**Author**: C.H.Jr. Edwards

**Publisher:** Springer Science & Business Media

**ISBN:** 1461262305

**Category:** Mathematics

**Page:** 368

**View:** 3927

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## The Historical Development of the Calculus

The calculus has served for three centuries as the principal quantitative language of Western science. In the course of its genesis and evolution some of the most fundamental problems of mathematics were first con fronted and, through the persistent labors of successive generations, finally resolved. Therefore, the historical development of the calculus holds a special interest for anyone who appreciates the value of a historical perspective in teaching, learning, and enjoying mathematics and its ap plications. My goal in writing this book was to present an account of this development that is accessible, not solely to students of the history of mathematics, but to the wider mathematical community for which my exposition is more specifically intended, including those who study, teach, and use calculus. The scope of this account can be delineated partly by comparison with previous works in the same general area. M. E. Baron's The Origins of the Infinitesimal Calculus (1969) provides an informative and reliable treat ment of the precalculus period up to, but not including (in any detail), the time of Newton and Leibniz, just when the interest and pace of the story begin to quicken and intensify. C. B. Boyer's well-known book (1949, 1959 reprint) met well the goals its author set for it, but it was more ap propriately titled in its original edition-The Concepts of the Calculus than in its reprinting.
## Writing the History of Mathematics: Its Historical Development

As an historiographic monograph, this book offers a detailed survey of the professional evolution and significance of an entire discipline devoted to the history of science. It provides both an intellectual and a social history of the development of the subject from the first such effort written by the ancient Greek author Eudemus in the Fourth Century BC, to the founding of the international journal, Historia Mathematica, by Kenneth O. May in the early 1970s.
## An Annotated Timeline of Operations Research

An Annotated Timeline of Operations Research: An Informal History recounts the evolution of Operations Research (OR) as a new science - the science of decision making. Arising from the urgent operational issues of World War II, the philosophy and methodology of OR has permeated the resolution of decision problems in business, industry, and government. The Timeline chronicles the history of OR in the form of self-contained, expository entries. Each entry presents a concise explanation of the events and people under discussion, and provides key sources where further relevant information can be obtained. In addition, books and papers that have influenced the development of OR or helped to educate the first generations of OR academics and practitioners are cited throughout the book. Starting in 1564 with seminal ideas that form the precursors of OR, the Timeline traces the key ideas and events of OR through 2004. The Timeline should interest anyone involved in OR - researchers, practitioners, academics, and, especially, students - who wish to learn how OR came into being. Further, the scope and expository style of the Timeline should make it of value to the general reader interested in the development of science and technology in the last half of the twentieth century.
## Calculus of Variations

This textbook on the calculus of variations covers from the basics to the modern aspects of the theory.
## Mathematical Time Capsules

Mathematical Time Capsules offers teachers historical modules for immediate use in the mathematics classroom. Readers will find articles and activities from mathematics history that enhance the learning of topics covered in the undergraduate or secondary mathematics curricula. Each capsule presents at least one topic or a historical thread that can be used throughout a course. The capsules were written by experienced practitioners to provide teachers with historical background and classroom activities designed for immediate use in the classroom, along with further references and resources on the chapter subject. --Publisher description.
## The Development of Arabic Mathematics: Between Arithmetic and Algebra

An understanding of developments in Arabic mathematics between the IXth and XVth century is vital to a full appreciation of the history of classical mathematics. This book draws together more than ten studies to highlight one of the major developments in Arabic mathematical thinking, provoked by the double fecondation between arithmetic and the algebra of al-Khwarizmi, which led to the foundation of diverse chapters of mathematics: polynomial algebra, combinatorial analysis, algebraic geometry, algebraic theory of numbers, diophantine analysis and numerical calculus. Thanks to epistemological analysis, and the discovery of hitherto unknown material, the author has brought these chapters into the light, proposes another periodization for classical mathematics, and questions current ideology in writing its history. Since the publication of the French version of these studies and of this book, its main results have been admitted by historians of Arabic mathematics, and integrated into their recent publications. This book is already a vital reference for anyone seeking to understand history of Arabic mathematics, and its contribution to Latin as well as to later mathematics. The English translation will be of particular value to historians and philosophers of mathematics and of science.
## Elements of the History of Mathematics

