Social Science

The Politics of the Encounter

Urban Theory and Protest Under Planetary Urbanization

Author: Andy Merrifield

Publisher: University of Georgia Press

ISBN: 082034530X

Category: Social Science

Page: 184

View: 8038

The Politics of the Encounter is a spirited interrogation of the city as a site of both theoretical inquiry and global social struggle. The city, writes Andy Merrifield, remains "important, virtually and materially, for progressive politics." And yet, he notes, more than forty years have passed since Henri Lefebvre advanced the powerful ideas that still undergird much of our thinking about urbanization and urban society. Merrifield rethinks the city in light of the vast changes to our planet since 1970, when Lefebvre's seminal Urban Revolution was first published. At the same time, he expands on Lefebvre's notion of "the right to the city," which was first conceived in the wake of the 1968 student uprising in Paris. We need to think less of cities as "entities with borders and clear demarcations between what's inside and what's outside" and emphasize instead the effects of "planetary urbanization," a concept of Lefebvre's that Merrifield makes relevant for the ways we now experience the urban. The city—from Tahrir Square to Occupy Wall Street—seems to be the critical zone in which a new social protest is unfolding, yet dissenters' aspirations are transcending the scale of the city physically and philosophically. Consequently, we must shift our perspective from "the right to the city" to "the politics of the encounter," says Merrifield. We must ask how revolutionary crowds form, where they draw their energies from, what kind of spaces they occur in—and what kind of new spaces they produce.
Social Science

Relational Poverty Politics

Forms, Struggles, and Possibilities

Author: Victoria Lawson,Sarah Elwood

Publisher: University of Georgia Press

ISBN: 0820353124

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 7441

This collection examines the power and transformative potential of movements that fight against poverty and inequality. Broadly, poverty politics are struggles to define who is poor, what it means to be poor, what actions might be taken, and who should act. These movements shape the sociocultural and political economic structures that constitute poverty and privilege as material and social relations. Editors Victoria Lawson and Sarah Elwood focus on the politics of insurgent movements against poverty and inequality in seven countries (Argentina, India, Brazil, South Africa, Thailand, Singapore, and the United States). The contributors explore theory and practice in alliance politics, resistance movements, the militarized repression of justice movements, global counterpublics, and political theater. These movements reflect the diversity of poverty politics and the relations between bureaucracies and antipoverty movements. They discuss work done by mass and other types of mobilizations across multiple scales; forms of creative and political alliance across axes of difference; expressions and exercises of agency by people named as poor; and the kinds of rights and other claims that are made in different spaces and places. Relational Poverty Politics advocates for poverty knowledge grounded in relational perspectives that highlight the adversarial relationship of poverty to privilege, as well as the possibility for alliances across different groups. It incorporates current research in the field and demonstrates how relational poverty knowledge is best seen as a model for understanding how theory is derivative of action as much as the other way around. The book lays a foundation for realistic change that can directly attack poverty at its roots. Contributors: Antonádia Borges, Dia Da Costa, Sarah Elwood, David Boarder Giles, Jim Glassman, Victoria Lawson, Felipe Magalhães, Jeff Maskovsky, Richa Nagar, Genevieve Negrón-Gonzales, LaShawnDa Pittman, Frances Fox Piven, Preeti Sampat, Thomas Swerts, and Junjia Ye.
Cities and towns

