A Guide to Completeness Theorems and their Applications
Author: Richard W. Kaye
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This undergraduate textbook covers the key material for a typical first course in logic, in particular presenting a full mathematical account of the most important result in logic, the Completeness Theorem for first-order logic. Looking at a series of interesting systems, increasing in complexity, then proving and discussing the Completeness Theorem for each, the author ensures that the number of new concepts to be absorbed at each stage is manageable, whilst providing lively mathematical applications throughout. Unfamiliar terminology is kept to a minimum, no background in formal set-theory is required, and the book contains proofs of all the required set theoretical results. The reader is taken on a journey starting with König's Lemma, and progressing via order relations, Zorn's Lemma, Boolean algebras, and propositional logic, to completeness and compactness of first-order logic. As applications of the work on first-order logic, two final chapters provide introductions to model theory and nonstandard analysis.
A comprehensive and user-friendly guide to the use of logic in mathematical reasoning Mathematical Logic presents a comprehensive introduction to formal methods of logic and their use as a reliable tool for deductive reasoning. With its user-friendly approach, this book successfully equips readers with the key concepts and methods for formulating valid mathematical arguments that can be used to uncover truths across diverse areas of study such as mathematics, computer science, and philosophy. The book develops the logical tools for writing proofs by guiding readers through both the established "Hilbert" style of proof writing, as well as the "equational" style that is emerging in computer science and engineering applications. Chapters have been organized into the two topical areas of Boolean logic and predicate logic. Techniques situated outside formal logic are applied to illustrate and demonstrate significant facts regarding the power and limitations of logic, such as: Logic can certify truths and only truths. Logic can certify all absolute truths (completeness theorems of Post and Gödel). Logic cannot certify all "conditional" truths, such as those that are specific to the Peano arithmetic. Therefore, logic has some serious limitations, as shown through Gödel's incompleteness theorem. Numerous examples and problem sets are provided throughout the text, further facilitating readers' understanding of the capabilities of logic to discover mathematical truths. In addition, an extensive appendix introduces Tarski semantics and proceeds with detailed proofs of completeness and first incompleteness theorems, while also providing a self-contained introduction to the theory of computability. With its thorough scope of coverage and accessible style, Mathematical Logic is an ideal book for courses in mathematics, computer science, and philosophy at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It is also a valuable reference for researchers and practitioners who wish to learn how to use logic in their everyday work.
This volume presents a short guide to the extensive literature concerning semir ings along with a complete bibliography. The literature has been created over many years, in variety of languages, by authors representing different schools of mathematics and working in various related fields. In many instances the terminology used is not universal, which further compounds the difficulty of locating pertinent sources even in this age of the Internet and electronic dis semination of research results. So far there has been no single reference that could guide the interested scholar or student to the relevant publications. This book is an attempt to fill this gap. My interest in the theory of semirings began in the early sixties, when to gether with Bogdan W ~glorz I tried to investigate some algebraic aspects of compactifications of topological spaces, semirings of semicontinuous functions, and the general ideal theory for special semirings. (Unfortunately, local alge braists in Poland told me at that time that there was nothing interesting in investigating semiring theory because ring theory was still being developed). However, some time later we became aware of some similar investigations hav ing already been done. The theory of semirings has remained "my first love" ever since, and I have been interested in the results in this field that have been appearing in literature (even though I have not been active in this area myself).
In writing this book, our goal was to produce a text suitable for a first course in mathematical logic more attuned than the traditional textbooks to the re cent dramatic growth in the applications oflogic to computer science. Thus, our choice oftopics has been heavily influenced by such applications. Of course, we cover the basic traditional topics: syntax, semantics, soundnes5, completeness and compactness as well as a few more advanced results such as the theorems of Skolem-Lowenheim and Herbrand. Much ofour book, however, deals with other less traditional topics. Resolution theorem proving plays a major role in our treatment of logic especially in its application to Logic Programming and PRO LOG. We deal extensively with the mathematical foundations ofall three ofthese subjects. In addition, we include two chapters on nonclassical logics - modal and intuitionistic - that are becoming increasingly important in computer sci ence. We develop the basic material on the syntax and semantics (via Kripke frames) for each of these logics. In both cases, our approach to formal proofs, soundness and completeness uses modifications of the same tableau method in troduced for classical logic. We indicate how it can easily be adapted to various other special types of modal logics. A number of more advanced topics (includ ing nonmonotonic logic) are also briefly introduced both in the nonclassical logic chapters and in the material on Logic Programming and PROLOG.
