History

The Lifeways of Hunter-Gatherers

The Foraging Spectrum

Author: Robert L. Kelly

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107024870

Category: History

Page: 362

View: 5028

Challenges the preconceptions that hunter-gatherers were Paleolithic relics living in a raw state of nature, instead crafting a position that emphasizes their diversity.
Social Science

The Lifeways of Hunter-Gatherers

The Foraging Spectrum

Author: Robert L. Kelly

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107355095

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 5038

In this book, Robert L. Kelly challenges the preconceptions that hunter-gatherers were Paleolithic relics living in a raw state of nature, instead crafting a position that emphasizes their diversity, and downplays attempts to model the original foraging lifeway or to use foragers to depict human nature stripped to its core. Kelly reviews the anthropological literature for variation among living foragers in terms of diet, mobility, sharing, land tenure, technology, exchange, male-female relations, division of labor, marriage, descent and political organization. Using the paradigm of human behavioral ecology, he analyzes the diversity in these areas and seeks to explain rather than explain away variability, and argues for an approach to prehistory that uses archaeological data to test theory rather than one that uses ethnographic analogy to reconstruct the past.
Social Science

The Foraging Spectrum

Diversity in Hunter-gatherer Lifeways

Author: Robert L. Kelly

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780975273883

Category: Social Science

Page: 446

View: 3404

The author wrote this book primarily for his archaeology students, to show them how dangerous anthropological analogy is and how variable the actual practices of foragers of the recent past and today are. His survey of anthropological literature points to differences in foraging societies' patterns of diet, mobility, sharing, land tenure, exchange, gender relations, division of labour, marriage, descent and political organisation. By considering the actual, not imagined, reasons behind diverse behaviour this book argues for a revision of many archaeological models of prehistory.
Science

Hunter-Gatherers

An Interdisciplinary Perspective

Author: Catherine Panter-Brick,Robert H. Layton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521776721

Category: Science

Page: 341

View: 6006

This 2001 volume is an interdisciplinary text on hunter-gatherer populations world-wide.
History

The Diversity of Hunter Gatherer Pasts

Author: Bill Finlayson,Graeme Warren

Publisher: Oxbow Books Limited

ISBN: 178570589X

Category: History

Page: 192

View: 9870

This thought provoking collection of new research papers explores the extent of variation amongst hunting and gathering peoples past and present and the considerable analytical challenges presented by this diversity. This problem is especially important in archaeology, where increasing empirical evidence illustrates ways of life that are not easily encompassed within the range of variation recognised in the contemporary world of surviving hunter-gatherers. Put simply, how do past hunter-gatherers fit into our understandings of hunter-gatherers? Furthermore, given the inevitable archaeological reliance on analogy, it is important to ask whether conceptions of hunter-gatherers based on contemporary societies restrict our comprehension of past diversity and of how this changes over the long term. Discussion of hunter-gatherers shows them to be varied and flexible, but modelling of contemporary hunter-gatherers has not only reduced them into essential categories, but has also portrayed them as static and without history.It is often said that the study of hunter-gatherers can provide insight into past forms of social organisation and behaviour; unfortunately too often it has limited our understandings of these societies. In contrast, contributors here explore past hunter-gather diversity over time and space to provide critical perspectives on general models of ‘hunter-gatherers’ and attempt to provide new perspectives on hunter-gatherer societies from the greater diversity present in the past.
Social Science

