This is primarily a textbook for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students of law. However, practising lawyers and policy-makers who are looking for an introduction to WTO law will also find it invaluable. The book covers both the institutional and substantive law of the WTO. While the treatment of the law is often quite detailed, the main aim of this textbook is to make clear the basic principles and underlying logic of WTO law and the world trading system. Each section contains questions and assignments, to allow students to assess their understanding and develop useful practical skills. At the end of each chapter there is a helpful summary, as well as an exercise on specific, true-to-life international trade problems.
This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the law of treaties as it emerges from the interplay between the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties and customary international law. It revisits the basic concepts underlying the provisions of the Vienna Convention, so as to determine the actual state of the law and its foreseeable development. In doing so, it examines some of the most controversial aspects of the law of treaties. The book first explores the influence exerted by the Vienna Convention on pre-existing customary law. Certain rules of the Convention which, at the time of its adoption, appeared to fall within the realm of progressive development, can now be regarded as customary international rules. Conversely, a number of provisions of the Convention, in particular those which have been the subject of subsequent codification work by the International Law Commission, have become obsolete. It then examines the impact exerted by the Vienna Convention on the development of other fields of international law, such as the law of international responsibility and the law of international organizations. The last section of the book is devoted to cross-cutting issues, with particular reference to the notion of jus cogens - a concept first used in the Vienna Convention in connection with the problem of the validity of treaties and which, afterwards, has acquired a legal significance going well beyond the Convention. Written by a team of renowned international lawyers, this book offers new insight into the basic concepts and methodology of the law of treaties and its problems.
States reject inequality when they choose to ratify the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), but to date the ICESCR has not yet figured prominently in the policy calculus behind States' international economic decisions. This book responds to the modern challenge of operationalizing the ICESCR, particularly in the context of States' decisions within international trade, finance, and investment. Differentiating between public policy mechanisms and institutional functional mandates in the international trade, finance, and investment systems, this book shows legal and policy gateways for States to feasibly translate their fundamental duties to respect, protect, and fulfil economic, social and cultural rights into their trade, finance, and investment commitments, agreements, and contracts. It approaches the problem of harmonizing social protection objectives under the ICESCR with a State's international economic treaty obligations, from the designing and interpreting international treaty texts, up to the institutional monitoring and empirical analysis of ICESCR compliance. In examining public policy options, the book takes into account around five decades of States' implementation of social protection commitments under the ICESCR; its normative evolution through the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the Committee's expanded fact-finding and adjudicative competences under the Optional Protocol to the ICESCR; as well as the critical, dialectical, and deliberative roles of diverse functional interpretive communities within international trade, finance, and investment law. Ultimately, the book shoes how States' ICESCR commitments operate as the normative foundation of their trade, finance, and investment decisions.
The last sixty years witnessed an unprecedented expansion of international trade. The system created by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and later by the World Trade Organization (WTO) has proved to be an efficient instrument for the elimination of trade and tariff barriers. This process coincided with increased national regulatory controls, which were particularly visible in the area of risk regulation. Governments, responding to the demands of their domestic constituencies, have adopted a wide range of regulatory measures aimed at protecting the environment and human health. Although, for the most part, the new regulatory initiatives served legitimate objectives, it has also turned out that internal measures might become an attractive vehicle for protectionism, taking the place that was traditionally occupied by tariff barriers. Regulating Health and Environmental Risks under the WTO Law examines the WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement). In which it is an attempt by the international community to limit possible abuses while assuring WTO Members of an extensive margin of regulatory discretion. The central problem that the book tackles is whether the system established by the SPS Agreement can address the existing and potential challenges of a new interdependent world. In answering this question, the author provides a comprehensive and critical examination of the substantive provisions of the Agreement and corresponding case law. In this context, the book particularly focuses on two issues: the consistency in the interpretation of the SPS Agreement and the appropriateness of its various requirements. This analysis leads the author to conclude that despite some interpretative failures of SPS case law, the system established by the SPS Agreement seems to provide an effective solution for the supervision of domestic SPS measures.
Energy in Europe and Russia is in flux. This book presents a rich set of case studies for analyzing the complex and intertwined regional dynamics of multiple actors, levels, and policy fields in energy throughout Europe and Russia, with the aim of offering an alternative view to the prevalent geopolitical or neoliberal approaches.
This book considers the legal control of multinational corporations (MNCs) for violations of human rights from a developing country’s perspective, examining the role for corporate social responsibility (CSR) in regulating the conduct of MNCs. The book uses the case study of Nigeria which is host to major MNCs from the EU and the US, to show that the CSR concept is currently insufficient to deal with externalities emanating from MNCs‘ operations including human rights violations. The book goes on to argue that whilst control of MNCs involves regulation at the international level, more emphasis needs to be placed on possibilities at home States and host States where there are stronger bases for the control of corporations. It examines possibilities in the European Union, exploring ways in which the EU can ensure that MNCs from its territory do not violate human rights when operating abroad.
Focuses on the rules-based multilateral trading system created by GATT, as greatly expanded and elaborated by the establishment of the World Trade Organization in 1995. Particular emphasis is given to the rich and detailed jurisprudence developed by the WTO's Appellate Body. Includes the impact of international economic interdependence and the struggle of legal institutions to cope with this and other aspects of globalization. Offers a basic understanding of the international economic system as it operates in real life, and as it is constrained or aided by a number of fundamental legal institutions, including national and international constitutional documents and processes.