Stephen Kern writes about the sweeping changes in technology and culture between 1880 and World War I that created new modes of understanding and experiencing time and space. To mark the book's twentieth anniversary, Kern provides an illuminating new preface about the breakthrough in interpretive approach that has made this a seminal work in interdisciplinary studies.
Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.
Entwurf einer kritischen Theorie spätmoderner Zeitlichkeit
Author: Hartmut Rosa
Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag
Category: Social Science
Die rasante Beschleunigung des sozialen Lebens ist eines der hervorstechenden Merkmale der Gegenwart, wird in den Sozialwissenschaften aber häufig übersehen. Hartmut Rosa hat mit seinen maßgeblichen Untersuchungen diesbezüglich Grundlagenarbeit geleistet. In seinem neuen Essay legt er dar, wie eine kritische Gesellschaftstheorie verfasst sein muss, die den Zusammenhang von Beschleunigung und Entfremdung ernst nimmt. Im Mittelpunkt steht die Frage nach dem guten Leben – und warum es uns heute vielfach nicht gelingt, ein solches zu führen. Immerhin sind durch die Liberalisierung moralischer Normen und sozialer Konventionen die in den westlichen Gesellschaften vorhandenen Freiräume des Einzelnen größer denn je, sich ein eigenes Konzept des guten Lebens zu wählen und zu verwirklichen. Dieser Liberalisierung steht jedoch die scheinbar unaufhaltsame Beschleunigung des sozialen Lebens im Kapitalismus gegenüber. Dieses Regime der Deadlines lässt Lebensentwürfe scheitern und führt zu einem sich immer stärker ausbreitenden Gefühl der Entfremdung. Behutsam und anhand von konkreten Beispielen sucht Rosa nach Formen nichtentfremdeten Lebens. Sein pointierter Essay ist nicht nur eine konzise Einführung in die Theorie der Beschleunigung, sondern eröffnet auch erste Perspektiven, wie wir dem rasenden Stillstand entkommen können.
Many of us take for granted that what we perceive is a completely accurate representation of the world around us. Yet we have all had the experience of suddenly realizing that the keys or glasses that we had been looking for in vain were right in front of us the whole time. The capacity of our sense organs far exceeds our mental capabilities, and as such, looking at something does not guarantee that we will notice it. Our minds constantly prioritize and organize the information we take in, bringing certain things to the foreground, while letting others - that which we deem irrelevant - recede into the background. What ultimately determines what we perceive, and what we do not? In this fascinating book, noted sociologist Eviatar Zerubavel argues that we perceive things not just as human beings but as social beings. Drawing on fascinating examples from science, the art world, optical illusions, and all walks of life, he shows that what we notice or ignore varies across cultures and throughout history, and illustrates how our environment and our social lives - everything from our lifestyles to our professions to our nationalities - play a role in determining how we actually use our senses to access the world. A subtle yet powerful examination of one of the central features of our conscious life, this book offers a way to think about all that might otherwise remain hidden in plain sight.
Welches politische System bietet langfristig Frieden, Gerechtigkeit und Humanität? Jeremy Rifkin macht sich auf die Suche nach einer neuen, zukunftsfähigen Weltordnung. Und er findet sie - in Europa. Der alte Kontinent ist der Hoffnungsträger für eine gerechtere Welt.
"John Tomlinson's book is an invitation to an adventure. It contains a precious key to unlock the doors into the unmapped and unexplored cultural and ethical condition of 'immediacy'. Without this key concept from now on it will not be possible to make sense of the social existence of our times and its ambivalences." - Ulrich Beck, University of Munich "A most welcome, stimulating and challenging exploration of the cultural impact and significance of speed in advanced modern societies. It successfully interweaves theoretical discourse, historical and contemporary analyses and imaginative use of literary sources, all of which are mobilised in order to provide an original, intellectually rewarding and critical account of the changing significance of speed in our everyday experience." - David Frisby, London School of Economics and Political Science Is the pace of life accelerating? If so, what are the cultural, social, personal and economic consequences? This stimulating and accessible book examines how speed emerged as a cultural issue during industrial modernity. The rise of capitalist society and the shift to urban settings was rapid and tumultuous and was defined by the belief in 'progress'. The first obstacle faced by societies that were starting to 'speed up' was how to regulate and control the process. The attempt to regulate the acceleration of life created a new set of problems, namely the way in which speed escapes regulation and rebels against controls. This pattern of acceleration and control subsequently defined debates about the cultural effects of acceleration. However, in the 21st century 'immediacy', the combination of fast capitalism and the saturation of the everyday by media technologies, has emerged as the core feature of control. This coming of immediacy will inexorably change how we think about and experience media culture, consumption practices, and the core of our cultural and moral values. Incisive and richly illustrated, this eye-opening account of speed and culture provides an original guide to one of the central features of contemporary culture and everyday life.