The Nocturnal City

Author: Robert Shaw

Publisher: Routledge Research in Culture, Space and Identity

ISBN: 9781138676404

Category: Cities and towns

Page: 136

View: 8704

Night is a foundational element of human and animal life on earth, but its interaction with the social world has undergone significant transformations during the era of globalization. As the economic activity of the ¿daytime¿ city has advanced into the night, other uses of the night as a time for play, for sleep or for escaping oppression have come increasingly under threat. This book looks at the relationship between night and society in contemporary cities. It identifies that while theories of ¿planetary urbanization¿ have traced the spatial spread of urban forms, the temporal expansion of urban capitalism has been less well mapped. It argues that, as a key part of planetary being, understanding what goes on at night in cities can add nuance to debates on planetary urbanization. A series of practices and spaces that we encounter in the night-time city are explored. These include: the maintenance and repair of infrastructure; the aesthetics of the urban night; nightlife and the night-time economy; the home at night; and the ecologies of the urban night. Taking these forward the book will ask whether the night can reveal some of the boundaries to what we call ¿the urban¿ in a world of cities, and will call for a revitalized and enhanced ¿nightology¿ to study these limits.
Political Science

The New Urban Question

Author: Andy Merrifield

Publisher: Pluto Press

ISBN: 9780745334837

Category: Political Science

Page: 176

View: 5510

The New Urban Question is an exuberant and illuminating adventure through our current global urban condition, tracing the connections between radical urban theory and political activism. From Haussmann's attempts to use urban planning to rid 19th-century Paris of workers revolution to the contemporary metropolis, including urban disaster-zones such as downtown Detroit, Merrifield reveals how the urban experience has been profoundly shaped by class antagonism and been the battle-ground for conspiracies, revolts and social eruptions. Going beyond the work of earlier urban theorists such as Manuel Castells, Merrifield identifies the new urban question that has emerged and demands urgent attention, as the city becomes a site of active plunder by capital and the setting for new forms of urban struggle, from Occupy to the Indignados.
Political Science

State, Space, World

Selected Essays

Author: Henri Lefebvre

Publisher: U of Minnesota Press

ISBN: 081665316X

Category: Political Science

Page: 330

View: 7575

Making the political aspect of Lefebvre's work available in English for the first time, this book contains essays on philosophy, political theory, state formation, spatial planning, and globalization, as well as provocative reflections on the possibilities and limits of grassroots democracy under advanced capitalism.
Social Science

Metromarxism

A Marxist Tale of the City

Author: Andrew Merrifield

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135024855

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 2420

"Metromarxism" discusses Marxism's relationship with the city from the 1850s to the present by way of biographical chapters on figures from the Marxist tradition, including Marx, Walter Benjamin, Guy Debord, and David Harvey. Each chapter combines interesting biographical anecdotes with an accessible analysis of each individual's contribution to an always-transforming Marxist theory of the city. He suggests that the interplay between the city as center of economic and social life and its potential for progressive change generated a major corpus of work. That work has been key in advancing progressive political and social transformations.
Political Science

Environment and Society

A Reader

Author: Christopher Schlottmann,Colin Jerolmack,Anne Rademacher

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 1479805327

Category: Political Science

Page: 416

View: 8817

Environment and Society connects the core themes of environmental studies to the urgent issues and debates of the twenty-first century. In an era marked by climate change, rapid urbanization, and resource scarcity, environmental studies has emerged as a crucial arena of study. Assembling canonical and contemporary texts, this volume presents a systematic survey of concepts and issues central to the environment in society, such as: social mobilization on behalf of environmental objectives; the relationships between human population, economic growth and stresses on the planet’s natural resources; debates about the relative effects of collective and individual action; and unequal distribution of the social costs of environmental degradation. Organized around key themes, with each section featuring questions for debate and suggestions for further reading, the book introduces students to the history of environmental studies, and demonstrates how the field’s interdisciplinary approach uniquely engages the essential issues of the present. Instructor's Guide
Nature

Tropic of Chaos

Climate Change and the New Geography of Violence

Author: Christian Parenti

Publisher: Nation Books

ISBN: 1568586000

Category: Nature

Page: 304

View: 1958

An investigative journalist visits the economically and politically battered post-colonial nations around the earth's mid-latitudes and reveals how extreme weather in the era of climate change is breeding banditry, humanitarian crises and state failure.
Social Science

