""The New Terrain of International Law" provides the most sophisticated account of how 'new style' international courts alter politics by reducing the monopoly power of governments to determine what the law requires. If you can read only one book on how international courts affect the politics of international law, this is the one to read."--Robert O. Keohane, Princeton University "This book gives a definitive account of the growing significance of international courts in global affairs. While the European Court of Justice has been considered the gold standard of supranational courts, Alter demonstrates the breadth of supranational courts spread across the globe. Showing how litigation before international courts can be a powerful tool, her book holds central policy implications."--Thomas Risse, Freie Universitat Berlin, Germany "International lawyers dislike having political scientists in their professional kitchen and political scientists often cannot conceal their disdain of 'naive' lawyers. Alter's carefully researched and insightful new book changes all that. There is no lawyer who will not become wiser from reading it, while many a political scientist will marvel at their failure to note a seismic change in the international order. Alter's voice is unique and indispensable."--J. H. H. Weiler, president of the European University Institute, Florence "This book is a landmark in the history of the study of international courts and tribunals--a true game changer. Sustained by a very thorough empirical analysis, it challenges a lot of established but outdated notions of what international courts and tribunals are and what they do."--Cesare Romano, Loyola Law School, Los Angeles, and codirector of the Project on International Courts and Tribunals "This comprehensive study places institutions at the center of the analysis and moves away from the debate about compliance that has dominated international law scholarship in recent years. Alter builds on her work on the Andean Court of Justice to examine a wide range of international tribunals, including several in the Global South, and to show the broad array of roles that these courts play. A nuanced analysis at the intersection of international law and politics."--Tom Ginsburg, University of Chicago Law School "We now have almost forty-thousand judgments from more than two dozen international courts and this groundbreaking book is the first true social science effort to understand the rapid emergence of international courts and their role in global politics. Anyone even thinking about studying international courts in law, political science, or sociology will have to start here--this book sets the standard for years to come."--Erik Voeten, Georgetown University
When multinational corporations cause mass harms to lives, livelihoods, and the environment in developing countries, it is nearly impossible for victims to find a court that can and will issue an enforceable judgment. In this work, Professor Maya Steinitz presents a detailed rationale for the creation of an International Court of Civil Justice (ICCJ) to hear such transnational mass tort cases. The world's legal systems were not designed to solve these kinds of complex transnational disputes, and the absence of mechanisms to ensure coordination means that victims try, but fail, to find justice in country after country, court after court. The Case for an International Court of Civil Justice explains how an ICCJ would provide victims with access to justice and corporate defendants with a non-corrupt forum and an end to the cost and uncertainty of unending litigation - more efficiently resolving the most complicated types of civil litigation.
Intended for use in an International Law survey course, International Law, Seventh Edition provides comprehensive coverage of foundational international law questions, including the nature and sources of international law, core doctrinal topics such as the subjects of international law (states and international organizations), and the jurisdictional powers and immunities of states. The book also addresses key substantive topics in international law, with reference to important contemporary foreign policy issues, such as (i) international human rights, (ii) the law of the sea, (iii) international environmental law, (iv) the use of force and the law of armed conflict, and (v) international criminal law. Key Features: New co-author Duncan Hollis of Temple Law School joins Stanford Law School’s Allen Weiner as the active authors of the book. New discussions of major international developments, including the law governing the use of force [e.g., cyber operations and the military campaign against the Islamic State (ISIS)], nonproliferation (e.g., the Iranian and North Korean nuclear crises), the law of the sea (e.g., disputed maritime claims in the South China Sea), and international environmental law (e.g., the conclusion of the Paris Agreement). New case study in Chapter 1 focused on the international response to the rise of ISIS. Inclusion of extended excerpts from a number of major recent Supreme Court decisions related to international law, including Bond v. United States (on fundamental principles of federalism and the treaty power under Article VI of the Constitution), Zivotofsky v. Kerry (on the separation of powers between Congress and the President in the field of foreign affairs), and Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Petroleum Co. (on the Alien Tort Statute). Adopts a modern, conceptual approach to the presentation of materials on statehood (including Palestinian claims to statehood), international organizations, and international dispute resolution.
