholars and policy officials across Europe and elsewhere.
History

Guns in American Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture, and the Law, 2nd Edition [3 volumes]

An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture, and the Law

Author: Gregg Lee Carter

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 0313386714

Category: History

Page: 1096

View: 1409

Thoroughly updated and greatly expanded from its original edition, this three-volume set is the go-to comprehensive resource on the legal, social, psychological, political, and public health aspects of guns in American life. • 450 alphabetically organized entries, including 100 new for this edition, covering key issues (suicide, video games and gun violence, firearm injury statistics) and events (workplace shootings, the Virginia Tech massacre) • 102 expert contributors from all academic fields involved in studying the causes and effects of gun violence • A chronology of pivotal moments and controversies in the history of firearm ownership and use in the United States • An exhaustive bibliography of print and online resources covering all aspects of the study of guns in the United States • Appendices on federal gun laws, state gun laws, and pro- and anti-gun-control organizations
Social Science

Social Learning Theory and the Explanation of Crime

Author: Ronald L. Akers,Gary F. Jensen

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 1412812348

Category: Social Science

Page: 379

View: 2504

Social learning theory has been called the dominant theory of crime and delinquency in the United States, yet it is often misrepresented. This latest volume in the distinguished Advances in Criminological Theory series explores the impact of this theory. Some equate it with differential association theory. Others depict it as little more than a micro-level appendage to cultural deviance theories. There have been earlier attempts to clarify the theory's unique features in comparison to other theories, and others have applied it to broader issues. These efforts are extended in this volume, which focuses on developing, applying, and testing the theory on a variety of criminal and delinquent behavior. It applies the theory to treatment and prevention, moving social learning into a global context for the twenty-first century. This comprehensive volume includes the latest work, tests, and theoretical advances in social learning theory and will be particularly helpful to criminologists, sociologists, and psychologists. It may also be of interest to those concerned with current issues relating to delinquency, drug use/abuse, and drinking/alcohol abuse.
Social Science

Taking Stock

The Status of Criminological Theory

Author: Francis T. Cullen,John Wright,Kristie Blevins

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9781412809832

Category: Social Science

Page: 468

View: 3740

Criminology is in a period of much theoretical ferment. Older theories have been revitalized, and newer theories have been set forth. The very richness of our thinking about crime, however, leads to questions about the relative merits of these competing paradigms. Accordingly, in this volume advocates of prominent theories are asked to "take stock" of their perspectives. Their challenge is to assess the empirical status of their theory and to map out future directions for theoretical development. The volume begins with an assessment of three perspectives that have long been at the core of criminology: social learning theory, control theory, and strain theory. Drawing on these traditions, two major contemporary macro-level theories of crime have emerged and are here reviewed: institutional-anomie theory and collective efficacy theory. Critical criminology has yielded diverse contributions discussed in essays on feminist theories, radical criminology, peacemaking criminology, and the effects of racial segregation. The volume includes chapters examining Moffitt's insights on life-course persistent/adolescent-limited anti-social behavior and Sampson and Laub's life-course theory of crime. In addition, David Farrington provides a comprehensive assessment of the adequacy of the leading developmental and life-course theories of crime. Finally, Taking Stock presents essays that review the status of perspectives that have direct implications for the use of criminological knowledge to control crime. Taken together, these chapters provide a comprehensive update of the field's leading theories of crime. The volume will be of interest to criminological scholars and will be ideal for classroom use in courses reviewing contemporary theories of criminal behavior.
Law

The Origins of American Criminology

Advances in Criminological Theory

Author: Francis T. Cullen,Andrew J. Myer,Freda Adler,Cheryl Lero Jonson

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 1412844428

Category: Law

Page: 433

View: 4683

The Origins of American Criminology is an invaluable resource. Both separately and together, these essays capture the stories behind the invention of criminology’s major theoretical perspectives. They preserve information that otherwise would have been lost. There is urgency to embark on this reflective task given that the generation that defined the field for the past decades is heading into retirement. This fine volume insures that their life experiences will not be forgotten. The volume shows criminology to be a human enterprise. Ideas are not driven primarily—and often not at all—by data. Theories are not invented solely as part of the scientific process; they are not inevitable. American criminology’s great theories most often precede the collection of data; they guide and produce empirical inquiry, not vice versa. Theoretical paradigms are shaped by a host of factors—scholars’ assumptions about the world drawn from their social constructs, disciplinary content and ideology, cognitive environments found in specific universities and the field’s scholarly networks, and, quirks in a person’s biography. The volume demonstrates that humanity is what makes theory possible. Diverse experiences—when we were born, where we have lived, the unique trajectories of our personal life courses, the disciplines and academic places we have ended up—allow individual scholars to see the world differently.
Law

Criminology

Author: Freda Adler,Gerhard O. Mueller,William Laufer

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education

ISBN: 9780078026423

Category: Law

Page: 496

View: 5105

Criminology is known for its lucid style, student-oriented approach, and interdisciplinary perspective. This text discusses criminological problems, their origins, and possible solutions in a clear, practical, straightforward fashion. Students develop a thorough understanding of today’s issues in criminology and are prepared to address and resolve the issues of tomorrow. The eighth edition continues to incorporate the latest findings from criminological research into terrorism, while expanding coverage of new white-collar and corporate crimes related to the current economic downturn. New research and statistical information include coverage of neuro-criminology, evidence-based criminology, and much more.
Social Science

