Science

The logic of life

a history of heredity

Author: François Jacob

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780394719030

Category: Science

Page: 348

View: 5785

Philosophy

The Taste for Ethics

An Ethic of Food Consumption

Author: Christian Coff,Edward Broadbridge

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402045530

Category: Philosophy

Page: 212

View: 4815

The field of ethics must be extended to cover responsibility for the production and choice of foodstuffs. This book shows how the focus of ethics can be expanded from its concern for the good life with and for others to cover the good life in fair food production practices.
Religion

The Creationist Debate, Second Edition

The Encounter between the Bible and the Historical Mind

Author: Arthur McCalla

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 1623561108

Category: Religion

Page: 256

View: 1988

Whereas scholarly study of Creationism usually places it in the context of religion and the history or philosophy of science, The Creationist Debate, here revised and completely updated in its second edition, has been written in the conviction that creationism is ultimately about the status of the Bible in the modern world. Creationism as a modern ideology exists in order to defend the authority of the Bible as a repository of transhistorical truth from the challenges of any and all historical sciences. It belongs to and is inseparable from Protestant Fundamentalists' desire to resubject the modern world to the authority of the inerrant Bible. Intelligent Design creationism, to the extent that it distinguishes itself from reactionary biblicism, is a program advocating a supernaturalist, providentialist understanding of the world. Accordingly, The Creationist Debate situates Creationism and Intelligent Design in relation to the rise, from the early modern period onwards, of historical thinking in various scientific and scholarly disciplines (including theories of the earth, chronology, civil history, geology, biblical criticism, paleontology, evolutionary biology, and anthropology) in their complex relationship to the status of the Bible as an historical authority. It argues that the debate over Creationism is at bottom a debate over how to interpret the biblical text rather than over how to interpret the world.
Medical

The Influence of Genetics on Contemporary Thinking

Author: Anne Fagot-Largeault,Shahid Rahman,Juan Manuel Torres

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402056642

Category: Medical

Page: 216

View: 1668

This interdisciplinary volume reflects on the effects of recent discoveries in genetics on a broad range of scientific fields. It shows the way in which those discoveries influence genetics itself and many other fields, and explains the impact of genetics on contemporary culture. The volume contains the most recent views of the Nobel Laureate François Jacob on genetics and the nature of living things.
Architecture

Use & Adaptation of Precedents in Architectural Design

Toward an Evolutionary Design Model

Author: Karina Moraes Zarzar

Publisher: Delft University Press

ISBN: 9789040724183

Category: Architecture

Page: 274

View: 4705

"This is a Ph.D. thesis. For centuries, architects have used design precedents in the conception of new design solutions. Whether explicitly - as in the case of Le Corbusier, James Stirling and Jo Coenen - or implicitly - as with J.J.P. Oud, Aldo van Eyk, "
Nature

The history of natural history

an annotated bibliography; a guide to sources of information histories, bibliographies, biographies, library resources, etc

Author: Gavin D. R. Bridson

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Nature

Page: 1032

View: 7226

Medical

The Epistemology of Development, Evolution, and Genetics

Author: Richard Burian

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521836751

Category: Medical

Page: 274

View: 1898

These essays examine the developments in three fundamental biological disciplines--embryology, evolutionary biology, and genetics. These disciplines were in conflict for much of the 20th century and the essays in this collection examine key methodological problems within these disciplines and the difficulties faced in overcoming the conflicts between them. Burian skillfully weaves together historical appreciation of the settings within which scientists work, substantial knowledge of the biological problems at stake and the methodological and philosophical issues faced in integrating biological knowledge drawn from disparate sources.
Biography & Autobiography

Life Sciences in the Twentieth Century

Biographical Portraits

Author: Everett Mendelsohn,Brian Scott Baigrie

Publisher: Charles Scribners Sons/Reference

ISBN: N.A

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 207

View: 608

Profiles the men and women who made important discoveries in anthroplogy, bacteriology, immunology, organic chemistry, crystallography, and other life sciences during a century that witnessed monumental discoveries.
History