Victorian Time examines how literature of the era registers the psychological impact of the onset of a modern, industrialized experience of time as time-saving technologies, such as steam-powered machinery, aimed at making economic life more efficient, signalling the dawn of a new age of accelerated time.
Time and space are two of the most basic dimensions of human life. They envelop all human beings from birth to death. As such, they provide the context for human existence. At the same time, however, time and space also serve as major influencing factors in mankind's actions. Hence, a vast literature has developed on time and space as separate dimensions, and recently on time-space as joint dimensions. Interestingly enough, the social connotations of time and space have mostly been studied with the individual human being in mind. The more societal significance of time and space, whether separately or jointly, have been relatively neglected. It is the purpose of this volume to help fill this lacuna through discussions on some of the many junctions of time, space, and society at large. The discussion will naturally involve concepts and findings from more than just one discipline -- notably, geography, sociology, social history and political science. It is, thus, obvious that the topic may be highlighted from several perspectives. Given my own education and work, the approach will lean more to the geographical perspective. Geography has a special merit as an integrating framework for the study of time, space, and society. It is a discipline that has space at the center of its raison d'etre and, as such, has always striven for integration, holism and comprehensiveness.
There are several characteristics of Nathan Rotenstreich's work which are striking: his thoughtful writings are both subtle and deep; they are steeped in his critical appreciation of other thinkers of this and preceding times, an appreciation which is formed by his learned understanding of the history of philosophy; and with all this, he has an original and independent intelligence. He has from time to time brought his skills to bear upon historical scholarship, most notably perhaps in his book Between Past and Present (1958, 2nd edition, 1973), his interpretive essays in the philosophy of history Philosophy, History and Politics (1976) and his scholarly work concerned with the influence of historical development upon modern Jewish thought, Tradition and Reality (1972). Related to these, and equally works of that philosophical humanity which Professor Rotenstreich embodies, are his Humanism in the Contemporary Era (1963), Spirit and Man: An Essay on Being and Value (1963) and Reflection and Action (1983). Rotenstreich combines both the naturalistic and the phenomenological attitudes in an interesting and illuminating way through the full spectrum of issues in the philosophy of history in this century. Surely he sets boundaries to any doubtful extrapolation. Not only would he bring the understanding of history back from those who claim it as only a positive science but equally would he prevent the transformation of that understanding into merely speculative inquiry.
What does music have to say about modernity? How can this apparently unworldly art tell us anything about modern life? In Out of Time, author Julian Johnson begins from the idea that it can, arguing that music renders an account of modernity from the inside, a history not of events but of sensibility, an archaeology of experience. If music is better understood from this broad perspective, our idea of modernity itself is also enriched by the specific insights of music. The result is a rehearing of modernity and a rethinking of music - an account that challenges ideas of linear progress and reconsiders the common concerns of music, old and new. If all music since 1600 is modern music, the similarities between Monteverdi and Schoenberg, Bach and Stravinsky, or Beethoven and Boulez, become far more significant than their obvious differences. Johnson elaborates this idea in relation to three related areas of experience - temporality, history and memory; space, place and technology; language, the body, and sound. Criss-crossing four centuries of Western culture, he moves between close readings of diverse musical examples (from the madrigal to electronic music) and drawing on the history of science and technology, literature, art, philosophy, and geography. Against the grain of chronology and the usual divisions of music history, Johnson proposes profound connections between musical works from quite different times and places. The multiple lines of the resulting map, similar to those of the London Underground, produce a bewildering network of plural connections, joining Stockhausen to Galileo, music printing to sound recording, the industrial revolution to motivic development, steam trains to waltzes. A significant and groundbreaking work, Out of Time is essential reading for anyone interested in the history of music and modernity.
