Psychology

The Distracted Mind

Ancient Brains in a High-Tech World

Author: Adam Gazzaley,Larry D. Rosen

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262034948

Category: Psychology

Page: 304

View: 8333

Why our brains aren't built for media multitasking, and how we can learn to live with technology in a more balanced way.
Psychology

The Distracted Mind

Ancient Brains in a High-Tech World

Author: Adam Gazzaley,Larry D. Rosen

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262336324

Category: Psychology

Page: 304

View: 5382

"Brilliant and practical, just what we need in these techno-human times."--Jack Kornfield, author of The Wise HeartMost of us will freely admit that we are obsessed with our devices. We pride ourselves on our ability to multitask -- read work email, reply to a text, check Facebook, watch a video clip. Talk on the phone, send a text, drive a car. Enjoy family dinner with a glowing smartphone next to our plates. We can do it all, 24/7! Never mind the errors in the email, the near-miss on the road, and the unheard conversation at the table. In The Distracted Mind, Adam Gazzaley and Larry Rosen -- a neuroscientist and a psychologist -- explain why our brains aren't built for multitasking, and suggest better ways to live in a high-tech world without giving up our modern technology. The authors explain that our brains are limited in their ability to pay attention. We don't really multitask but rather switch rapidly between tasks. Distractions and interruptions, often technology-related -- referred to by the authors as "interference" -- collide with our goal-setting abilities. We want to finish this paper/spreadsheet/sentence, but our phone signals an incoming message and we drop everything. Even without an alert, we decide that we "must" check in on social media immediately.Gazzaley and Rosen offer practical strategies, backed by science, to fight distraction. We can change our brains with meditation, video games, and physical exercise; we can change our behavior by planning our accessibility and recognizing our anxiety about being out of touch even briefly. They don't suggest that we give up our devices, but that we use them in a more balanced way.
PSYCHOLOGY

IDisorder: Understanding Our Obsession with Technology and Overcoming Its Hold on Us

Author: Larry D. Rosen

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 0230117570

Category: PSYCHOLOGY

Page: 246

View: 2847

An internationally recognized research psychologist and computer educator analyzes the stresses associated with today's perpetually connected world, counseling readers on how to make positive use of technology while avoiding related disorders. 40,000 first printing.
Social Science

Distracted

The Erosion of Attention and the Coming Dark Age

Author: Maggie Jackson

Publisher: Prometheus Books

ISBN: 1615920005

Category: Social Science

Page: 327

View: 1255

This is an important book...a harrowing documentation of our modern world's descent into fragmentation, self alienation, and emptiness-brought on, to a large extent, by communication technologies that distract us, dislocate us, and destroy our inner lives.--Alan Lightman, author of the bestselling Einstein's Dreams and National Book Award finalist The Diagnosis and MIT professorThis fascinating book on America's collective ADD is a wake-up call to all of us to take back our lives, turn off the technology, and focus on paying attention to what makes us human and fulfilled.--Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Harvard Business School Professor and author of America the Principled and ConfidenceWe have oceans of information at our disposal, yet we increasingly seek knowledge in online headlines glimpsed on the run. We are networked as never before, but we connect with friends and family via e-mail and fleeting face-to-face moments that are rescheduled and interrupted a dozen times. Despite our wondrous technologies and scientific advances, we are nurturing a culture of diffusion, fragmentation, and detachment.In this new world, something crucial is missing: attention-the key to recapturing our ability to connect, reflect, and relax; the secret to coping with a mobile, multitasking, virtual world. How did we get to the point where we keep one eye on our Blackberry and one eye on our spouse-in bed? We can contact millions of people worldwide, so why is it hard to schedule a simple family supper? Most importantly, what can we do about it? Distracted vividly shows how day by day, our hyper-mobile, cyber-centric, interrupted lives erode our capacity for deep focus and awareness. The implications for a healthy society are stark.Attention is the building block of intimacy, wisdom, and cultural progress. Jackson makes it clear that if we squander our powers of attention, our technological age could ultimately slip into cultural decline. And yet we are just as capable of igniting a renaissance of attention by strengthening our skills of focus and perception, the keys to judgment, memory, morality, and happiness. Jackson reveals the astonishing scientific discoveries that can help us rekindle our powers of attention in a world of speed and overload. She offers us a wake-up call, and reasons for hope.Distracted is an original exposé of the multifaceted nature of attention, an engaging and often surprising portrait of postmodern life, and a compelling roadmap for cultivating sustained focus and nurturing a more enriched and literate society. More than ever, we cannot afford to let distraction become the marker of our time.Maggie Jackson (New York, NY) is an award-winning author and journalist who writes the popular Balancing Acts column in the Boston Globe. Her work also has appeared in The New York Times and on National Public Radio, among other national publications. Her acclaimed first book, What's Happening to Home? Balancing Work, Life and Refuge in the Information Age, examined the loss of home as a refuge.
Social Science