The Urban Fabric of Crime and Fear

Author: Vania Ceccato

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940074210X

Category: Social Science

Page: 354

View: 2608

How does the city’s urban fabric relate to crime and fear, and how is that fabric affected by crime and fear? Does the urban environment affect one’s decision to commit an offence? Is there a victimisation-related inequality within cities? How do crime and fear interrelate to inequality and segregation in cities of developing countries? What are the challenges to planning cities which are both safe and sustainable? This book searches for answers to these questions in the nature of the city, particularly in the social interactions that take place in urban space distinctively guided by different land uses and people’s activities. In other words, the book deals with the urban fabric of crime and fear. The novelty of the book is to place safety and security issues on the urban scale by (1) showing links between urban structure, and crime and fear, (2) illustrating how different disciplines deal with urban vulnerability to (and fear of) crime (3) including concrete examples of issues and challenges found in European and North American cities, and, without being too extensive, also in cities of the Global South.
Social Science

Development, Security, and Aid

Geopolitics and Geoeconomics at the U.S. Agency for International Development

Author: Jamey Essex

Publisher: University of Georgia Press

ISBN: 0820345679

Category: Social Science

Page: 200

View: 6757

In Development, Security, and Aid Jamey Essex offers a sophisticated study of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), examining the separate but intertwined discourses of geopolitics and geoeconomics. Geopolitics concentrates on territory, borders, and strategic political and military positioning within the international state system. Geoeconomics emphasizes economic power, growth, and connectedness within a global, and supposedly borderless, system. Both discourses have strongly influenced the strategies of USAID and the views of American policy makers, bureaucrats, and business leaders toward international development. Providing a unique geographical analysis of American development policy, Essex details USAID's establishment in 1961 and traces the agency's growth from the Cold War into an era of neoliberal globalization up to and beyond 9/11, the global war on terror, and the looming age of austerity. USAID promotes improvement for millions by providing emergency assistance and support for long-term economic and social development. Yet the agency's humanitarian efforts are strongly influenced, and often trumped, by its mandate to advance American foreign policies. As a site of, a strategy for, and an agent in the making of geopolitics and geoeconomics, USAID, Essex argues, has often struggled to reconcile its many institutional mandates and objectives. The agency has always occupied a precarious political position, one that is increasingly marked by the strong influence of military, corporate, and foreign-policy institutions in American development strategy.
Science

Disrupted Cities

When Infrastructure Fails

Author: Stephen Graham

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135851980

Category: Science

Page: 208

View: 6712

Bringing together leading researchers from geography, political science, sociology, public policy and technology studies, Disrupted Cities exposes the politics of well-known disruptions such as devastation of New Orleans in 2005, the global SARS outbreak in 2002-3, and the great power collapse in the North Eastern US in 2003. But the book also excavates the politics of more hidden disruptions: the clogging of city sewers with fat; the day-to-day infrastructural collapses which dominate urban life in much of the global south; the deliberate devastation of urban infrastructure by state militaries; and the ways in which alleged threats of infrastructural disruption have been used to radically reorganize cities as part of the ‘war on terror’. Accessible, topical and state-of-the art, Disrupted Cities will be required reading for anyone interested in the intersections of technology, security and urban life as we plunge headlong into this quintessentially urban century. The book’s blend of cutting-edge theory with visceral events means that it will be particularly useful for illuminating urban courses within geography, sociology, planning, anthropology, political science, public policy, architecture and technology studies.
Business & Economics

Water Justice

Author: Rutgerd Boelens,Tom Perreault,Jeroen Vos,Margreet Zwarteveen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107179084

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 390

View: 6006

An overview of critical conceptual approaches to water justice, illustrated with global historic and contemporary case studies of socio-environmental struggles.
History

