*A Primer*

**Author**: Rudy Slingerland,Lee Kump

**Publisher:** Princeton University Press

**ISBN:** 9781400839117

**Category:** Science

**Page:** 248

**View:** 1079

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## Mathematical Modeling of Earth's Dynamical Systems

Mathematical Modeling of Earth's Dynamical Systems gives earth scientists the essential skills for translating chemical and physical systems into mathematical and computational models that provide enhanced insight into Earth's processes. Using a step-by-step method, the book identifies the important geological variables of physical-chemical geoscience problems and describes the mechanisms that control these variables. This book is directed toward upper-level undergraduate students, graduate students, researchers, and professionals who want to learn how to abstract complex systems into sets of dynamic equations. It shows students how to recognize domains of interest and key factors, and how to explain assumptions in formal terms. The book reveals what data best tests ideas of how nature works, and cautions against inadequate transport laws, unconstrained coefficients, and unfalsifiable models. Various examples of processes and systems, and ample illustrations, are provided. Students using this text should be familiar with the principles of physics, chemistry, and geology, and have taken a year of differential and integral calculus. Mathematical Modeling of Earth's Dynamical Systems helps earth scientists develop a philosophical framework and strong foundations for conceptualizing complex geologic systems. Step-by-step lessons for representing complex Earth systems as dynamical models Explains geologic processes in terms of fundamental laws of physics and chemistry Numerical solutions to differential equations through the finite difference technique A philosophical approach to quantitative problem-solving Various examples of processes and systems, including the evolution of sandy coastlines, the global carbon cycle, and much more Professors: A supplementary Instructor's Manual is available for this book. It is restricted to teachers using the text in courses. For information on how to obtain a copy, refer to: http://press.princeton.edu/class_use/solutions.html
## THE DYNAMIC EARTH SYSTEM

Addressed to students pursuing studies in the broad interdisciplinary field of Earth Science, this Third Edition provides an insight into the Earth’s unique internal physical state and the compositions of its geospheres. The highly complicated dynamic mechanism of Plate Tectonics, the geochemical exchange of matter between the core, mantle and the crust as also between the hydrosphere-atmosphere-biosphere, resulting in the formation of the crustal rocks and mineral deposits, have all been written in a comprehensible manner so that even a beginner in Earth Science can easily understand these phenomena. While outlining the geological and radiometric methods of measuring the ‘Geological Time’ and characterizing the surface and subsurface geological record in terms of rock formations, fossils, mineral deposits, oil, gas and water resources, the book interconnects the magmatic, metamorphic and sedimentary processes within a ‘System’ driven by the Earth’s internal heat and the radiations received from the Sun. There is a full chapter addressing the major present-day concerns regarding the causes of natural disasters and environmental threats.
## The Earth Machine

An illustrated introduction to the dynamic workings of the Earth furnishes a guided tour of the planet's more than four-billion-year history, revealing how Earth evolved from space dust into a life-sustaining world of oceans, weather, thermal energy, andmobile land masses.
## Dynamic Earth

New technologies has given us many different ways to examine the Earth. For example, we can penetrate deep into the interior of our planet and effectively X-ray its internal structure. With this technology comes an increased awareness of how our planet is continually changing and a fresh awareness of how fragile it is. Designed for the introductory Physical Geology course found in Geology, Earth Science, Geography, or Physical Science departments, Dynamic Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology clearly presents Earth's dynamic geologic systems with their many interdependent and interconnected components. It provides comprehensive coverage of the two major energy systems of Earth: the plate tectonic system and the hydrologic cycle. The text fulfills the needs of professors by offering current content and a striking illustration package, while exposing students to the global view of Earth and teaching them to view the world as geologists.
## Earth System Analysis for Sustainability

Demonstrates how understanding the intertwined evolution of the Earth's geosphere and biosphere can contribute to the achievement of global sustainability.
## Earth as an Evolving Planetary System

Earth as an Evolving Planetary System, Third Edition, examines the various subsystems that play a role in the evolution of the Earth, including subsystems in the crust, mantle, core, atmosphere, oceans, and life. This third edition includes 30% new material and, for the first time, includes full color images in both the print and electronic versions. Topics in the great events chapters are now included in the beginning of the book, with the addition of a new feature of breakout boxes for each event. The second half of the book now focuses on a better understanding of Earth's history by looking at the interactions of the subsystems over time. The Earth’s atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere, crustal and mantle evolution, the supercontinent cycle, great events in Earth history, and the Earth in comparison to other planets are also covered. Authored by a world leader in tectonics who also authored the two previous editions Presents comprehensive coverage of the Earth's history that is relevant for both students and teachers Includes important section on Comparative Planetary Evolution, not found in other textbooks All illustrations presented throughout both the print and electronic versions in full color
## Essentials of the Earth's Climate System

