Social scientists, when making their studies of the structure of family groups, have often observed the current situation of a particular group of families and drawn conclusions from that static picture. Valuable as many of these conclusions may be, they are incomplete because they overlook the important fact that the structure of the family changes. These changes can be fitted into a developmental cycle in which the family or group changes in composition from its original two members to a larger group and finally two again. This book, originally published in 1958, is introduced by a substantial essay and reviews the papers collected here and discusses the theoretical background and implications of the use of the concept of the developmental cycle. The papers each demonstrate how the changing structure of the domestic group may be seen to explain otherwise obscure elements of the particular society.
Originally published in the UK in 1970. The central argument of this book is that the structuralist theory and method developed by British and American anthropologists in the study of kinship and social organization are the direct descendants of the researches of Lewis Henry Morgan. Re-examining Morgan's work, the book demonstrates how a tradition of mis-interpretation has disguised the true import of Morgan's discoveries and ideas for Rivers and Radcliffe-Brown and the generation of anthropologists inspired by them.
Descent, Succession and Inheritance Among the Toka of Zambia
Author: Ladislav Holy
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Social Science
The theme of this book is the analysis of the changes that have occurred in the kinship patterns of the Toka of South Zambia as a result of a shift in their form of production from hoe agriculture to ox-drawn ploughing. Dr Holy uses the rich, detailed ethnography that he provides about these changes to confront several theoretical issues of current anthropological interest, as well as to examine the basic methodological problems of anthropological enquiry. Emphasizing the distinction between the conceptual and cognitive world of the actors, and the transactions and events in which they engage, he argues that anthropological explanation has to account not only for structure, but also for the purposeful interaction between actors that generates that structure.
Ideology and Society in the Era of the Peloponnesian War
Author: Barry S. Strauss
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Father-son conflict was for the Athenians a topic of widespread interest that touched the core of both family and political life, particularly during times of social upheaval. In this vivid account of the intermingling of politics and the private sphere in classical Athens, Barry Strauss explores the tensions experienced by a society that cherished both youthful independence and paternal authority. He examines father-son relations within the Athenian family and the way these relations were represented in a wide variety of political and literary texts. His inquiry reveals that representations of patricide, father beating, and son murdering did not necessarily coincide with actual instances but rather served as metaphors for intergenerational tensions fueled by democracy, the sophists, and the Peloponnesian War. Strauss points out that major Athenian accounts of father-son conflict--such as the myth of the Athenian national hero, Theseus, and the plays of Euripides and Aristophanes--were either produced or enthusiastically revived during the war. He traces the relation between the use of familial metaphors in these accounts and fluctuations in Athenian wartime ideology: as the fortunes of Athens shifted, citizens went from confidence in their elder statesman Pericles to enthusiasm over a new generation of young politicians led by Pericles' ward Alcibiades, and back to an insistence on what Athenians called the "paternal" rule of older leaders. In emphasizing the blurring of boundaries between family and state, or private and public, in Athens, Strauss encourages us to reflect anew on the distinction between these concepts and on the difficulties of putting that distinction into practice today.
Researchers in child development often study children in isolation--apart from the environmental influences that shape, nurture, or harm them. In 'Children of Social Worlds', leading social scientists show how much is lost by this approach. Their underlying assumption is that children's psychological development can be understood only in the context of the social worlds in which they grow up and that the disciplinary boundaries of traditional psychology must be expanded.
This study of kinship relations, economics, and household organization among the modern Longhouse Iroquois, located in Ontario, Canada, fills a crucial gap in our knowledge of modern Iroquoian culture and history and provides a treasury of information about Longhouse social organization. Founded by nearly two thousand Iroquois allies of the British crown in 1784, the Six Nations Reserve became the first Iroquoian community to contain members of all five tribes of the original Iroquois Confederacy. By the mid-twentieth century, the reserve had divided along the lines of politics and religion into two distinct social groups, those who practiced Christianity and the followers of the more traditional Longhouse religion. In the late 1950s, Merlin G. Myers conducted fieldwork among these traditionalists. He collected data on household structure and kinship relations from 150 families and interpreted his findings within the context of structural-functional anthropology, providing a rare example of British anthropological theory from this time applied to a North American Native community. His work also features valuable Cayuga linguistic contributions.
Social Science by Roger M. Keesing,Felix Maxwell Keesing
The Gê-speaking tribes of Central Brazil have always been an anomaly in the annals of anthropology; their exceedingly simple technology contrasts sharply with their highly complex sociological and ideological traditions. Dialectical Societies, the outgrowth of extended anthropological research organized by David Maybury-Lewis, at long last demystifies Gê social structure while modifying and reinterpreting some of the traditional ideas held about kinship, affiliation, and descent. Each of the seven contributors deals with a different lowland tribe, but all of them address an ideological focus on the dualistic tribal organization that is here defined as fundamental to the Gê As a collection, their work comprises a substantial revision of the hitherto undeveloped and largely ignored ethnography of Central Brazil.
A Study Among the Mishing of the Brahmaputra Valley
Author: J. S. Bhandari
Publisher: Gyan Books
Category: Assam (India)
This is a comprehensive ethnography account of the Mishing, the second larges tribe of Assam, inhabiting the Brahamputra Valley. In this book the author raises important theoretical issues pertaining to the analysts of Kinship, descent and affinity in anthropological studies.