Hunter-Gatherer Childhoods

Evolutionary, Developmental, and Cultural Perspectives

Author: Barry S. Hewlett

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351514148

Category: Social Science

Page: 483

View: 8637

In the vast anthropological literature devoted to hunter-gatherer societies, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the place of hunter-gatherer children. Children often represent 40 percent of hunter-gatherer populations, thus nearly half the population is omitted from most hunter-gatherer ethnographies and research. This volume is designed to bridge the gap in our understanding of the daily lives, knowledge, and development of hunter-gatherer children.The twenty-six contributors to Hunter-Gatherer Childhoods use three general but complementary theoretical approaches--evolutionary, developmental, cultural--in their presentations of new and insightful ethnographic data. For instance, the authors employ these theoretical orientations to provide the first systematic studies of hunter-gatherer children's hunting, play, infant care by children, weaning and expressions of grief. The chapters focus on understanding the daily life experiences of children, and their views and feelings about their lives and cultural change. Chapters address some of the following questions: why does childhood exist, who cares for hunter-gatherer children, what are the characteristic features of hunter-gatherer children's development and what are the impacts of culture change on hunter-gatherer child care?The book is divided into five parts. The first section provides historical, theoretical and conceptual framework for the volume; the second section examines data to test competing hypotheses regarding why childhood is particularly long in humans; the third section expands on the second section by looking at who cares for hunter-gatherer children; the fourth section explores several developmental issues such as weaning, play and loss of loved ones; and, the final section examines the impact of sedentism and schools on hunter-gatherer children.This pioneering volume will help to stimulate further research and scholarship on hunter-gatherer childhoods, th
Social Science

Archaeology

Author: Robert L. Kelly,David Hurst Thomas

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 130567040X

Category: Social Science

Page: 512

View: 1564

The seventh edition of ARCHAEOLOGY reflects the most recent research and changes in the field, while making core concepts easy to understand through an engaging writing style, personalized examples, and high-interest topics. This text pairs two of archaeology's most recognized names, Robert L. Kelly and David Hurst Thomas, who together have over 75 years of experience leading excavations. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Mathematics

Hunter-gatherer Foraging

Five Simple Models

Author: Robert L. Bettinger

Publisher: Eliot Werner Publications Incorporated

ISBN: 9780979773136

Category: Mathematics

Page: 111

View: 4706

Within the last three decades, foraging theory has established itself as a major-arguably the dominant-cornerstone for both archaeological and ethnographic hunter-gatherer research. Until now, however, no introductory treatment has presented the subject in a form that was quantitatively explicit and yet easy to follow. Designed as an introduction to undergraduate and graduate students new to the subject, and as a refresher for professionals seeking to broaden their command, Hunter-Gatherer Foraging: Five Simple Models presents the five foraging models that lend themselves best to hunter-gatherer application: diet breadth, linear programming, front- versus back-loaded resources, technological investment, and field processing. Each chapter begins with a hypothetical hunter-gatherer problem and takes the reader through the steps needed to state such problems in quantitative form and solve them. Exercises (with answers) at the end of each chapter reinforce key concepts and methodology. From the reviews . . . "[A] fine volume that does just what it claims to. The style is informal, often humorous, and it will clearly work well in a classroom of advanced undergraduates or graduate students. The flow and clarity of the discussions almost makes one forget that this is math that they're trying to master. . . . [A]nyone with a serious interest in hunter-gatherers, prehistoric subsistence, and resource provisioning will want to own a copy." Mark E. Basgall in Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology "This book is the first of its kind to provide a suite of tools applicable to many ethnographic and archaeological foraging problems. Anyone . . . involved in human behavioral ecology should work through this book. It is certainly required reading for any student of the discipline, and as it finds its way into the classroom and onto the desks of practitioners, it is sure to become a classic." Brian F. Codding in California Archaeology "[A]n excellent primer on a group of models that . . . played an important role in the development of hunter-gatherer and ecological studies in anthropology . . . . The examples, sample problems, and touch of humor as the mod els are explained make the book ideal for use . . . with either advanced undergraduates, graduate students, or for anyone wishing for a quick reminder of the math behind the models." Susan K. Harris in American Antiquity "[A] laboratory manual to teach mathematical models to people interested in Optimal Foraging Theory. . . . [T]he book will be useful for graduate seminars to teach details of how foraging societies maximize returns in manipulating the variability in resources of their exploitation territories." Andrew B. Smith in Journal of Human Evolution "[T]his . . . small book . . . could be used well as an adjunct or ancillary text for a n umber of different courses in quantitative methods, hunter-gatherers, or foraging economy. . . . [I]t succeeds overall very well and very nicely in what it aims to do." Robert Whallon in Journal of Anthropological Research "This book would make an excellent accompaniment to many anthropology and archaeology courses, both at high school and college levels. . . . There is a lot of well-written material crammed into this little book! I highly recommend it for anyone interested not only directly with hunter-gatherer research, but for anyone who wonders how-we-know what we think we know about ancient day-to-day life." Ira R. Wishoff in The Dirt Brothers (http: //dirtbrothers.org/) Prepublication praise . . . "This volume presents exercises designed to convey foraging models in a hands-on manner. An excellent resource for upper-division undergraduate and graduate-level classes focused on topics ranging from analytical models in anthropology/archaeology to hunter-gatherers." Gary M. Feinman, The Field Museum "Anyone who has tried to teach students the various models used in behavioral ecology will find this book a welcome relief. Written by an authority who understands both theory and application, the book's examples and exercises show the models' potentials and limitations. As a step-by-step guide, it is an indispensable supplement to a variety of classes." Robert L. Kelly, University of Wyoming "A compact, consistently informative, and exemplary primer for beginners and experts alike. Bettinger's inviting and lucid style, multiple examples, and transparent math will make this short book an instant classic, the well-worn companion of anyone interested in prehistoric subsistence and lifeways." Bruce Winterhalder, University of California, Davis
Diet therapy