This concise introduction to modern climatology covers the key topics for intermediate undergraduate students on one-semester courses. The treatment of topics is non-mathematical wherever possible, instead focusing on physical processes to allow students to grasp concepts more easily. Full-color illustrations support the text and supplementary topics are covered in boxes, enabling students to further increase their knowledge and awareness. A historical perspective of climatology is woven throughout, providing students with an insight into key scientists and technological developments. Each chapter concludes with a summary of the main points and a mixture of review and discussion questions, encouraging students to check their understanding and think critically. A list of key web links to data and other resources, and solutions and hints to answers to the student questions (password-protected for instructors) are provided online to complete the teaching package.
## The Earth's Atmosphere

The author has sought to incorporate in the book some of the fundamental concepts and principles of the physics and dynamics of the atmosphere, a knowledge and understanding of which should help an average student of science to comprehend some of the great complexities of the earth-atmosphere system, in which a thr- way interaction between the atmosphere, the land and the ocean tends to maintain an overall mass and energy balance in the system through physical and dynamical processes. The book, divided into two parts and consisting of 19 chapters, introduces only those aspects of the subject that, according to the author, are deemed essential to meet the objective in view. The emphasis is more on clarity and understanding of physical and dynamical principles than on details of complex theories and ma- ematics. Attempt is made to treat each subject from ?rst principles and trace its development to present state, as far as possible. However, a knowledge of basic c- culus and differential equations is sine qua non especially for some of the chapters which appear later in the book.
## Multiscale Coupling of Sun-Earth Processes

Many approaches exist for scientific investigations and space research is no exception. The early approach during which each space plasma region within the Sun-Earth system was investigated separately with physics-based tools has now progressed to encompass investigations on coupling between these regions. Ample evidence now exists indicating the dynamic processes in these regions exhibit disturbances over a wide range of scales both in time and space. This new reckoning naturally leads to an emerging perspective of probing these natural phenomena with concepts and tools developed in modern statistical mechanics for physical processes governing the evolution of out-of-equilibrium and complex systems. These new developments have prompted a topical conference on Sun-Earth connection, held on February 9-13, 2004 at Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, USA, with the goal of promoting interactions among scientists practicing the traditional physics-based approach and those utilizing modern statistical techniques. This monograph is a product of this conference, a compilation of thirty-nine articles assembled into seven chapters: (1) multiscale features in complexity dynamics, (2) space storms, (3) magnetospheric substorms, (4) turbulence and magnetic reconnection, (5) modeling and coupling of space phenomena, (6) techniques for multiscale space plasma problems, and (7) present and future multiscale space missions. These articles show a diversity of space phenomena exhibiting scale free characteristics, intermittency, and non-Gaussian distributions of probability density function of fluctuations in the physical parameters of the Sun-Earth system. The scope covers the latest observations, theories, simulations, and techniques on the multiscale nature of Sun-Earth phenomena and underscores the usefulness in cross-disciplinary exchange needed to unravel the underlying physical processes, which may eventually lead to a possible unified description and prediction for space disturbances. * Extensive collection of state-of-the-art papers on multiscale coupling of Sun-Earth Processes * Present and future multiscale space missions * New techniques and models for performing multiscale analysis
## Earth's Evolving Systems

Earth’s Evolving Systems: The History of Planet Earth, Second Edition is an introductory text designed for popular courses in undergraduate Earth history. Written from a “systems perspective,” it provides coverage of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere, and discussion of how those systems interacted over the course of geologic time.
## Earth's Core

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geodynamics Series, Volume 31. Geomagnetism, dynamo theory, seismology, geodesy, and mineral physics each present significant perspectives on Earth's core. When interelated, scientists gain and invaluable vantage from which to understans the evolution, dynamics, and state of the core. Earth's Core: Dynamics, Structure, Rotation presents a synthesis of current understanding in proactive analyses of Earth core phenomena, including research in core composition, wave-speed variation, magnetic field signatures, core mantle boundary issues, and more.
## An Introduction to the Earth-Life System

This concise textbook combines Earth and biological sciences to explore the co-evolution of the Earth and life over geological time.
## Dynamics of the Earth