Hamlet's BlackBerry

Building a Good Life in the Digital Age

Author: William Powers

Publisher: Harper Collins

ISBN: 0061687170

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 4031

Our computers and mobile devices do wonderful things for us. But they also impose a burden, making it harder for us to focus, do our best work, build strong relationships, and find the depth and fulfillment we crave. How to solve this problem? Hamlet’s BlackBerry argues that we just need a new way of thinking, an everyday philosophy for life with screens. William Powers sets out to solve what he calls the conundrum of connectedness. Reaching into the past—using his own life as laboratory and object lesson—he draws on some of history’s most brilliant thinkers, from Plato to Shakespeare to Thoreau, to demonstrate that digital connectedness serves us best when it’s balanced by its opposite, disconnectedness. Lively, original, and entertaining, Hamlet’s BlackBerry will challenge you to rethink your digital life.
Psychology

The Multitasking Mind

Author: Dario D. Salvucci,Niels A. Taatgen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199733562

Category: Psychology

Page: 304

View: 7019

This book presents the theory of threaded cognition, a theory that aims to explain the multitasking mind. The theory states that multitasking behavior can be expressed as cognitive threads-independent streams of thought that weave through the mind's processing resources to produce multitasking behavior, and sometimes experience conflicts to produce multitasking interference. Grounded in the ACT-R cognitive architecture, threaded cognition incorporates computational representations and mechanisms used to simulate and predict multitasking behavior and performance.
Psychology

The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Psychology, Technology and Society

Author: Larry D. Rosen,Nancy Cheever,L. Mark Carrier

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118772024

Category: Psychology

Page: 592

View: 4762

Edited by three of the world′s leading authorities on the psychology of technology, this new handbook provides a thoughtful and evidence–driven examination of contemporary technology′s impact on society and human behavior. Includes contributions from an international array of experts in the field Features comprehensive coverage of hot button issues in the psychology of technology, such as social networking, Internet addiction and dependency, Internet credibility, multitasking, impression management, and audience reactions to media Reaches beyond the more established study of psychology and the Internet, to include varied analysis of a range of technologies, including video games, smart phones, tablet computing, etc. Provides analysis of the latest research on generational differences, Internet literacy, cyberbullying, sexting, Internet and cell phone dependency, and online risky behavior
Technology & Engineering

Smarter Than You Think

How Technology Is Changing Our Minds for the Better

Author: Clive Thompson

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1101638710

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 352

View: 2670

A revelatory and timely look at how technology boosts our cognitive abilities—making us smarter, more productive, and more creative than ever It’s undeniable—technology is changing the way we think. But is it for the better? Amid a chorus of doomsayers, Clive Thompson delivers a resounding “yes.” In Smarter Than You Think, Thompson shows that every technological innovation—from the written word to the printing press to the telegraph—has provoked the very same anxieties that plague us today. We panic that life will never be the same, that our attentions are eroding, that culture is being trivialized. But, as in the past, we adapt—learning to use the new and retaining what is good of the old. Smarter Than You Think embraces and extols this transformation, presenting an exciting vision of the present and the future. From the Trade Paperback edition.
Social Science