Logic plays a central conceptual role in modern mathematics. However, mathematical logic has grown into one of the most recondite areas of mathematics. As a result, most of modern logic is inaccessible to all but the specialist. This new book is a resource that provides a quick introduction and review of the key topics in logic for the computer scientist, engineer, or mathematician.Handbook of Logic and Proof Techniques for Computer Science presents the elements of modern logic, including many current topics, to the reader having only basic mathematical literacy. Computer scientists will find specific examples and important ideas such as axiomatics, recursion theory, decidability, independence, completeness, consistency, model theory, and P/NP completeness. The book contains definitions, examples and discussion of all of the key ideas in basic logic, but also makes a special effort to cut through the mathematical formalism, difficult notation, and esoteric terminology that is typical of modern mathematical logic. TThis handbook delivers cogent and self-contained introductions to critical advanced topics, including:* Godel`s completeness and incompleteness theorems* Methods of proof, cardinal and ordinal numbers, the continuum hypothesis, the axiom of choice, model theory, and number systems and their construction* Extensive treatment of complexity theory and programming applications* Applications to algorithms in Boolean algebra* Discussion of set theory and applications of logicThe book is an excellent resource for the working mathematical scientist. The graduate student or professional in computer science and engineering or the systems scientist who needs to have a quick sketch of a key idea from logic will find it here in this self-contained, accessible, and easy-to-use reference.
This volume is easily accessible to young people and mathematicians unfamiliar with logic. It gives a terse historical picture of Model Theory and introduces the latest developments in the area. It further provides 'hands-on' proofs of elimination of quantifiers, elimination of imaginaries and other relevant matters. The book is for trainees and professional model theorists, and mathematicians working in Algebra and Geometry.
A Handbook of the Mathematical Foundations of Fuzzy Set Theory
Author: Ulrich Höhle,Erich Peter Klement
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Non-Classical Logics and their Applications to Fuzzy Subsets is the first major work devoted to a careful study of various relations between non-classical logics and fuzzy sets. This volume is indispensable for all those who are interested in a deeper understanding of the mathematical foundations of fuzzy set theory, particularly in intuitionistic logic, Lukasiewicz logic, monoidal logic, fuzzy logic and topos-like categories. The tutorial nature of the longer chapters, the comprehensive bibliography and index make it suitable as a valuable and important reference for graduate students as well as research workers in the field of non-classical logics. The book is arranged in three parts: Part A presents the most recent developments in the theory of Heyting algebras, MV-algebras, quantales and GL-monoids. Part B gives a coherent and current account of topos-like categories for fuzzy set theory based on Heyting algebra valued sets, quantal sets of M-valued sets. Part C addresses general aspects of non-classical logics including epistemological problems as well as recursive properties of fuzzy logic.
Logic, Symbolic and mathematical by Alfred North Whitehead,Bertrand Russell
9th International Workshop, CLIMA IX, Dresden, Germany, September 29-30, 2008. Revised Selected and Invited Papers
Author: Michael Fisher,Fariba Sadri,Michael Thielscher
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Multi-Agent Systems are communities of problem-solving entities that can exhibit varying degrees of intelligence. They can perceive and react to their environment, they can have individual or joint goals, for which they can plan and execute actions. Work on such systems integrates many technologies and concepts in artificial intelligence and other areas of computing as well as other disciplines. The agent paradigm has become very popular and widely used in recent years, due to its applicability to a large range of domains, from search engines to educational aids, to electronic commerce and trade, e-procurement, recommendation systems, and ambient intelligence, to cite only some. Computational logic provides a well-defined, general, and rigorous framework for studying syntax, semantics and procedures for various capabilities and functionalities of individual agents, as well as interaction amongst agents in multi-agent systems. It also provides a well-defined and rigorous framework for implementations, envir- ments, tools, and standards, and for linking together specification and verification of properties of individual agents and multi-agent systems.
