The Foreign Relations of the ANC Since 1960
Author: Scott M. Thomas
Category: Political Science
After the Sharpeville massacre of 1960 precipitated a popular uprising and the subsequent arrest of the ANC's military wing, organized opposition to apartheid within South Africa was eliminated. For 30 years the ANC led a shadowy existence in exile and its most basic problem was one of survival. This book offers and explanation of how the foreign relations of the ANC contributed to its survival and looks at the closely related issue of how the ANC's alliance with the South African Communist Party and the support of the Soviet Union solved the problem of how to continue financing the armed struggle. Examining the ANC's diplomacy in action, Thomas shows how the liberation movement attained its main diplomatic objectives - the mobilization of international support for mandatory sanctions; the arms embargo and the diplomatic isolation of South Africa; and the translation of international opposition to apartheid into support for the ANC as the sole legitimate representative of South Africa's oppressed people.
Diplomatic, Economic and Military Campaigns
Author: Richard Dale
The decolonization of Namibia was delayed from 1966 to 1989--the period of the war of independence--pitting the Namibian nationalists against the South African minority-ruled regime. This book describes the diplomatic, economic and military campaigns of the Namibian and South African belligerents and draws a comparison with several other decolonization wars. Using data from parliamentary debates, the aftermath is examined of the Namibian war and the newly independent nation. The book provides a basis for further investigation of the decolonization process.
The ANC in Exile, 1960-1990
Author: Stephen Ellis
Publisher: Oxford University Press (UK)
Category: Political Science
Nelson Mandela's release from prison in February 1990 was one of the most memorable moments of recent decades. It came a few days after the removal of the ban on the African National Congress; founded a century ago and outlawed in 1960, it had transferred its headquarters abroad and opened what it termed an External Mission. For the thirty years following its banning, the ANC had fought relentlessly against the apartheid state. Finally voted into office in 1994, the ANC today regards its armed struggle as the central plank of its legitimacy. External Mission is the first study of the ANC's period in exile, based on a full range of sources in southern Africa and Europe. These include the ANC's own archives and also those of the Stasi, the East German ministry that trained the ANC's security personnel. It reveals that the decision to create the Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation) -- guerrilla army which later became the ANC's armed wing -- as made not by the ANC but by its allies in the South African Communist Party after negotiations with Chinese leader Mao Zedong. In this impressive work, Ellis shows that many of the strategic decisions made, and many of the political issues that arose during the course of that protracted armed struggle, had a lasting effect on South Africa, shaping its society even up to the present day.
Diplomacy, Leadership and the Role of the African National Congress
Author: Matthew Graham
The emergence of a 'new' democratic South Africa under Nelson Mandela was regarded as a high watermark for international ideals of human rights and democracy. Much was expected of the ANC in power, particularly that it would be able to translate its ideals into a coherent foreign policy for the African continent. Yet its foreign policy since 1994 has been mired in accusations of incoherence, contradiction and failure. Here, based on extensive archival research and interviews, Matthew Graham offers new ways of interpreting South Africa's foreign policy by investigating the continuities and discontinuities of the ANC’s international relations – from exile to political power. Charting the political intrigues during the country's transition from apartheid, and the subsequent influences on Presidents Mandela and Mbeki, The Crisis of South African Foreign Policy makes a vital contribution to our understanding of why post-apartheid South Africa has failed to lead Africa on the world stage.
state politics and international relations
Author: Peter Woodward
Publisher: I B Tauris & Co Ltd
The Horn of Africa - principally comprising Somalia, Sudan and Ethiopia - is the stage on which Africa's tragedy is being played out in stark and violent form. In this revised edition of Peter Woodward's comprehensive history of the region, he argues that while conflicts of ethnicity, religion, history and tradition, and the dangers of international conflict, have been lessened by the end of the Cold War, it remains a flash-point standing at the hinge of Africa and the Middle East. Peacekeeping by the USA and UN has ended in bloodshed and failure and all is overladen by Africa's perennial problems of drought, disease and starvation.
Author: R. W. Beachey
Publisher: I B Tauris & Company Limited
Covering a vital period in the history and development of East Africa this narrative history of the vast region explores the diverse cultural influences of the Arab peoples who traded with East Africa and settled there, Portuguese traders who arrived from the late 17th century onwards and the first wave of settlers from the Indian Subcontinent who arrived in the 19th century. Focusing in particular on the emergence of the slave trade and the subsequent anti-slave trade campaigns, the book is based on contemporary and little known sources. The author shows how rivalries between Britain, France, Germany, Belgium and America were played out in this region prior to the early years of the British colonial administration and settlement. Special attention is given to a number of key issues such as Lugard's land settlement in Uganda; the demarcation of boundaries and the rounding out of frontiers; the role of the Imperial British East Africa Company in the partition of East Africa; Anglo-German rivalry and the foundation of German East Africa; the little-known story of Italian ambitions in the region; the completion of the Uganda Railway to Lake Victoria; and the concept of British East Africa as two distinct parts: Uganda and the East Africa Protectorate. The emphasis of Beachey's book is part-diplomatic and international history, part exploration and colonial history, and focuses on the early industrial and infrastructural development of the region, and the beginnings of white settlement in Kenya.