Global/Local

Cultural Production and the Transnational Imaginary

Author: Wimal Dissanayake,Rob Wilson

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822381990

Category: Social Science

Page: 408

View: 5411

This groundbreaking collection focuses on what may be, for cultural studies, the most intriguing aspect of contemporary globalization—the ways in which the postnational restructuring of the world in an era of transnational capitalism has altered how we must think about cultural production. Mapping a "new world space" that is simultaneously more globalized and localized than before, these essays examine the dynamic between the movement of capital, images, and technologies without regard to national borders and the tendency toward fragmentation of the world into increasingly contentious enclaves of difference, ethnicity, and resistance. Ranging across issues involving film, literature, and theory, as well as history, politics, economics, sociology, and anthropology, these deeply interdisciplinary essays explore the interwoven forces of globalism and localism in a variety of cultural settings, with a particular emphasis on the Asia-Pacific region. Powerful readings of the new image culture, transnational film genre, and the politics of spectacle are offered as is a critique of globalization as the latest guise of colonization. Articles that unravel the complex links between the global and local in terms of the unfolding narrative of capital are joined by work that illuminates phenomena as diverse as "yellow cab" interracial sex in Japan, machinic desire in Robocop movies, and the Pacific Rim city. An interview with Fredric Jameson by Paik Nak-Chung on globalization and Pacific Rim responses is also featured, as is a critical afterword by Paul Bové. Positioned at the crossroads of an altered global terrain, this volume, the first of its kind, analyzes the evolving transnational imaginary—the full scope of contemporary cultural production by which national identities of political allegiance and economic regulation are being undone, and in which imagined communities are being reshaped at both the global and local levels of everyday existence.
Psychology

Exploring the Psychology of Interest

Author: Paul J. Silvia

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199722075

Category: Psychology

Page: 276

View: 609

Psychologists have always been interested in interest, and so modern research on interest can be found in nearly every area of the field: Researchers studying emotions, cognition, development, education, aesthetics, personality, motivation, and vocations have developed intriguing ideas about what interest is and how it works. Exploring the Psychology of Interest presents an integrated picture of how interest has been studied in all the wide-ranging areas of psychology. Using modern theories of cognition and emotion as an integrative framework, Paul Silvia examines the nature of interest, what makes things interesting, the role of interest in personality, and the development of peoples idiosyncratic interests, hobbies, and avocations. His examination reveals deep similarities between seemingly different fields of psychology and illustrates the profound importance of interest, curiosity, and intrinsic motivation for understanding why people do what they do. The most comprehensive work of its kind, Exploring the Psychology of Interest will be a valuable resource for student and professional researchers in cognitive, social, and developmental psychology.
Education

Cognitive Load Theory

A Special Issue of educational Psychologist

Author: Fred Paas,Alexander Renkl,John Sweller

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135065810

Category: Education

Page: 80

View: 8540

The papers of this special issue demonstrate that cognitive load theory provides the framework for investigations into cognitive processes and instructional design. The genesis of Cognitive Load Theory emerged from an international symposium organized at the bi-annual conference of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction in 2001 in Fribourg, Switzerland. Most of the papers are based on contributions to that symposium and discuss the most recent work carried out within the cognitive load framework. As a whole, this issue is demonstrating that cognitive load theory is continuing its role of using cognitive psychology principles to generate novel instructional design procedures.
Business & Economics

Little Bets

How Breakthrough Ideas Emerge from Small Discoveries

Author: Peter Sims

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1439170436

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 213

View: 8122

Lays out strategies for harnessing one's creativity for greater success, drawing on the wisdom of more than two hundred creative thinkers, including Steve Jobs and Chris Rock.
Science

