After the Sharpeville massacre of 1960 precipitated a popular uprising and the subsequent arrest of the ANC's military wing, organized opposition to apartheid within South Africa was eliminated. For 30 years the ANC led a shadowy existence in exile and its most basic problem was one of survival. This book offers and explanation of how the foreign relations of the ANC contributed to its survival and looks at the closely related issue of how the ANC's alliance with the South African Communist Party and the support of the Soviet Union solved the problem of how to continue financing the armed struggle. Examining the ANC's diplomacy in action, Thomas shows how the liberation movement attained its main diplomatic objectives - the mobilization of international support for mandatory sanctions; the arms embargo and the diplomatic isolation of South Africa; and the translation of international opposition to apartheid into support for the ANC as the sole legitimate representative of South Africa's oppressed people.
The decolonization of Namibia was delayed from 1966 to 1989—the period of the war of independence—pitting the Namibian nationalists against the South African minority-ruled regime. This book describes the diplomatic, economic and military campaigns of the Namibian and South African belligerents and draws a comparison with several other decolonization wars. Using data from parliamentary debates, the aftermath is examined of the Namibian war and the newly independent nation. The book provides a basis for further investigation of the decolonization process.
Nelson Mandela's release from prison in February 1990 was one of the most memorable moments of recent decades. It came a few days after the removal of the ban on the African National Congress; founded a century ago and outlawed in 1960, it had transferred its headquarters abroad and opened what it termed an External Mission. For the thirty years following its banning, the ANC had fought relentlessly against the apartheid state. Finally voted into office in 1994, the ANC today regards its armed struggle as the central plank of its legitimacy. External Mission is the first study of the ANC's period in exile, based on a full range of sources in southern Africa and Europe. These include the ANC's own archives and also those of the Stasi, the East German ministry that trained the ANC's security personnel. It reveals that the decision to create the Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation) -- guerrilla army which later became the ANC's armed wing -- as made not by the ANC but by its allies in the South African Communist Party after negotiations with Chinese leader Mao Zedong. In this impressive work, Ellis shows that many of the strategic decisions made, and many of the political issues that arose during the course of that protracted armed struggle, had a lasting effect on South Africa, shaping its society even up to the present day.
The Horn of Africa - principally comprising Somalia, Sudan and Ethiopia - is the stage on which Africa's tragedy is being played out in stark and violent form. In this revised edition of Peter Woodward's comprehensive history of the region, he argues that while conflicts of ethnicity, religion, history and tradition, and the dangers of international conflict, have been lessened by the end of the Cold War, it remains a flash-point standing at the hinge of Africa and the Middle East. Peacekeeping by the USA and UN has ended in bloodshed and failure and all is overladen by Africa's perennial problems of drought, disease and starvation.
Covering a vital period in the history and development of East Africa this narrative history of the vast region explores the diverse cultural influences of the Arab peoples who traded with East Africa and settled there, Portuguese traders who arrived from the late 17th century onwards and the first wave of settlers from the Indian Subcontinent who arrived in the 19th century. Focusing in particular on the emergence of the slave trade and the subsequent anti-slave trade campaigns, the book is based on contemporary and little known sources. The author shows how rivalries between Britain, France, Germany, Belgium and America were played out in this region prior to the early years of the British colonial administration and settlement. Special attention is given to a number of key issues such as Lugard's land settlement in Uganda; the demarcation of boundaries and the rounding out of frontiers; the role of the Imperial British East Africa Company in the partition of East Africa; Anglo-German rivalry and the foundation of German East Africa; the little-known story of Italian ambitions in the region; the completion of the Uganda Railway to Lake Victoria; and the concept of British East Africa as two distinct parts: Uganda and the East Africa Protectorate. The emphasis of Beachey's book is part-diplomatic and international history, part exploration and colonial history, and focuses on the early industrial and infrastructural development of the region, and the beginnings of white settlement in Kenya.
This work traces the developments of modern South African society, establishing the geographical and historical context in which adaptation has occurred. The author identifies and explains the most important historical continuities in South Africa, which have done most to shape present society. These include social geography, economic structure and external links and influences.
The most surprising aspect of South Africa's transition has been the speed of the move from National Party government, based on white Afrikaaner support, to one dominated by the ANC, with overwhelming support among Africans except in rural areas of KwaZulu-Natal. In this stimulating study, Adrian Guelke argues that the widely-held view of the emergence of the new South Africa as a modern miracle has to be viewed with extreme caution. The author begins in the 1980s when political analysts spoke of political impasse and when the "elusive search for peace" seemed mired in insoluble problems. He considers the period from the release of Mandela up to the 1994 elections and argues that the undoubted success story must be seen against the background of exploding economic and social problems, as well as polarization on racial lines, reinforced by ANC dominance. South Africa's path to majority rule bears a strong resemblance to that of other formerly white settler-dominated states like Kenya, Zimbabwe and Namibia; but the "miracle" has been misunderstood and the political achievement overshadowed by the problems inherited from the old regime.
Beginning in 1983/84 published in 3 vols., with expansion to 6 vols. by 2007/2008: vol. 1--Organization descriptions and cross references; vol. 2--Geographic volume: international organization participation; vol. 3--Subject volume; vol. 4--Bibliography and resources; vol. 5--Statistics, visualizations and patterns; vol. 6--Who's who in international organizations. (From year to year some slight variations in naming of the volumes).
Die neue politische Elite Südafrikas wird vom African National Congress (ANC) dominiert. Viele Mitglieder des ANC wurden durch langjähriges Exil geprägt, und ehemalige Exilanten bilden heute in der ANC-Führung und der Regierung die Mehrheit. Die vorliegende Studie sucht die Einflüsse von Exil und Exilerfahrungen auf aktuelle Entwicklungen, gesellschaftspolitische Strategien und die politische Kultur in Südafrika zu ermitteln. Während des Exils 1960 bis 1990 hatte der ANC zunächst unter komplizierten Bedingungen um das Überleben zu kämpfen, konnte dann jedoch seine Auslandsverankerung zunehmend für die Stärkung seines nationalen und internationalen Ansehens und für die inhaltliche und personelle Vorbereitung auf eine politische Machtübernahme nutzen. Der Autor untersucht am Beispiel zweier Schlüsselregionen der südafrikanischen Diaspora - den afrikanischen Frontstaaten und Großbritannien - Bedingungen und Entwicklungslinien des Exils, vor allem aber dessen Einfluss auf die politische, professionelle und auch persönliche Entwicklung von ANC-Führungskräften. Thematisiert werden zudem übergreifende politische Einflüsse, wie das Verhältnis des ANC zur einflussreichen KP Südafrikas sowie die Auswirkungen des Ost-West-Konfliktes auf den Befreiungskampf im südlichen Afrika. Ergänzt und vertieft wird diese Analyse durch knapp 20 biografische Untersuchungen, die sich südafrikanischen Exilanten unterschiedlicher Generationen, Bevölkerungsgruppen und politisch-hierarchischer Strukturen widmen. Neben der Auswertung der bisher eher spärlichen wissenschaftlichen Literatur zum Thema und veröffentlichter Memoiren stützt sich der Autor vor allem auf Quellen aus Archiven in Fort Hare und Bellville in Südafrika sowie in London und Oxford, auf südafrikanische Quellensammlungen und auf eine große Zahl eigener Interviews mit ehemaligen Exilanten und Zeitzeugen.