An innovative, interdisciplinary and far-reaching examination of the actual reality of international courts, International Court Authority challenges fundamental preconceptions about when, why, and how international courts become important and authoritative actors in national, regional, and international politics. A stellar group of scholars investigate the challenges that international courts face in transforming the formal legal authority conferred by states into an actual authority in fact that is respected by potential litigants, national actors, legal communities, and publics. Alter, Helfer, and Madsen provide a novel framework for conceptualizing international court authority that focuses on the reactions and practices of these key audiences. Eighteen scholars from the disciplines of law, political science and sociology apply this framework to study thirteen international courts operating in Africa, Latin America, and Europe, as well as on a global level. Together the contributors document and explore important and interesting variations in whether the audiences that interact with international courts around the world embrace or reject the rulings of these judicial institutions. Alter, Helfer, and Madsen's authority framework recognizes that international judges can and often do everything they 'should' do to ensure that their rulings possess the gravitas and stature that national courts enjoy. Yet even when imbued with these characteristics, the parties to the dispute, potential future litigants, and the broader set of actors that monitor and respond to the court's activities may fail to acknowledge the rulings as binding or take meaningful steps to modify their behaviour in response to them. For both specific judicial institutions, and more generally, the book documents and explains why most international courts possess de facto authority that is partial, variable, and highly dependent on a range of different audiences and contexts - and thus is highly fragile. An introduction situates the book's unique approach to conceptualizing international court authority within theoretical debates about the authority of global institutions. International Court Authority also includes critical reflections on the authority framework from legal theorists, international relations scholars, a philosopher, and an anthropologist. The book's conclusion questions a number of widely shared assumptions about how social and political contexts facilitate or undermine international courts in developing de facto authority and political power.
A New Global Agenda explores the most compelling issues of our time, highlighting key strategies, initiatives, and calls to action. To catalyze regenerative solutions for People, Society, and Planet, this text engages visionary thought leaders, advocates, and innovators spanning international policy, academia, private sector, and civil society.
The post-Cold War proliferation of international adjudicatory bodies and increase in litigation has greatly affected international law and politics. A growing number of international courts and tribunals, exercising jurisdiction over international crimes and sundry international disputes, have become, in some respects, the lynchpin of the international legal system. The Oxford Handbook of International Adjudication charts the transformations in international adjudication that took place astride the twentieth and twenty-first century, bringing together the insight of 47 prominent legal, philosophical, ethical, political, and social science scholars. Overall, the 40 contributions in this Handbook provide an original and comprehensive understanding of the various contemporary forms of international adjudication. The Handbook is divided into six parts. Part I provides an overview of the origins and evolution of international adjudicatory bodies, from the nineteenth century to the present, highlighting the dynamics driving the multiplication of international adjudicative bodies and their uneven expansion. Part II analyses the main families of international adjudicative bodies, providing a detailed study of state-to-state, criminal, human rights, regional economic, and administrative courts and tribunals, as well as arbitral tribunals and international compensation bodies. Part III lays out the theoretical approaches to international adjudication, including those of law, political science, sociology, and philosophy. Part IV examines some contemporary issues in international adjudication, including the behavior, role, and effectiveness of international judges and the political constraints that restrict their function, as well as the making of international law by international courts and tribunals, the relationship between international and domestic adjudicators, the election and selection of judges, the development of judicial ethical standards, and the financing of international courts. Part V examines key actors in international adjudication, including international judges, legal counsel, international prosecutors, and registrars. Finally, Part VI overviews select legal and procedural issues facing international adjudication, such as evidence, fact-finding and experts, jurisdiction and admissibility, the role of third parties, inherent powers, and remedies. The Handbook is an invaluable and thought-provoking resource for scholars and students of international law and political science, as well as for legal practitioners at international courts and tribunals.
This book focusses on the debates concerning aspects of intellectual property law that bear on access to medicines in a set of developing countries. Specifically, the contributors look at measures that regulate the acquisition, recognition, and use of patent rights on pharmaceuticals and trade secrets in data concerning them, along with the conditions under which these rights expire so as to permit the production of cheaper generic drugs. In addition, the book includes commentary from scholars in human rights, international institutions, and transnational activism. The case studies presented from 11 Latin American countries, have many commonalities in terms of economics, legal systems, and political histories, and yet they differ in the balance each has struck between proprietary interests and access concerns. The book documents this cross-country variation in legal norms and practice, identifies the factors that have led to differences in result, and theorizes as to how differentials among these countries occur and why they endure within a common transnational regulatory regime. The work concludes by putting the results of the investigations into a global administrative law frame and offers suggestions on institutional mechanisms for considering the trade-offs between health and wealth.
The Andean Pact was founded in 1969 to build a common market in South America. Andean leaders copied the institutional and treaty design of the European Community, and in the 1970s, member states decided to add a tribunal, again turning to the European Community as its model. Since its first ruling in 1987, the Andean Tribunal of Justice has exercised authority over the countries which are members of the Andean Community: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru (formerly also Venezuela). It is now the third most active international court in the world, used by governments and private actors to protect their rights and interests in the region. This book investigates how a region with weak legal institutions developed an effective international rule of law, why the Tribunal was able to induce widespread respect for Andean intellectual property rules but not other areas governed by regional integration rules, and what the Tribunal's experience means for comparable international courts. It also assesses the Andean experience in order to reconsider the European Community system, exploring why the law and politics of integration in Europe and the Andes followed different trajectories. It finally provides a detailed analysis of the key factors associated with effective supranational adjudication. This book collects together previously published material by two leading interdisciplinary scholars of international law and politics, and is enhanced by three original chapters further reflecting on the Andean legal order.