Brain Safari

5-minute Experiments to Explore the Space Between Your Ears

Author: Eric Haseltine

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781626344853

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 669

Go on a Breathtaking Journey Into Your Brain It seems our brains have a multitude of ways of doing things we have absolutely no idea about. In fact, Dr. Eric Haseltine builds a fascinating and convincing argument that our brains actually go out of their way to hide their actions from us. Through a series of fun, quick experiments that you can do by yourself, you will uncover these surprising secrets while on a thought-provoking adventure. ?Much more "show" than "tell," Brain Safari gives you direct, immediate experiences with the inner workings of your brain. Each of these experiences is designed to startle, amaze, and inform, and they don't fall short of that goal. Dr. Haseltine brings decades of imaginative and informative experience to this book. It will leave you in awe of the complicated organ within your head.
Language Arts & Disciplines

Rhetorical Analysis

A Brief Guide for Writers

Author: Mark Garrett Longaker,Jeffrey Walker

Publisher: Longman Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780205565702

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 278

View: 3771

Rhetorical Analysis: A Brief Guide for Writers, walk students through the process for doing different kinds of analyses -- argument analysis, structure analysis, style analysis, and more. Shows how to analyze a range of texts, print, visual, and multimedia. Includes authors' own analyses as models for students, as well as 4 complete student model papers. Introduces students to rhetorical concepts (both classical and modern) that are relevant to rhetorical analysis.
Social Science

iGen

Why Today's Super-Connected Kids Are Growing Up Less Rebellious, More Tolerant, Less Happy--and Completely Unprepared for Adulthood--and What That Means for the Rest of Us

Author: Jean M. Twenge

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1501152025

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 1531

As seen in Time, USA TODAY, The Atlantic, The Wall Street Journal, and on CBS This Morning, BBC, PBS, CNN, and NPR, iGen is crucial reading to understand how the children, teens, and young adults born in the mid-1990s and later are vastly different from their Millennial predecessors, and from any other generation. With generational divides wider than ever, parents, educators, and employers have an urgent need to understand today’s rising generation of teens and young adults. Born in the mid-1990s up to the mid-2000s, iGen is the first generation to spend their entire adolescence in the age of the smartphone. With social media and texting replacing other activities, iGen spends less time with their friends in person—perhaps contributing to their unprecedented levels of anxiety, depression, and loneliness. But technology is not the only thing that makes iGen distinct from every generation before them; they are also different in how they spend their time, how they behave, and in their attitudes toward religion, sexuality, and politics. They socialize in completely new ways, reject once sacred social taboos, and want different things from their lives and careers. More than previous generations, they are obsessed with safety, focused on tolerance, and have no patience for inequality. With the first members of iGen just graduating from college, we all need to understand them: friends and family need to look out for them; businesses must figure out how to recruit them and sell to them; colleges and universities must know how to educate and guide them. And members of iGen also need to understand themselves as they communicate with their elders and explain their views to their older peers. Because where iGen goes, so goes our nation—and the world.
Science

The Ancient Origins of Consciousness

How the Brain Created Experience

Author: Todd E. Feinberg,Jon M. Mallatt

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262333279

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 2566

How is consciousness created? When did it first appear on Earth, and how did it evolve? What constitutes consciousness, and which animals can be said to be sentient? In this book, Todd Feinberg and Jon Mallatt draw on recent scientific findings to answer these questions -- and to tackle the most fundamental question about the nature of consciousness: how does the material brain create subjective experience? After assembling a list of the biological and neurobiological features that seem responsible for consciousness, and considering the fossil record of evolution, Feinberg and Mallatt argue that consciousness appeared much earlier in evolutionary history than is commonly assumed. About 520 to 560 million years ago, they explain, the great "Cambrian explosion" of animal diversity produced the first complex brains, which were accompanied by the first appearance of consciousness; simple reflexive behaviors evolved into a unified inner world of subjective experiences. From this they deduce that all vertebrates are and have always been conscious -- not just humans and other mammals, but also every fish, reptile, amphibian, and bird. Considering invertebrates, they find that arthropods (including insects and probably crustaceans) and cephalopods (including the octopus) meet many of the criteria for consciousness. The obvious and conventional wisdom--shattering implication is that consciousness evolved simultaneously but independently in the first vertebrates and possibly arthropods more than half a billion years ago. Combining evolutionary, neurobiological, and philosophical approaches allows Feinberg and Mallatt to offer an original solution to the "hard problem" of consciousness.
Medical