Each volume of Nicolas Bourbakis well-known work, The Elements of Mathematics, contains a section or chapter devoted to the history of the subject. This book collects together those historical segments with an emphasis on the emergence, development, and interaction of the leading ideas of the mathematical theories presented in the Elements. In particular, the book provides a highly readable account of the evolution of algebra, geometry, infinitesimal calculus, and of the concepts of number and structure, from the Babylonian era through to the 20th century.
## Mathematics of the 19th Century

New Edition - New in Paperback - This is the second revised edition of the first volume of the outstanding collection of historical studies of mathematics in the nineteenth century compiled in three volumes by A. N. Kolmogorov and A. P. Yushkevich. This second edition was carefully revised by Abe Shenitzer, York University, Ontario, Canada. The historical period covered in this book extends from the early nineteenth century up to the end of the 1930s, as neither 1801 nor 1900 are, in themselves, turning points in the history of mathematics, although each date is notable fo a remarkable event: the first for the publication of Gauss' "Disquisitiones arithmeticae," the second for Hilbert's "Mathematical Problems." Beginning in the second quarter of the nineteenth century mathematics underwent a revolution as crucial and profound in its consequences for the general world outlook as the mathematical revolution in the beginning of the modern era. The main changes included a new statement of the problem of the existence of mathematical objects, particulary in the calculus, and soon thereafter the formation of non-standard structures in geometry, arithmetic and algebra. The primary objective of the work has been to treat the evolution of mathematics in the nineteenth century as a whole; the discussion is concentrated on the essential concepts, methods, and algorithms.
## Numerische Mathematik

Dieser Band Numerische Mathematik hat Prinzipien des numerischen Rechnens, numerische lineare Algebra und Näherungsmethoden in der Analysis zum Inhalt. Der Begriff der Approximation zieht sich als roter Faden durch den gesamten Text. Die Betonung liegt dabei weniger auf der Bereitstellung möglichst vieler Algorithmen als vielmehr auf der Vermittlung mathematischer Überlegungen, die zur Konstruktion von Verfahren führen. Jedoch werden auch der algorithmische Aspekt und entsprechende Effizienzbetrachtungen gebührend berücksichtigt. Durch den umfangreichen dargebotenen Stoff ist das Buch nicht nur für eine einsemestrige Vorlesung interessant, sondern auch als studienbegleitendes Handbuch geeignet. Besondere Erwähnung verdienen die zahlreichen historischen Anmerkungen sowie die motivierenden Erklärungen und aufgezeigten Querverbindungen zu anderen Themen. Besonders zur intensiven Prüfungsvorbereitung geeignet!
## Patterns of Change

Kvasz’s book is a contribution to the history and philosophy of mat- matics, or, as one might say, the historical approach to the philosophy of mathematics. This approach is for mathematics what the history and philosophy of science is for science. Yet the historical approach to the philosophy of science appeared much earlier than the historical approach to the philosophy of mathematics. The ?rst signi?cant work in the history and philosophy of science is perhaps William Whewell’s Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences, founded upon their History. This was originally published in 1840, a second, enlarged edition appeared in 1847, and the third edition appeared as three separate works p- lished between 1858 and 1860. Ernst Mach’s The Science of Mech- ics: A Critical and Historical Account of Its Development is certainly a work of history and philosophy of science. It ?rst appeared in 1883, and had six further editions in Mach’s lifetime (1888, 1897, 1901, 1904, 1908, and 1912). Duhem’s Aim and Structure of Physical Theory appeared in 1906 and had a second enlarged edition in 1914. So we can say that history and philosophy of science was a well-established ?eld th th by the end of the 19 and the beginning of the 20 century. By contrast the ?rst signi?cant work in the history and philosophy of mathematics is Lakatos’s Proofs and Refutations, which was p- lished as a series of papers in the years 1963 and 1964.
## History in Mathematics Education

This ground-breaking book investigates how the learning and teaching of mathematics can be improved through integrating the history of mathematics into all aspects of mathematics education: lessons, homework, texts, lectures, projects, assessment, and curricula. It draws upon evidence from the experience of teachers as well as national curricula, textbooks, teacher education practices, and research perspectives across the world. It includes a 300-item annotated bibliography of recent work in the field in eight languages.
## Calculus of One Variable

Adopts a user-friendly approach, with an emphasis on worked examples and exercises, rather than abstract theory The computer algebra and graphical package MAPLE is used to illustrate many of the ideas and provides an additional aid to teaching and learning Supplementary material, including detailed solutions to exercises and MAPLE worksheets, is available via the web
## The Language of Physics