My Los Angeles

From Urban Restructuring to Regional Urbanization

Author: Edward W. Soja

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520281721

Category: History

Page: 296

View: 7958

At once informative and entertaining, inspiring and challenging, My Los Angeles provides a deep understanding of urban development and change over the past forty years in Los Angeles and other city regions of the world. Once the least dense American metropolis, Los Angeles is now the country’s densest urbanized area and one of the most culturally heterogeneous cities in the world. Soja takes us through this urban metamorphosis, analyzing urban restructuring, deindustrialization and reindustrialization, the globalization of capital and labor, and the formation of an information-intensive New Economy. By examining his own evolving interpretations of Los Angeles and the debates on the so-called Los Angeles School of urban studies, Soja argues that a radical shift is taking place in the nature of the urbanization process, from the familiar metropolitan model to regional urbanization. By looking at such concepts as new regionalism, the spatial turn, the end of the metropolis era, the urbanization of suburbia, the global spread of industrial urbanism, and the transformative urban-industrialization of China, Soja offers a unique and remarkable perspective on critical urban and regional studies.
Body, Mind & Spirit

The Wisdom of Donkeys

Finding Tranquility in a Chaotic World

Author: Andy Merrifield

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 0802719929

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 256

View: 3380

Traces the author's spiritual quest for tranquility among the ruins and vistas of southern France's Haute-Auvergne, a journey he shared with a donkey companion that enabled him to reflect on a wide range of disciplines.
Social Science

Vertical

The City from Satellites to Bunkers

Author: Stephen Graham

Publisher: Verso Books

ISBN: 1781689962

Category: Social Science

Page: 416

View: 8654

A revolutionary reimagining of the cities we live in, the air above us, and what goes on in the earth beneath our feet Today we live in a world that can no longer be read as a two-dimensional map, but must now be understood as a series of vertical strata that reach from the satellites that encircle our planet to the tunnels deep within the ground. In Vertical, Stephen Graham rewrites the city at every level: how the geography of inequality, politics, and identity is determined in terms of above and below. Starting at the edge of earth’s atmosphere and, in a series of riveting studies, descending through each layer, Graham explores the world of drones, the city from the viewpoint of an aerial bomber, the design of sidewalks and the hidden depths of underground bunkers. He asks: why was Dubai built to be seen from Google Earth? How do the super-rich in São Paulo live in their penthouses far above the street? Why do London billionaires build vast subterranean basements? And how do the technology of elevators and subversive urban explorers shape life on the surface and subsurface of the earth? Vertical will make you look at the world around you anew: this is a revolution in understanding your place in the world.
Social Science

The Priority of Injustice

Locating Democracy in Critical Theory

Author: Clive Barnett

Publisher: University of Georgia Press

ISBN: 0820351504

Category: Social Science

Page: 366

View: 4382

This original and ambitious work looks anew at a series of intellectual debates about the meaning of democracy. Clive Barnett engages with key thinkers in various traditions of democratic theory and demonstrates the importance of a geographical imagination in interpreting contemporary political change. Debates about radical democracy, Barnett argues, have become trapped around a set of oppositions between deliberative and agonistic theories—contrasting thinkers who promote the possibility of rational agreement and those who seek to unmask the role of power or violence or difference in shaping human affairs. While these debates are often framed in terms of consensus versus contestation, Barnett unpacks the assumptions about space and time that underlie different understandings of the sources of political conflict and shows how these differences reflect deeper philosophical commitments to theories of creative action or revived ontologies of “the political.” Rather than developing ideal theories of democracy or models of proper politics, he argues that attention should turn toward the practices of claims-making through which political movements express experiences of injustice and make demands for recognition, redress, and re pair. By rethinking the spatial grammar of discussions of public space, democratic inclusion, and globalization, Barnett develops a conceptual framework for analyzing the crucial roles played by geographical processes in generating and processing contentious politics.
Social Science