Beyond the Cognitive Map

From Place Cells to Episodic Memory

Author: A. David Redish

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262181945

Category: Medical

Page: 420

View: 3082

There are currently two major theories about the role of the hippocampus, a distinctive structure in the back of the temporal lobe. One says that it stores a cognitive map, the other that it is a key locus for the temporary storage of episodic memories. A. David Redish takes the approach that understanding the role of the hippocampus in space will make it possible to address its role in less easily quantifiable areas such as memory. Basing his investigation on the study of rodent navigation -- one of the primary domains for understanding information processing in the brain -- he places the hippocampus in its anatomical context as part of a greater functional system. Redish draws on the extensive experimental and theoretical work of the last 100 years to paint a coherent picture of rodent navigation. His presentation encompasses multiple levels of analysis, from single-unit recording results to behavioral tasks to computational modeling. From this foundation, he proposes a novel understanding of the role of the hippocampus in rodents that can shed light on the role of the hippocampus in primates, explaining data from primate studies and human neurology. The book will be of interest not only to neuroscientists and psychologists, but also to researchers in computer science, robotics, artificial intelligence, and artificial life.
Computers

Serious Games and Edutainment Applications

Author: Minhua Ma,Andreas Oikonomou

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319516450

Category: Computers

Page: 702

View: 6825

With the continued application of gaming for training and education, which has seen exponential growth over the past two decades, this book offers an insightful introduction to the current developments and applications of game technologies within educational settings, with cutting-edge academic research and industry insights, providing a greater understanding into current and future developments and advances within this field. Following on from the success of the first volume in 2011, researchers from around the world presents up-to-date research on a broad range of new and emerging topics such as serious games and emotion, games for music education and games for medical training, to gamification, bespoke serious games, and adaptation of commercial off-the shelf games for education and narrative design, giving readers a thorough understanding of the advances and current issues facing developers and designers regarding games for training and education. This second volume of Serious Games and Edutainment Applications offers further insights for researchers, designers and educators who are interested in using serious games for training and educational purposes, and gives game developers with detailed information on current topics and developments within this growing area.
Philosophy

Beyond the Self

Conversations Between Buddhism and Neuroscience

Author: Matthieu Ricard,Wolf Singer

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262036940

Category: Philosophy

Page: 282

View: 5154

Converging and diverging views on the mind, the self, consciousness, the unconscious, free will, perception, meditation, and other topics. Buddhism shares with science the task of examining the mind empirically; it has pursued, for two millennia, direct investigation of the mind through penetrating introspection. Neuroscience, on the other hand, relies on third-person knowledge in the form of scientific observation. In this book, Matthieu Ricard, a Buddhist monk trained as a molecular biologist, and Wolf Singer, a distinguished neuroscientist—close friends, continuing an ongoing dialogue—offer their perspectives on the mind, the self, consciousness, the unconscious, free will, epistemology, meditation, and neuroplasticity. Ricard and Singer's wide-ranging conversation stages an enlightening and engaging encounter between Buddhism's wealth of experiential findings and neuroscience's abundance of experimental results. They discuss, among many other things, the difference between rumination and meditation (rumination is the scourge of meditation, but psychotherapy depends on it); the distinction between pure awareness and its contents; the Buddhist idea (or lack of one) of the unconscious and neuroscience's precise criteria for conscious and unconscious processes; and the commonalities between cognitive behavioral therapy and meditation. Their views diverge (Ricard asserts that the third-person approach will never encounter consciousness as a primary experience) and converge (Singer points out that the neuroscientific understanding of perception as reconstruction is very like the Buddhist all-discriminating wisdom) but both keep their vision trained on understanding fundamental aspects of human life.