This work is the first explicit examination of the key role that mathematics has played in the development of theoretical physics and will undoubtedly challenge the more conventional accounts of its historical development. Although mathematics has long been regarded as the "language" of physics, the connections between these independent disciplines have been far more complex and intimate than previous narratives have shown. The author convincingly demonstrates that practices, methods, and language shaped the development of the field, and are a key to understanding the mergence of the modern academic discipline. Mathematicians and physicists, as well as historians of both disciplines, will find this provocative work of great interest.
## The Prehistory of the Theory of Distributions

I first learned the theory of distributions from Professor Ebbe Thue Poulsen in an undergraduate course at Aarhus University. Both his lectures and the textbook, Topological Vector Spaces, Distributions and Kernels by F. Treves, used in the course, opened my eyes to the beauty and abstract simplicity of the theory. However my incomplete study of many branches of classical analysis left me with the question: Why is the theory of distributions important? In my continued studies this question was gradually answered, but my growing interest in the history of mathematics caused me to alter my question to other questions such as: For what purpose, if any, was the theory of distributions originally created? Who invented distributions and when? I quickly found answers to the last two questions: distributions were invented by S. Sobolev and L. Schwartz around 1936 and 1950, respectively. Knowing this answer, however, only created a new question: Did Sobolev and Schwartz construct distributions from scratch or were there earlier trends and, if so, what were they? It is this question, concerning the pre history of the theory of distributions, which I attempt to answer in this book. Most of my research took place at the History of Science Department of Aarhus University. I wish to thank this department for its financial and intellectual support. I am especially grateful to Lektors Kirsti Andersen from the History of Science Department and Lars Mejlbo from the Mathematics Department, for their kindness, constructive criticism, and encouragement.
## Ontology and the Logistic Analysis of Language

It is the aim of the present study to introduce the reader to the ways of thinking of those contemporary philosophers who apply the tools of symbolic logic to classical philosophical problems. Unlike the "conti nental" reader for whom this work was originally written, the English speaking reader will be more familiar with most of the philosophers dis cussed in this book, and he will in general not be tempted to dismiss them indiscriminately as "positivists" and "nominalists". But the English version of this study may help to redress the balance in another respect. In view of the present emphasis on ordinary language and the wide spread tendency to leave the mathematical logicians alone with their technicalities, it seems not without merit to revive the interest in formal ontology and the construction of formal systems. A closer look at the historical account which will be given here, may convince the reader that there are several points in the historical develop ment whose consequences have not yet been fully assessed: I mention, e. g. , the shift from the traditional three-level semantics of sense and deno tation to the contemporary two-level semantics of representation; the relation of extensional structure and intensional content in the extensional systems of Wittgenstein and Carnap; the confusing changes in labelling the different kinds of analytic and apriori true sentences; etc. Among the philosophically interesting tools of symbolic logic Lesniewski's calculus of names deserves special attention.
## A History of the Central Limit Theorem

This study discusses the history of the central limit theorem and related probabilistic limit theorems from about 1810 through 1950. In this context the book also describes the historical development of analytical probability theory and its tools, such as characteristic functions or moments. The central limit theorem was originally deduced by Laplace as a statement about approximations for the distributions of sums of independent random variables within the framework of classical probability, which focused upon specific problems and applications. Making this theorem an autonomous mathematical object was very important for the development of modern probability theory.
## A History of the Calculus of Variations from the 17th through the 19th Century

The calculus of variations is a subject whose beginning can be precisely dated. It might be said to begin at the moment that Euler coined the name calculus of variations but this is, of course, not the true moment of inception of the subject. It would not have been unreasonable if I had gone back to the set of isoperimetric problems considered by Greek mathemati cians such as Zenodorus (c. 200 B. C. ) and preserved by Pappus (c. 300 A. D. ). I have not done this since these problems were solved by geometric means. Instead I have arbitrarily chosen to begin with Fermat's elegant principle of least time. He used this principle in 1662 to show how a light ray was refracted at the interface between two optical media of different densities. This analysis of Fermat seems to me especially appropriate as a starting point: He used the methods of the calculus to minimize the time of passage cif a light ray through the two media, and his method was adapted by John Bernoulli to solve the brachystochrone problem. There have been several other histories of the subject, but they are now hopelessly archaic. One by Robert Woodhouse appeared in 1810 and another by Isaac Todhunter in 1861.
## The Historical Development of Quantum Theory

The Historical Development of Quantum Theory is a definitive historical study of that scientific work and the human struggles that accompanied it from the beginning.

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