After the Sharpeville massacre of 1960 precipitated a popular uprising and the subsequent arrest of the ANC's military wing, organized opposition to apartheid within South Africa was eliminated. For 30 years the ANC led a shadowy existence in exile and its most basic problem was one of survival. This book offers and explanation of how the foreign relations of the ANC contributed to its survival and looks at the closely related issue of how the ANC's alliance with the South African Communist Party and the support of the Soviet Union solved the problem of how to continue financing the armed struggle. Examining the ANC's diplomacy in action, Thomas shows how the liberation movement attained its main diplomatic objectives - the mobilization of international support for mandatory sanctions; the arms embargo and the diplomatic isolation of South Africa; and the translation of international opposition to apartheid into support for the ANC as the sole legitimate representative of South Africa's oppressed people.
The decolonization of Namibia was delayed from 1966 to 1989—the period of the war of independence—pitting the Namibian nationalists against the South African minority-ruled regime. This book describes the diplomatic, economic and military campaigns of the Namibian and South African belligerents and draws a comparison with several other decolonization wars. Using data from parliamentary debates, the aftermath is examined of the Namibian war and the newly independent nation. The book provides a basis for further investigation of the decolonization process.
The emergence of a 'new' democratic South Africa under Nelson Mandela was regarded as a high watermark for international ideals of human rights and democracy. Much was expected of the ANC in power, particularly that it would be able to translate its ideals into a coherent foreign policy for the African continent. Yet its foreign policy since 1994 has been mired in accusations of incoherence, contradiction and failure. Here, based on extensive archival research and interviews, Matthew Graham offers new ways of interpreting South Africa's foreign policy by investigating the continuities and discontinuities of the ANC's international relations - from exile to political power. Charting the political intrigues during the country's transition from apartheid, and the subsequent influences on Presidents Mandela and Mbeki, The Crisis of South African Foreign Policy makes a vital contribution to our understanding of why post-apartheid South Africa has failed to lead Africa on the world stage.
Nelson Mandela's release from prison in February 1990 was one of the most memorable moments of recent decades. It came a few days after the removal of the ban on the African National Congress; founded a century ago and outlawed in 1960, it had transferred its headquarters abroad and opened what it termed an External Mission. For the thirty years following its banning, the ANC had fought relentlessly against the apartheid state. Finally voted into office in 1994, the ANC today regards its armed struggle as the central plank of its legitimacy. External Mission is the first study of the ANC's period in exile, based on a full range of sources in southern Africa and Europe. These include the ANC's own archives and also those of the Stasi, the East German ministry that trained the ANC's security personnel. It reveals that the decision to create the Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation) -- guerrilla army which later became the ANC's armed wing -- as made not by the ANC but by its allies in the South African Communist Party after negotiations with Chinese leader Mao Zedong. In this impressive work, Ellis shows that many of the strategic decisions made, and many of the political issues that arose during the course of that protracted armed struggle, had a lasting effect on South Africa, shaping its society even up to the present day.
The Horn of Africa - principally comprising Somalia, Sudan and Ethiopia - is the stage on which Africa's tragedy is being played out in stark and violent form. In this revised edition of Peter Woodward's comprehensive history of the region, he argues that while conflicts of ethnicity, religion, history and tradition, and the dangers of international conflict, have been lessened by the end of the Cold War, it remains a flash-point standing at the hinge of Africa and the Middle East. Peacekeeping by the USA and UN has ended in bloodshed and failure and all is overladen by Africa's perennial problems of drought, disease and starvation.