This modern introduction to the foundations of logic and mathematics not only takes theory into account, but also treats in some detail applications that have a substantial impact on everyday life (loans and mortgages, bar codes, public-key cryptography). A first college-level introduction to logic, proofs, sets, number theory, and graph theory, and an excellent self-study reference and resource for instructors.
Action theory is the object of growing attention in a variety of scientific disciplines and this is the first volume to offer a synthetic view of the range of approaches possible in the topic. The volume focuses on the nexus of formal action theory with a startlingly diverse set of subjects, which range from logic, linguistics, artificial intelligence and automata theory to jurisprudence, deontology and economics. It covers semantic, mathematical and logical aspects of action, showing how the problem of action breaks the boundaries of traditional branches of logic located in syntactics and semantics and now lies on lies on the borderline between logical pragmatics and praxeology. The chapters here focus on specialized tasks in formal action theory, beginning with a thorough description and formalization of the language of action and moving through material on the differing models of action theory to focus on probabilistic models, the relations of formal action theory to deontic logic and its key applications in algorithmic and programming theory. The coverage thus fills a notable lacuna in the literary corpus and offers solid formal underpinning in cognitive science by approaching the problem of cognition as a composite action of mind.
It is with great pleasure that we are presenting to the community the second edition of this extraordinary handbook. It has been over 15 years since the publication of the first edition and there have been great changes in the landscape of philosophical logic since then. The first edition has proved invaluable to generations of students and researchers in formal philosophy and language, as well as to consumers of logic in many applied areas. The main logic artiele in the Encyelopaedia Britannica 1999 has described the first edition as 'the best starting point for exploring any of the topics in logic'. We are confident that the second edition will prove to be just as good. ! The first edition was the second handbook published for the logic commu nity. It followed the North Holland one volume Handbook 0/ Mathematical Logic, published in 1977, edited by the late Jon Barwise. The four volume Handbook 0/ Philosophical Logic, published 1983-1989 came at a fortunate temporal junction at the evolution of logic. This was the time when logic was gaining ground in computer science and artificial intelligence cireles. These areas were under increasing commercial press ure to provide devices which help and/or replace the human in his daily activity. This pressure required the use of logic in the modelling of human activity and organisa tion on the one hand and to provide the theoretical basis for the computer program constructs on the other.
Mathematics by George Metcalfe,Nicola Olivetti,Dov M. Gabbay
Author: George Metcalfe,Nicola Olivetti,Dov M. Gabbay
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Fuzzy logics are many-valued logics that are well suited to reasoning in the context of vagueness. They provide the basis for the wider field of Fuzzy Logic, encompassing diverse areas such as fuzzy control, fuzzy databases, and fuzzy mathematics. This book provides an accessible and up-to-date introduction to this fast-growing and increasingly popular area. It focuses in particular on the development and applications of "proof-theoretic" presentations of fuzzy logics; the result of more than ten years of intensive work by researchers in the area, including the authors. In addition to providing alternative elegant presentations of fuzzy logics, proof-theoretic methods are useful for addressing theoretical problems (including key standard completeness results) and developing efficient deduction and decision algorithms. Proof-theoretic presentations also place fuzzy logics in the broader landscape of non-classical logics, revealing deep relations with other logics studied in Computer Science, Mathematics, and Philosophy. The book builds methodically from the semantic origins of fuzzy logics to proof-theoretic presentations such as Hilbert and Gentzen systems, introducing both theoretical and practical applications of these presentations.
Language Arts & Disciplines by Katalin Bimbó,J. Michael Dunn
relational semantics of nonclassical logical calculi
Author: Katalin Bimbó,J. Michael Dunn
Publisher: Center for the Study of Language and Inf
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Nonclassical logics have played an increasing role in recent years in disciplines ranging from mathematics and computer science to linguistics and philosophy. Generalized Galois Logics develops a uniform framework of relational semantics to mediate between logical calculi and their semantics through algebra. This volume addresses normal modal logics such as K and S5, and substructural logics, including relevance logics, linear logic, and Lambek calculi. The authors also treat less-familiar and new logical systems with equal deftness.