Criminology

The Essentials

Author: Anthony Walsh,Cody Jorgensen

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1506372023

Category: Social Science

Page: 392

View: 3015

Criminology: The Essentials, Third Edition, by Anthony Walsh and Cody Jorgensen, introduces students to major theoretical perspectives and criminology topics in a concise, easy-to-read format. This straightforward overview of the major subject areas in criminology still thoroughly covers the most up-to-date advances in theory and research. In the new full-color Third Edition, special features have been added to engage the reader in thinking critically about concepts in criminology.
Guilt

Die Schuldfrage

zur politischen Haftung Deutschlands

Author: Karl Jaspers

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Guilt

Page: 89

View: 3349

Law

Criminological Theories

Author: James F. Anderson,Professor Department of Surgery Center for Healthcare Studies Institute for Public Health and Medicine Feinberg School of Medicine Northwestern University Chicago Illinois Julie K Johnson,Helen Haskell,Paul Barach

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers

ISBN: 1449681883

Category: Law

Page: 300

View: 3303

Designed for undergraduate criminology and criminological theory courses, Criminological Theories: Understanding Crime in America, Second Edition explores crime, crime theory, and various forms of criminal behavior within the United States. It focuses exclusively on theory, avoiding superfluous discussion of the criminal justice system. Students will come away from the text with plausible explanations of crime causation, a greater appreciation of criminological theory, and the ability to think critically about the social reality of crime. Current and highly relevant, the text includes coverage of new developments in the field of criminology, including cultural, integrative, life-course, and green criminological theories.
Social Science

Control Theories of Crime and Delinquency

Author: Chester L. Britt,Michael R. Gottfredson

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9781412809009

Category: Social Science

Page: 281

View: 6451

For the past twenty to thirty years, control theories of crime have been at the center of theoretical development in criminology. Key to the control theory perspective is the notion that crime is an inherently individual act, and its explanation requires that we focus on the characteristics of individuals who commit crimes. Consequently, control theory focuses on such issues as self-control and social control. The contributions to this volume explicate and extend the application of control theory. It is divided into three general areas. Part 1 focuses on key assumptions and components of control theories. Contributors discuss the notion of learning, or socialization, in the context of control theory and the effects that families, peers, and the criminal justice system have on self-control, social ties, and criminal behavior. Part 2 applies control theory to areas typically assumed to be out of the domain of self-control theory and social control theory, such as gender differences in crime, domestic violence, and group crime. Considering control theory's emphasis on explaining individual criminal acts, these chapters suggest an interesting area of development by highlighting the possibility that differences in crime across or within groups may begin with individual characteristics and then making inferences about groups and group processes. Part 3 approaches the explanation of crime cross-nationally and at the macro-level. Although the authors take different approaches, they all illustrate that a theory of crime does not require culture-specific elements in order to be a valid cross-cultural explanation. Contributors to this volume include: Robert Agnew, Todd Armstrong, Leana Allen Bouffard, Augustine Brannigan, Chester Britt, Barbara Costello, Maja Dekovic, Matt DeLisi, Michael Gottfredson, Henriette Haas, Kelly H. Hardwick, Travis Hirschi, Marianne Junger, Martin Killias, Helen Mederer, Kevin Thompson, and Alexander Vazsonyi.
Social Science

The Oxford Handbook of Juvenile Crime and Juvenile Justice

Author: Barry C. Feld,Donna M. Bishop

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019020883X

Category: Social Science

Page: 960

View: 2127

Over the last two decades, researchers have made significant discoveries about the causes and origins of delinquency. Specifically, we have learned a great deal about adolescent development and its relationship to decision-making, about multiple factors that contribute to delinquency, and about the processes and contexts associated with the course of delinquent careers. Over the same period, public officials have made sweeping jurisprudential, jurisdictional, and procedural changes in our juvenile justice systems. The Oxford Handbook of Juvenile Crime and Juvenile Justice presents a timely compilation of state-of-the-art critical reviews of knowledge about causes of delinquency and their significance for justice policy, and about developments in the juvenile justice system to prevent and control youth crime. The first half of the handbook focuses on juvenile crime and examines trends and patterns in delinquency and victimization, explores causes of delinquency-at the individual, micro-social, and macro-social levels, and from natural and social science perspectives-and their implications for structuring a youth justice system. The second half of the handbook concentrates on juvenile justice and examines a range of issues-including the historical origins and re-invention of the juvenile court; juvenile offenders' mental health status and considerations of trial competence and culpability; intake, diversion, detention, and juvenile courts; and transfer/waiver strategies-and considers how the juvenile justice system itself influences delinquency. The Oxford Handbook of Juvenile Crime and Juvenile Justice provides a comprehensive overview of juvenile crime and juvenile justice administration by authors who are all leading scholars involved in cutting-edge research, and is an essential resource for scholars, students, and justice officials.
Social Science

An Introduction to Criminological Theory and the Problem of Causation

Author: Jason Warr

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319474464

Category: Social Science

Page: 94

View: 962

This text offers a novel contribution to the literature on core criminological theory by introducing the complex issues relating to the structuring and analysing of causation. This text traces the paradigm shift, or drift, that has occurred in the history of criminology and shows how the problem of causation has been a leading factor in these theoretical developments. This short book is the first of its kind and is an introductory text designed to introduce both seasoned criminologists as well as students of criminology to the interesting intersections between the fields of criminology and the philosophy of the social sciences. The problem of causation is notoriously difficult and has plagued philosophers and scientists for centuries. Warr highlights the importance of grappling with this problem and demonstrates how it can lead to unsuccessful theorising and can prevent students from fully appreciating the development of thinking in criminology. This accessible account will prove to be a must-read for scholars of criminal justice, penology and philosophy of social science.