In their search for solutions to problems concerning the dynamics of the Earth as a self-gravitating body, the authors have applied the fundamentals found in their book “Jacobi Dynamics” (1987, Reidel). First, satellite observations have shown that the Earth does not remain in hydrostatic equilibrium, which forms the physical basis of modern geodynamics. Secondly, satellite data have established a relationship between the planet’s polar moment of inertia and the potential of the Earth’s outer force field, which proves the most basic point of Jacobi dynamics. This allowed the authors to revise their derivation of the classical virial theorem, introducing the concept of a volumetric force and volumetric moment, and so to obtain a generalized virial theorem in the form of Jacobi’s equation. The main dynamical effects are: the kinetic energy of oscillation of the interacting particles, which explains the physical meaning and nature of gravitational forces; separation of shells of a self-gravitating body with respect to its mass density; differences in angular velocities of the shell’s rotation; continuity in variance of the potential of the outer gravitational force field, together with reductions in the envelope of the interacting masses (volumetric center of gravity); the nature of Earth, Moon and satellite precession; the nature and generating mechanism of the planet’s electromagnetic field; the common nature of gravitational and electromagnetic energy, and other related issues. The work is a logical continuation of the book "Jacobi Dynamics" and is intended for researchers, teachers and students engaged in theoretical and experimental research in various branches of astronomy, geophysics, planetology and cosmogony, and for students of celestial, statistical, quantum and relativistic mechanics and hydrodynamics.
## The Dynamic Loss of Earth's Radiation Belts

The Dynamic Loss of Earth's Radiation Belts: From Loss in the Magnetosphere to Particle Precipitation in the Atmosphere presents a very timely review of the last four years of data from various explorative missions, including the Van Allen Probes, the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (which aims to determine magnetopause losses), the completion of four BARREL balloon campaigns, and several CubeSat missions focusing on precipitation losses. This is the first book in the area to include a focus on loss, and not just acceleration and radial transport. Bringing together two communities, the book includes expertise on both precipitation mechanisms and the effects on the atmosphere. Users will find a synthesized compendium of the knowledge of scientists from the space and atmospheric science communities who examine and compare innovations and datasets. Examines both the causes and effects of particle loss in the magnetosphere from multiple perspectives Presents interdisciplinary content that bridges the gap, through communication and collaboration, between the magnetospheric and atmospheric communities Fills a gap in the literature by focusing on loss in the radiation belt, which is especially timely based on data from the Van Allen Probes, the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission, and other projects Includes contributions from various experts in the field that is organized and collated by a clear-and-consistent editorial team
## Climate System Dynamics and Modelling

This textbook presents all aspects of climate system dynamics, on all timescales from the Earth's formation to modern human-induced climate change. It discusses the dominant feedbacks and interactions between all the components of the climate system: atmosphere, ocean, land surface and ice sheets. It addresses one of the key challenges for a course on the climate system: students can come from a range of backgrounds. A glossary of key terms is provided for students with little background in the climate sciences, whilst instructors and students with more expertise will appreciate the book's modular nature. Exercises are provided at the end of each chapter for readers to test their understanding. This textbook will be invaluable for any course on climate system dynamics and modeling, and will also be useful for scientists and professionals from other disciplines who want a clear introduction to the topic.
## Theory of Sensitivity in Dynamic Systems

This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the development and present state of the theory of sensitivity of dynamic systems. It is intended as a textbook and reference for researchers and scientists in electrical engineering, control and information theory as well as for mathematicians. The extensive and structured bibliography provides an overview of the literature in the field and points out directions for further research.
## Global Dynamics of the Earth

This volume opens up new perspectives on the physics of the Earth's interior for graduate students and researchers working in the fields of geophysics and geodesy. It looks at our planet in an integrated fashion, linking the physics of its interior to the geophysical and geodetic techniques that record, over a broad spectrum of spatial wavelengths, the ongoing modifications in the shape and gravity field of the planet. Basic issues related to the rheological properties of the Earth's mantle and to its slow deformation will be understood, in both mathematical and physical terms, within the framework of an analytical normal mode relaxation theory. Fundamentals of this theory are developed in the first, tutorial part. The second part deals with a wide range of applications, ranging from changes in the Earth's rotation to post-seismic deformation and sea-level variations induced by post-glacial rebound. In the study of the physics of the Earth's interior, the book bridges the gap between seismology and geodynamics.
## Solar System Dynamics

The Solar System is a complex and fascinating dynamical system. This is the first textbook to describe comprehensively the dynamical features of the Solar System and to provide students with all the mathematical tools and physical models they need to understand how it works. It is a benchmark publication in the field of planetary dynamics and destined to become a classic. Clearly written and well illustrated, Solar System Dynamics shows how a basic knowledge of the two- and three-body problems and perturbation theory can be combined to understand features as diverse as the tidal heating of Jupiter's moon Io, the origin of the Kirkwood gaps in the asteroid belt, and the radial structure of Saturn's rings. Problems at the end of each chapter and a free Internet Mathematica® software package are provided. Solar System Dynamics provides an authoritative textbook for courses on planetary dynamics and celestial mechanics. It also equips students with the mathematical tools to tackle broader courses on dynamics, dynamical systems, applications of chaos theory and non-linear dynamics.

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