This volume brings together a distinguished group of international scholars to discuss the major debates in the study of early twentieth-century Europe. Brings together contributions from a distinguished group of international scholars. Provides an overview of current thinking on the period. Traces the great political, social and economic upheavals of the time. Illuminates perennial themes, as well as new areas of enquiry. Takes a pan-European approach, highlighting similarities and differences across nations and regions.
Modernism and the Architecture of Private Life offers a bold new assessment of the role of the domestic sphere in modernist literature, architecture, and design. Elegantly synthesizing modernist literature with architectural plans, room designs, and decorative art, Victoria Rosner's work explores the collaborations among modern British writers, interior designers, and architects in redefining the form, function, and meaning of middle-class private life. Drawing on a host of previously unexamined archival sources and works by figures such as E. M. Forster, Roger Fry, Oscar Wilde, James McNeill Whistler, and Virginia Woolf, Rosner highlights the participation of modernist literature in the creation of an experimental, embodied, and unstructured private life, which we continue to characterize as "modern."
On the surface, "wartime" is a period of time in which a society is at war. But we now live in what President Obama has called "an age without surrender ceremonies," where it is no longer easy to distinguish between times of war and times of peace. In this inventive meditation on war, time, and the law, Mary Dudziak argues that wartime is not as discrete a time period as we like to think. Instead, America has been engaged in some form of ongoing overseas armed conflict for over a century. Meanwhile policy makers and the American public continue to view wars as exceptional events that eventually give way to normal peace times. This has two consequences: first, because war is thought to be exceptional, "wartime" remains a shorthand argument justifying extreme actions like torture and detention without trial; and second, ongoing warfare is enabled by the inattention of the American people. More disconnected than ever from the wars their nation is fighting, public disengagement leaves us without political restraints on the exercise of American war powers.
Imitation and Authenticity in American Culture, 1880-1940
Author: Miles Orvell
Publisher: UNC Press Books
In this classic study of the relationship between technology and culture, Miles Orvell demonstrates that the roots of contemporary popular culture reach back to the Victorian era, when mechanical replications of familiar objects reigned supreme and realism dominated artistic representation. Reacting against this genteel culture of imitation, a number of artists and intellectuals at the turn of the century were inspired by the machine to create more authentic works of art that were themselves "real things." The resulting tension between a culture of imitation and a culture of authenticity, argues Orvell, has become a defining category in our culture. The twenty-fifth anniversary edition includes a new preface by the author, looking back on the late twentieth century and assessing tensions between imitation and authenticity in the context of our digital age. Considering material culture, photography, and literature, the book touches on influential figures such as writers Walt Whitman, Henry James, John Dos Passos, and James Agee; photographers Alfred Stieglitz, Walker Evans, and Margaret Bourke-White; and architect-designers Gustav Stickley and Frank Lloyd Wright.
Stereo is everywhere. The whole culture and industry of music and sound became organized around the principle of stereophony during the twentieth century. But nothing about this-not the invention or acceptance or ubiquity of stereo-was inevitable. Nor did the aesthetic conventions, technological objects, and listening practices required to make sense of stereo emerge fully formed, out of the blue. This groundbreaking book uncovers the vast amount of work that has been required to make stereo seem natural, and which has been necessary to maintain stereo's place as a dominant mode of sound reproduction for over half a century. The essays contained within this book are thematically grouped under (Audio) Positions, Listening Cultures, and Multichannel Sound and Screen Media; the cumulative effect is to advance research in music, sound, and media studies and to build new bridges between the fields. With contributions from leading scholars across several disciplines, Living Stereo re-tells the history of twentieth-century aural and musical culture through the lens of stereophonic sound.
This book provides a clear and helpful overview of the thought of Emmanuel Levinas, one of the most significant and interesting philosophers of the late twentieth century. Michael L. Morgan presents an overall interpretation of Levinas' central principle that human existence is fundamentally ethical and that its ethical character is grounded in our face-to-face relationships. He explores the religious, cultural and political implications of this insight for modern Western culture and how it relates to our conception of selfhood and what it is to be a person, our understanding of the ground of moral values, our experience of time and the meaning of history, and our experience of religious concepts and discourse. Includes an annotated list of recommended readings and a selected bibliography of books by and about Levinas. An excellent introduction to Levinas for readers unfamiliar with his work and even for those without a background in philosophy.