Dialectical urbanism

social struggles in the capitalist city

Author: Andy Merrifield

Publisher: Monthly Review Pr

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 192

View: 5456

Life in the city can be both liberating and oppressive. The contemporary city is an arena in which new and unexpected personal identities and collective agencies are forged and at the same time the major focus of market forces intent on making all life a commodity. This book explores both sides of the urban experience, developing a perspective from which the contradictory nature of the politics of the city comes more clearly into view. Dialectical Urbanismdiscusses a range of urban issues, conflicts and struggles through detailed case studies set in Liverpool, Baltimore, New York, and Los Angeles. Issues which affect the quality of everyday life in the citygentrification and development, affordable rents, the accountability of local government, the domination of the urban landscape by new corporate giants, policingare located in the context of larger political and economic forces. At the same time, the narrative constantly returns to those moments in which city dwellers discover and develop their capacity to challenge larger forces and decide their own conditions of life, becoming active citizens rather than the passive consumers. Merrifield draws on a wide range of sourcesfrom interviews with activists and tenants fighting eviction to government and corporate reportsand uncovers surprising connections, for example, between the rise of junk bonds in the 1980s and urban improvement schemes in a working-class neighborhood in Baltimore. This lively and many-sided narrative is constantly informed by broader analyses and reflections on the city and engages with these analyses in turn. It fuses scholarship and political engagement into a powerful defense of the possibilities of life in the metropolis today.
Business & Economics

Building safer cities

the future of disaster risk

Author: Alcira Kreimer,Margaret Arnold,Anne Carlin

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821354971

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 299

View: 3572

Vulnerability to disaster impacts is an increasingly important aspect of urban development, and a number of ongoing trends have the potential to cause even more severe and broader disaster impacts, including increased environmental degradation, the impacts of climate change, population growth in cities, and the effects of globalisation. The effects of disasters are particularly severe in developing countries, causing problems for economic and social development, inflicting massive casualties, and leading to the diversion of funds from development to emergency relief and recovery. This publication contains a number of background papers prepared for a World Bank conference on disaster risk management, held in Washington in December 2002. The papers discuss a number of case studies and papers which consider disaster risk reduction strategies designed to enable local communities and authorities in developing countries to be better prepared to protect their lives, homes, livelihoods and assets in an emergency situation.
Political Science

Politics of Globalization

Author: Samir Dasgupta,Jan Nederveen Pieterse

Publisher: SAGE Publishing India

ISBN: 9352801903

Category: Political Science

Page: 472

View: 6886

Politics of Globalization presents an up-to-date perspective on the kaleidoscopic politics of globalization. The authors analyze the existing definitions of capitalism and argue that globalization and the consequent growing multi-polarity in world politics is not a crisis but a proliferation of capitalisms. This network of capitalisms becomes the framework of the politics of the new globalization. This compilation by social scientists across the globe is an empirical and theoretical exploration of the political responses to globalization. The authors examine the impacts of the decline of US domination in trade and finance and compare it to the rise of Asian economies, with special focus on China and India. The articles explore the multiple impacts of globalization: the impact of new global political relations on 21st century international division of labour, the relation between gender equality and globalization, trade union politics and globalization, ecological politics and globalization discourse, dual citizenship and global politics, and globalization of language and culture. They also discuss the anti-globalization movements and argue that these might change the course of current trends in globalization processes. This book will be hold great value for social scientists and economists as well as politicians, social activists, and other professionals interested in the study of globalization and its consequences.
Social Science

Doing Global Urban Research

Author: John Harrison,Michael Hoyler

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 152641676X

Category: Social Science

Page: 264

View: 3992

Whether you are an urban geographer, an urban sociologist or an urban political scientist, and whether you take a qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods approach, the challenge that confronts researchers of our increasingly "globalized" urban studies remains fundamentally the same—how to make sense of urban complexity. This book confronts this challenge by exploring the various methodological approaches for doing global urban research, including Comparative Urbanism, Social Network Analysis, and Data Visualization. With contributions from leading scholars across the world, Doing Global Urban Research offers a key forum to discuss how the practice of research can deepen our knowledge of globalized urbanization.