This book on modal logic is especially designed for philosophy students. It provides an accessible yet technically sound treatment of modal logic and its philosophical applications. Every effort is made to simplify the presentation by using diagrams instead of more complex mathematical apparatus. These and other innovations provide philosophers with easy access to a rich variety of topics in modal logic, including a full coverage of quantified modal logic, non-rigid designators, definite descriptions, and the de-re de-dicto distinction. Discussion of philosophical issues concerning the development of modal logic is woven into the text. The book uses natural deduction systems, which are widely regarded as the easiest to teach and use. It also includes a diagram technique that extends the method of truth trees to modal logic. This provides a foundation for a novel method for showing completeness that is easy to extend to quantifiers. This second edition contains a new chapter on logics of conditionals, an updated and expanded bibliography, and is updated throughout.
Die in diesem Band zusammengefassten Beiträge stellen die wesentlichen Forschungsergebnisse der internationalen Münchner Konferenz "100 Jahre Russell-Paradoxon" im Jahr 2001 dar, auf der an die Entdeckung des berühmten Russell Paradoxons vor 100 Jahren erinnert wurde. Die 31 Beiträge und der Einführungsessay des Herausgebers wurden alle - bis auf zwei Ausnahmen - ursprünglich für diesen Band verfasst.
This second volume of Handbook of Automated Reasoning covers topics such as higher-order logic and logical frameworks, higher-order unification and matching, logical frameworks, proof-assistants using dependent type systems, and nonclassical logics.
Business & Economics by Dean Corbae,Maxwell B. Stinchcombe,Juraj Zeman
Author: Dean Corbae,Maxwell B. Stinchcombe,Juraj Zeman
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Category: Business & Economics
Providing an introduction to mathematical analysis as it applies to economic theory and econometrics, this book bridges the gap that has separated the teaching of basic mathematics for economics and the increasingly advanced mathematics demanded in economics research today. Dean Corbae, Maxwell B. Stinchcombe, and Juraj Zeman equip students with the knowledge of real and functional analysis and measure theory they need to read and do research in economic and econometric theory. Unlike other mathematics textbooks for economics, An Introduction to Mathematical Analysis for Economic Theory and Econometrics takes a unified approach to understanding basic and advanced spaces through the application of the Metric Completion Theorem. This is the concept by which, for example, the real numbers complete the rational numbers and measure spaces complete fields of measurable sets. Another of the book's unique features is its concentration on the mathematical foundations of econometrics. To illustrate difficult concepts, the authors use simple examples drawn from economic theory and econometrics. Accessible and rigorous, the book is self-contained, providing proofs of theorems and assuming only an undergraduate background in calculus and linear algebra. Begins with mathematical analysis and economic examples accessible to advanced undergraduates in order to build intuition for more complex analysis used by graduate students and researchers Takes a unified approach to understanding basic and advanced spaces of numbers through application of the Metric Completion Theorem Focuses on examples from econometrics to explain topics in measure theory
12th Australian Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, AI'99, Sydney, Australia, December 6-10, 1999, Proceedings
Author: Norman Foo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 12th Australian Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, AI'99, held in Sydney, Australia in December 1999. The 39 revised full papers presented together with 15 posters were carefully reviewed and selected from more than 120 submissions. The book is divided in topical sections on machine learning, neural nets, knowledge representation, natural language processing, belief revision, adaptive algorithms, automated reasonning, neural learning, heuristics, and applications
Das Buch macht den Leser mit den wesentlichen Teilgebieten der formalen Logik vertraut, die Bestandteil der Ausbildung in Theoretischer Informatik sind. Die Darstellung orientiert sich an den Bedürfnissen von Informatikstudierenden. Insbesondere werden viele mehr auf das Prinzipielle ausgerichtete Resultate der formalen Logik unter einem algorithmischen Gesichtspunkt behandelt. Diese Vorgehensweise erleichtert entscheidend den Zugang zu dem abstrakten Themengebiet. Prof. Schöning gelingt eine kompakte und verständliche Darstellung der Aussagen- und Prädikatenlogik, bei der die benötigten Begriffe präzise eingeführt und durch Beispiele veranschaulicht werden. Darauf beruhend werden Anwendungen der Logik in der Informatik, wie z. B. Resolution, Automatisches Beweisen und Logik-Programmierung behandelt. Zahlreiche Übungsaufgaben mit ausführlichen Lösungshinweisen erleichtern die Vertiefung des Lernstoffes.