Gewalt

Eine neue Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Steven Pinker

Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag

ISBN: 310401616X

Category: History

Page: 1216

View: 4826

Die Geschichte der Menschheit – eine ewige Abfolge von Krieg, Genozid, Mord, Folter und Vergewaltigung. Und es wird immer schlimmer. Aber ist das richtig? In einem wahren Opus Magnum, einer groß angelegten Gesamtgeschichte unserer Zivilisation, untersucht der weltbekannte Evolutionspsychologe Steven Pinker die Entwicklung der Gewalt von der Urzeit bis heute und in allen ihren individuellen und kollektiven Formen, vom Verprügeln der Ehefrau bis zum geplanten Völkermord. Unter Rückgriff auf eine Fülle von wissenschaftlichen Belegen aus den unterschiedlichsten Disziplinen beweist er zunächst, dass die Gewalt im Laufe der Geschichte stetig abgenommen hat und wir heute in der friedlichsten Epoche der Menschheit leben. Diese verblüffende Tatsache verlangt nach einer Erklärung: Pinker schält in seiner Analyse sechs Entwicklungen heraus, die diesen Trend begünstigt haben, untersucht die Psychologie der Gewalt auf fünf innere Dämonen, die Gewaltausübung begünstigen, benennt vier Eigenschaften des Menschen, die den inneren Dämonen entgegenarbeiten und isoliert schließlich fünf historische Kräfte, die uns heute in der friedlichsten Zeit seit jeher leben lassen. Pinkers Darstellung revolutioniert den Blick auf die Welt und uns Menschen. Und sie macht Hoffnung und Mut. »Pinkers Studie ist eine leidenschaftliche Antithese zum verbreiteten Kulturpessimismus und dem Gefühl des moralischen Untergangs der Moderne.« Der Spiegel »Steven Pinker ist ein Top-Autor und verdient all die Superlative, mit denen man ihn überhäuft« New York Times» Die Argumente von Steven Pinker haben Gewicht [...]. Die Chance, heute Opfer von Gewalt zu werden, ist viel geringer als zu jeder anderen Zeit. Das ist eine spannende Nachricht, die konträr zur öffentlichen Wahrnehmung ist." Deutschlandfunk »Steven Pinker ist ein intellektueller Rockstar« The Guardian »Der Evolutionspsychologe Steven Pinker gilt als wichtigster Intellektueller« Süddeutsche Zeitung »Verflucht überzeugend« Hamburger Abendblatt
Science

La Logique Du Vivant

Author: François Jacob

Publisher: Princeton Science Library (Pap

ISBN: 9780691000428

Category: Science

Page: 348

View: 5431

In The Logic of Life Fran�ois Jacob looks at the way our understanding of biology has changed since the sixteenth century. He describes four fundamental turning points in the perception of the structure of living things: the discoveries of the functions of organs, cells, chromosomes and genes, and DNA.
Computers

Superintelligence

Paths, Dangers, Strategies

Author: Nick Bostrom

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191666831

Category: Computers

Page: 272

View: 797

The human brain has some capabilities that the brains of other animals lack. It is to these distinctive capabilities that our species owes its dominant position. Other animals have stronger muscles or sharper claws, but we have cleverer brains. If machine brains one day come to surpass human brains in general intelligence, then this new superintelligence could become very powerful. As the fate of the gorillas now depends more on us humans than on the gorillas themselves, so the fate of our species then would come to depend on the actions of the machine superintelligence. But we have one advantage: we get to make the first move. Will it be possible to construct a seed AI or otherwise to engineer initial conditions so as to make an intelligence explosion survivable? How could one achieve a controlled detonation? To get closer to an answer to this question, we must make our way through a fascinating landscape of topics and considerations. Read the book and learn about oracles, genies, singletons; about boxing methods, tripwires, and mind crime; about humanity's cosmic endowment and differential technological development; indirect normativity, instrumental convergence, whole brain emulation and technology couplings; Malthusian economics and dystopian evolution; artificial intelligence, and biological cognitive enhancement, and collective intelligence. This profoundly ambitious and original book picks its way carefully through a vast tract of forbiddingly difficult intellectual terrain. Yet the writing is so lucid that it somehow makes it all seem easy. After an utterly engrossing journey that takes us to the frontiers of thinking about the human condition and the future of intelligent life, we find in Nick Bostrom's work nothing less than a reconceptualization of the essential task of our time.
Psychology

Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 1992, Volume 40

Developmental Perspectives on Motivation

Author: Janis E. Jacobs

Publisher: U of Nebraska Press

ISBN: 9780803225756

Category: Psychology

Page: 299

View: 8335

Some of the best current work on the development of motivation is presented in this fortieth volume of the Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. The diverse approaches for conceptualizing and studying motivational development psychology that extends the traditional area of achievement motivation. Some major themes emerge: the conceptualization of the self, the internal and external factors that affect development of motivations, and the choices that result from one's motivations. Richard Ryan's opening chapter places the entire work in context by describing historical and theoretical perspectives on developmental and psychosocial models used to understand motivation. Mihaly Csikszentmihaly and Kevin Rathunde also focus on intrinsic motivation, but with a greater focus on "flow," the experience of full involvement with an activity. Susan Harter discusses the roles of the I-self and the me-self research models. Jacquelynne S. Eccles stresses the link between the social contexts of family and school and the motivational constructs related to achievement and choice of activity. Laura L. Carstensen maintains Eccles's focus on the importance of choice of activity, but concentrates on the later stages in life when social contact declines as a result of changing social and emotional motivations. The volume concludes with a summary analyzing the contributors' descriptions of the diverse but complementary aspects of developmental processes and theory.
Science