The Hunter-gatherer Within

Health and the Natural Human Diet

Author: Kerry G. Brock,George Minor Diggs

Publisher: BRIT Press

ISBN: 1889878405

Category: Diet therapy

Page: 260

View: 4357

"We want to examine what the scientific evidence suggests is really going on when we eat food, and how we can eat and live in a way that best gives us the health benefits of a hunter-gatherer lifestyle while living in and enjoying the advantages of the modern world. We also hope to use the evidence to explore how we can increase our chances of avoiding chronic diseases, obesity, and other health problems -- the "Diseases of Civilization." -- page 7.
History

The Fifth Beginning

What Six Million Years of Human History Can Tell Us about Our Future

Author: Robert L. Kelly

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520293126

Category: History

Page: 168

View: 7085

ÒI have seen yesterday. I know tomorrow.Ó This inscription in TutankhamunÕs tomb summarizesÊThe Fifth Beginning. Here, archaeologist Robert L. Kelly explains how the study of our cultural past can predict the future of humanity. Ê In an eminently readable style, Kelly identifies four key pivot points in the six-million-year history of human development: the emergence of technology, culture, agriculture, and the state. In each example, the author examines the long-term processes that resulted in a definitive, no-turning-backÊchange for the organization of society. Kelly then looks ahead, giving us evidence for what he calls aÊfifth beginning, one that started about AD 1500. Some might call it Òglobalization,Ó but the author places it in its larger context:Êa five-thousand-year arms race, capitalismÕs global reach, and the cultural effects of a worldwide communication network. Ê Kelly predicts that the emergent phenomena of this fifth beginning will include the end of war as a viable way to resolve disputes, the end of capitalism as we know it, the widespread shift toward world citizenship, and the rise of forms of cooperation that will end the near-sacred status of nation-states. ItÕs the end of life as we have known it. However, the author is cautiously optimistic: he dwells not on the coming chaos, but on humanityÕs great potential. Ê Ê
Biography & Autobiography