A New Historical Geography of South Africa
Author: Alan Lester
This work traces the developments of modern South African society, establishing the geographical and historical context in which adaptation has occurred. The author identifies and explains the most important historical continuities in South Africa, which have done most to shape present society. These include social geography, economic structure and external links and influences.
The Misunderstood Miracle
Author: Adrian Guelke
Publisher: I. B. Tauris
The most surprising aspect of South Africa's transition has been the speed of the move from National Party government, based on white Afrikaaner support, to one dominated by the ANC, with overwhelming support among Africans except in rural areas of KwaZulu-Natal. In this stimulating study, Adrian Guelke argues that the widely-held view of the emergence of the new South Africa as a modern miracle has to be viewed with extreme caution. The author begins in the 1980s when political analysts spoke of political impasse and when the "elusive search for peace" seemed mired in insoluble problems. He considers the period from the release of Mandela up to the 1994 elections and argues that the undoubted success story must be seen against the background of exploding economic and social problems, as well as polarization on racial lines, reinforced by ANC dominance. South Africa's path to majority rule bears a strong resemblance to that of other formerly white settler-dominated states like Kenya, Zimbabwe and Namibia; but the "miracle" has been misunderstood and the political achievement overshadowed by the problems inherited from the old regime.
Conflict of Interests
Author: A. Thomson
Category: Political Science
This book charts the evolution of US foreign policy towards South Africa, beginning in 1948 when the architects of apartheid, the Nationalist Party, came to power. Thomson highlights three sets of conflicting Western interests: strategic, economic and human rights.
Implications for U.S. National Security
Author: Lloyd Thrall
Publisher: Rand Corporation
Across economic, political, and security domains, the growth of China’s presence in Africa has been swift and staggering, which has fed both simplistic caricatures of China’s role on the continent and fears of renewed geopolitical competition. A closer look reveals a more balanced picture. This report examines how China’s growing engagement affects the United States’ role in Africa and offers policy recommendations for U.S. military leaders.
International Organization Bibliography and Resources
Author: Union of International Associations
Publisher: De Gruyter Saur
Category: Political Science
Yearbook of International Organizations is the most comprehensive reference resource and provides current details of international non-governmental (NGO) and intergovernmental organizations (IGO). Collected and documented by the Union of International Associations (UIA), detailed information on international organizations worldwide can be found here. Besides historical and organizational information, details on activities, events or publications, contact details, biographies of the leading individuals as well as the presentation of networks of organizations are included.
From Apartheid to Neoliberalism in South Africa
Author: Patrick Bond
Publisher: Pluto Press
Category: Political Science
In Elite Transition, Patrick Bond examines the economic and social compromises that have been, and are being, made between the past and present powers in South Africa. A former adviser to the ANC, Bond investigates how groups such as the ANC went from being a force of liberation for all people to a vehicle now perceived as serving the economic interests of an elite few.Bond covers a range of socioeconomic factors under both the old and new South Africa, highlighting the reasons for the transition's 'development' failure and drawing on case studies on key issues: social contracts, black economic empowerment, housing and corporate power. He explores the idea that progressive policymaking is being compromised by the new petit bourgeoisie and ruling elite, and assesses the view that, as change slows down, official policy is increasingly one of lower expectations.
Identity Politics in a Globalised Economy
Author: Rebecca Davies
Category: Social Science
How has the position of Afrikaners changed since the end of the Apartheid regime in South Africa? Here Davies portrays the stresses, strains and processes of change in a rapidly evolving political landscape. Much has been written about the African National Congress, its support base and alliance partners in the post-apartheid era, but Afrikaner politics and identity remain underexplored. Orthodox analyses suggested a bleak future for an Afrikaner grouping in contemporary South Africa, subjugated under an ANC government broadly aligned against Afrikaner interests. While the once sound links between the state, the regime and Afrikaner nationalist identity have been irrevocably altered, it is evident that this newly disempowered minority still commands a vast material and cultural capital. Davies shows that certain Afrikaans speakers have been increasingly marginalized in the new order, while others have become important players in the new South Africa and on the world stage, enthusiastically embracing elements of the wider politico-economic order. Indeed, prominent Afrikaner constituencies including business and cultural elites are flourishing in contemporary South Africa. Davies argues that the global political economy and the closely associated ideology of globalization and neo-liberal economics are major catalysts for change in Afrikaner identifications and positions, resulting in ‘successful’ adaptations to the post-apartheid context. She demonstrates the links between these global influences and more local social, economic and political developments, showing how shifts in the global economy have served to constrict or empower different elite and non-elite Afrikaans constituencies. Davies sheds light on a complex and riven political context by identifying and deconstructing multiple Afrikaner constituencies and identities, and showing how they play out in the social, economic and political landscape of South Africa. By providing a detailed case study of the impact of globalization on identity and politics in societies in flux, she advances a new theoretical framework for understanding identity politics grounded in an international political economy perspective. Accessible, informative and well-written, ‘Afrikaners in the New South Africa’ is a vital contribution to our understanding of post-apartheid South Africa. It will be indispensable for readers and academics interested in the politics of post-apartheid South Africa, Afrikaners, identity politics, globalization, international political economy and geography.