Mathematical Evolutionary Theory

Author: Marcus W. Feldman

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400859832

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 6769

An international group of distinguished scientists presents an up-to-date survey of quantitative problems at the forefront of modern evolutionary theory. Their articles illustrate results from the latest research in population and behavioral genetics, molecular evolution, and ecology. Each author gives careful attention to the exposition of the models, the logic of their analysis, and the legitimacy of qualitative biological inferences. The topics covered include stochastic models of finite populations and the sorts of diffusion approximations that are valid for their study, models of migration, kin selection, geneculture coevolution, sexual selection, life-history evolution, the statistics of linkage disequilibrium, and the molecular evolution of repeated DNA sequences and the HLA system in humans. The fourteen contributions are presented in two sections: Part I, Stochastic and Deterministic Genetic Theory, and Part II, Behavior, Ecology, and Evolutionary Genetics. Marcus W. Feldman provides an introduction to each part. The contributors are J. G. Bodmer, W. F. Bodmer, L. L. Cavalli Sforza, F. B. Christiansen, C. Cockerham, W. J. Ewens, M. W. Feldman, J. H. Gillespie, R. R. Hudson, N. L. Kaplan, S. Lessard, U. Liberman, M.E.N. Majerus, P. O'Donald, J. Roughgarden, S. Tavar, M. K. Uyenoyama, G. A. Watterson, and B. Weir. Originally published in 1989. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
Science

The Serengeti Rules

The Quest to Discover How Life Works and Why It Matters

Author: Sean B. Carroll

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 140088554X

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 6400

How does life work? How does nature produce the right numbers of zebras and lions on the African savanna, or fish in the ocean? How do our bodies produce the right numbers of cells in our organs and bloodstream? In The Serengeti Rules, award-winning biologist and author Sean Carroll tells the stories of the pioneering scientists who sought the answers to such simple yet profoundly important questions, and shows how their discoveries matter for our health and the health of the planet we depend upon. One of the most important revelations about the natural world is that everything is regulated—there are rules that regulate the amount of every molecule in our bodies and rules that govern the numbers of every animal and plant in the wild. And the most surprising revelation about the rules that regulate life at such different scales is that they are remarkably similar—there is a common underlying logic of life. Carroll recounts how our deep knowledge of the rules and logic of the human body has spurred the advent of revolutionary life-saving medicines, and makes the compelling case that it is now time to use the Serengeti Rules to heal our ailing planet. A bold and inspiring synthesis by one of our most accomplished biologists and gifted storytellers, The Serengeti Rules is the first book to illuminate how life works at vastly different scales. Read it and you will never look at the world the same way again.
Science

What Science Is and How It Works

Author: Gregory N. Derry

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400823116

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 4666

How does a scientist go about solving problems? How do scientific discoveries happen? Why are cold fusion and parapsychology different from mainstream science? What is a scientific worldview? In this lively and wide-ranging book, Gregory Derry talks about these and other questions as he introduces the reader to the process of scientific thinking. From the discovery of X rays and semiconductors to the argument for continental drift to the invention of the smallpox vaccine, scientific work has proceeded through honest observation, critical reasoning, and sometimes just plain luck. Derry starts out with historical examples, leading readers through the events, experiments, blind alleys, and thoughts of scientists in the midst of discovery and invention. Readers at all levels will come away with an enriched appreciation of how science operates and how it connects with our daily lives. An especially valuable feature of this book is the actual demonstration of scientific reasoning. Derry shows how scientists use a small number of powerful yet simple methods--symmetry, scaling, linearity, and feedback, for example--to construct realistic models that describe a number of diverse real-life problems, such as drug uptake in the body, the inner workings of atoms, and the laws of heredity. Science involves a particular way of thinking about the world, and Derry shows the reader that a scientific viewpoint can benefit most personal philosophies and fields of study. With an eye to both the power and limits of science, he explores the relationships between science and topics such as religion, ethics, and philosophy. By tackling the subject of science from all angles, including the nuts and bolts of the trade as well as its place in the overall scheme of life, the book provides a perfect place to start thinking like a scientist.