Hungry Lightning

Notes of a Woman Anthropologist in Venezuela

Author: Pei-Lin Yu

Publisher: UNM Press

ISBN: 9780826318077

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 238

View: 9818

A young student of anthropology receives an offer she can't refuse: the chance to live among the Pumé, a South American hunting-and-gathering people who call the tropical Venezuelan savannah home. During their time in the village of Doro Aná, the author and the principal researcher study a vanishing way of life in which cash money, the written word, automobiles, and airplanes are rare and frightening intrusions. Adopted into a Pumé family, Yu's informal and personal accounts of events during her two year stay sparkle with descriptive flourishes and turns of phrase as she describes the daily cycles of birth, growth, romance, sickness, healing, and death among the villagers. Enlivened with the author's own illustrations, Yu's journal entries seek to present through a young American's eyes a sketch of her Pumé family, their heroic struggle to survive in a changing world, and the power and mystery of the Pumé way of life. "InHungry Lightningwe glimpse haunting fragments of life among the Pumé Indians. We find an intimate, deeply feminine--but ever-so-slightly jaded and strangely melancholic--voice savoring the tastes and smells of life lived in the Venezuelan savanna. A complexly sensual portrait."--Barbara Tedlock
Social Science

The Hadza

Hunter-gatherers of Tanzania

Author: Frank Marlowe

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520253418

Category: Social Science

Page: 325

View: 9900

"A special and rare kind of ethnography, skillfully blending detailed description of behavior with thoughtful commentary on theoretical issues. Exceptionally important and enduring."--Bruce Winterhalder, co-editor of Evolutionary Ecology and Human Behavior
POLITICAL SCIENCE

Why Forage?

Hunters and Gatherers in the Twenty-First Century

Author: Brian F. Codding,Karen L. Kramer

Publisher: University of New Mexico Press

ISBN: 0826356974

Category: POLITICAL SCIENCE

Page: 352

View: 4198

Introduction : Hunters and Gatherers in the Twenty-First Century / Karen L. Kramer and Brian F. Codding -- Diversify or Replace : What Happens to Wild Foods when Cultigens Are Introduced into Hunter-Gatherer Diets? / Karen L. Kramer and Russell D. Greaves -- Inuit Culture : To Have and Have Not, or, Has Subsistence Become an Anachronism? / George W. Wenzel -- "In the bush the food is free" : The Ju/'Hhoansi of Tsumkwe in the Twenty-First Century / Richard B. Lee -- Twenty-First-Century Hunting and Gathering among Western and Central Kalahari San / Robert K. Hitchcock and Maria Sapignoli -- Why Do So Few Hadza Farm? / Nicholas Blurton Jones -- In Pursuit of the Individual : Recent Economic Opportunities and the Persistence of Traditional Forager-Farmer Relationships in the Southwestern Central African Republic / Karen D. Lupo -- What Now? : Big Game Hunting, Economic Change, and the Social Strategies of Bardi Men / James E. Coxworth -- Alternative Aboriginal Economies : Martu Livelihoods in the Twenty-First Century / Brian F. Codding, Rebecca Bliege Bird, Douglas W. Bird, and David W. Zeanah -- Economic, Social, and Ecological Contexts of Hunting, Sharing, and Fire in the Western Desert of Australia / Rebecca Bliege Bird, Brian F. Codding, and Douglas W. Bird -- Appendix A. Cross-Cultural Demographic and Social Variables for Contemporary Foraging Populations -- Appendix B. Economic Activities of Twenty-First-Century Foraging Populations
Nature

The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gatherers

Author: Richard B. Lee,Richard Heywood Daly

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521571098

Category: Nature

Page: 511

View: 1725

Profiles hunting and gathering peoples from around the world, and discusses such topics as prehistory, social life, gender, music and art, health, religion, and indigenous knowledge.
Medical

Endocrinology of Social Relationships

Author: Peter Thorpe Ellison,Peter B. Gray

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674031173

Category: Medical

Page: 499

View: 2243

This book, a rare melding of human and animal research and theoretical and empirical science, ventures into the most interesting realms of behavioral biology to examine the intimate role of endocrinology in social relationships.
Social Science

Toward a Behavioral Ecology of Lithic Technology

Cases from Paleoindian Archaeology

Author: Todd A. Surovell

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 0816507384

Category: Social Science

Page: 296

View: 6573

Modern humans and their hominid ancestors relied on chipped-stone technology for well over two million years and colonized more than 99 percent of the Earth's habitable landmass in doing so. Yet there currently exist only a handful of informal models derived from ethnographic observation, experiments, engineering, and "common sense" to explain variability in archaeological lithic assemblages. Because the fundamental processes of making, using, and discarding stone tools are, at root, exercises in problem solving, Todd Surovell asks what conditions favor certain technological solutions. Whether asking if a biface should be made thick or thin or if a flake should be saved or discarded, Surovell seeks answers that extend beyond a case-by-case analysis. One avenue for addressing these questions theoretically is formal mathematical modeling. Here Surovell constructs a series of models designed to link environmental variability to human decision making as it pertains to lithic technology. To test the models, Surovell uses data from the analysis of more than 40,000 artifacts from five Rocky Mountain and Northern Plains Folsom and Goshen complex archaeological sites dating to the Younger Dryas stadial (ca. 12,600-11,500 years BP). The primary result is the production of powerful new analytical tools useful to the interpretation of archaeological assemblages. Surovell's goal is to promote modeling and explore the general issues governing technological decisions. In this light, his models can be applied to any context in which stone tools are made and used.
Business & Economics

Limited Wants, Unlimited Means

A Reader On Hunter-Gatherer Economics And The Environment

Author: John Gowdy

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 155963555X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 342

View: 7837

For roughly 99% of their existence on earth, Homo sapiens lived in small bands of semi-nomadic hunter-gatherers, finding everything they needed to survive and thrive in the biological richness that surrounded them. Most if not all of the problems that threaten our own technologically advanced society -- from depletion of natural capital to the ever-present possibility of global annihilation -- would be inconceivable to these traditional, immediate-return societies. In fact, hunter-gatherer societies appear to have solved problems of production, distribution, and social and environmental sustainability that our own culture seems incapable of addressing.Limited Wants, Unlimited Means examines the hunter-gatherer society and lifestyle from a variety of perspectives. It provides a brief introduction to the rich anthropological and sociological literature on non-agricultural societies, bringing together in one volume seminal writings on the few remaining hunter-gatherer cultures including, the !Kung, the Hadza, and the Aborigines. It examines the economics of traditional societies, and concludes with a multifaceted investigation of how such societies function and what they can teach us in our own quest for environmental sustainability and social equality.Limited Wants, Unlimited Means is an important work for students of cultural anthropology, economic anthropology, environmental studies, and sustainable development, as well as for professionals, researchers, and anyone interested in prehistoric societies, environmental sustainability, or social justice.
Social Science

Constructing Frames of Reference

An Analytical Method for Archaeological Theory Building Using Ethnographic and Environmental Data Sets

Author: Lewis R. Binford

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520223934

Category: Social Science

Page: 563

View: 2835

"This is a very significant contribution to the field. . . . Many of the ideas presented in this book were foreshadowed in [Binford's] earlier work, but nowhere have they been developed as fully as they are here."—James F. O'Connell, author of A Prehistory of Australia, New Guinea, and Sahul "This is a landmark work. It provides a major synthesis of a huge body of cultural and environmental information and offers a number of original, provocative insights into hunter-gatherer lifeways. It also provides a methodological framework that should be highly influential for years to come."—Jeremy A. Sabloff, Williams Director of the University of Pennsylvania Museum
Social Science

Orderly Anarchy

Sociopolitical Evolution in Aboriginal California

Author: Robert L. Bettinger

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520283333

Category: Social Science

Page: 312

View: 3921

"A provocative and innovative reexamination of the trajectory of sociopolitical evolution among Native American groups in California, this book explains the region's prehistorically rich diversity of languages, populations, and environmental adaptations. Ethnographic and archaeological data and evolutionary, economic, and anthropological theory are often presented to explain the evolution of increasing social complexity and inequality. In this account, these same data and theories are employed to argue for an evolving pattern of 'orderly anarchy,' which featured small, inward-looking groups that, having devised a diverse range of ingenious solutions to the many environmental, technological, and social obstacles to resource intensification, were crowded onto what they had turned into the most densely populated landscape in aboriginal North America"--Provided by publishe