Science

The Profit of the Earth

The Global Seeds of American Agriculture

Author: Courtney Fullilove

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022645505X

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 6663

While there is enormous public interest in biodiversity, food sourcing, and sustainable agriculture, romantic attachments to heirloom seeds and family farms have provoked misleading fantasies of an unrecoverable agrarian past. The reality, as Courtney Fullilove shows, is that seeds are inherently political objects transformed by the ways they are gathered, preserved, distributed, regenerated, and improved. In The Profit of the Earth, Fullilove unearths the history of American agricultural development and of seeds as tools and talismans put in its service. Organized into three thematic parts, The Profit of the Earth is a narrative history of the collection, circulation, and preservation of seeds. Fullilove begins with the political economy of agricultural improvement, recovering the efforts of the US Patent Office and the nascent US Department of Agriculture to import seeds and cuttings for free distribution to American farmers. She then turns to immigrant agricultural knowledge, exploring how public and private institutions attempting to boost midwestern wheat yields drew on the resources of willing and unwilling settlers. Last, she explores the impact of these cereal monocultures on biocultural diversity, chronicling a fin-de-siècle Ohio pharmacist’s attempt to source Purple Coneflower from the diminishing prairie. Through these captivating narratives of improvisation, appropriation, and loss, Fullilove explores contradictions between ideologies of property rights and common use that persist in national and international development—ultimately challenging readers to rethink fantasies of global agriculture’s past and future.
History

Larding the Lean Earth

Soil and Society in Nineteenth-Century America

Author: Steven Stoll

Publisher: Hill and Wang

ISBN: 1466805625

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 8376

A major history of early Americans' ideas about conservation Fifty years after the American Revolution, the yeoman farmers who made up a large part of the new country's voters faced a crisis. The very soil of American farms seemed to be failing, and agricultural prosperity, upon which the Republic was founded, was threatened. Steven Stoll's passionate and brilliantly argued book explores the tempestuous debates that erupted between "improvers," who believed in practices that sustained and bettered the soil of existing farms, and "emigrants," who thought it was wiser and more "American" to move westward as the soil gave out. Stoll examines the dozens of journals, from New York to Virginia, that gave voice to the improvers' cause. He also focuses especially on two groups of farmers, in Pennsylvania and South Carolina. He analyzes the similarities and differences in their farming habits in order to illustrate larger regional concerns about the "new husbandry" in free and slave states. Farming has always been the human activity that most disrupts nature, for good or ill. The decisions these early Americans made about how to farm not only expressed their political and social faith, but also influenced American attitudes about the environment for decades to come. Larding the Lean Earth is a signal work of environmental history and an original contribution to the study of antebellum America.
Business & Economics

Foodopoly

The Battle Over the Future of Food and Farming in America

Author: Wenonah Hauter

Publisher: The New Press

ISBN: 159558790X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 355

View: 313

Argues that lobbyists and the consolidation and corporate control of food production is to blame for the unhealthy and unfair agricultural policies of the United States.
History

The 4-H Harvest

Sexuality and the State in Rural America

Author: Gabriel N. Rosenberg

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812247531

Category: History

Page: 312

View: 9850

4-H, the iconic rural youth program run by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, has enrolled more than 70 million Americans over the last century. This book shows how 4-H, like the countryside it often symbolises, is the product of the modernist ambition to efficiently govern rural economies, landscapes, and populations.
Social Science

The Rural Face of White Supremacy

Beyond Jim Crow

Author: Mark Roman Schultz

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 0252092368

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 3712

Now in paperback, The Rural Face of White Supremacy presents a detailed study of the daily experiences of ordinary people in rural Hancock County, Georgia. Drawing on his own interviews with over two hundred black and white residents, Mark Schultz argues that the residents acted on the basis of personal rather than institutional relationships. As a result, Hancock County residents experienced more intimate face-to-face interactions, which made possible more black agency than their urban counterparts were allowed. While they were still firmly entrenched within an exploitive white supremacist culture, this relative freedom did create a space for a range of interracial relationships that included mixed housing, midwifery, church services, meals, and even common-law marriages.
Nature

Manifestos on the Future of Food & Seed

Author: Vandana Shiva

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780896087774

Category: Nature

Page: 145

View: 8041

A wide range of contributors offer suggestions on how to make food and agriculture more socially and ecologically sustainable, including essays by Prince Charles and Carlo Petrini.
Business & Economics

Stolen Harvest

The Hijacking of the Global Food Supply

Author: Vandana Shiva

Publisher: University Press of Kentucky

ISBN: 0813166799

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 152

View: 5224

For the farmer, the seed is not merely the source of future plants and food; it is a vehicle through which culture and history can be preserved and spread to future generations. For centuries, farmers have evolved crops and produced an incredible diversity of plants that provide life-sustaining nutrition. In India alone, the ingenuity of farmers has produced over 200,000 varieties of rice, many of which now line store shelves around the world. This productive tradition, however, is under attack as globalized, corporate regimes increasingly exploit intellectual property laws to annex these sustaining seeds and remove them from the public sphere. In Stolen Harvest: The Hijacking of the Global Food Supply, Shiva explores the devastating effects of commercial agriculture and genetic engineering on the food we eat, the farmers who grow it, and the soil that sustains it. This prescient critique and call to action covers some of the most pressing topics of this ongoing dialogue, from the destruction of local food cultures and the privatization of plant life, to unsustainable industrial fish farming and safety concerns about corporately engineered foods. The preeminent agricultural activist and scientist of a generation, Shiva implores the farmers and consumers of the world to make a united stand against the genetically modified crops and untenable farming practices that endanger the seeds and plants that give us life.
Technology & Engineering

This Blessed Earth: A Year in the Life of an American Family Farm

Author: Ted Genoways

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393292584

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 288

View: 6519

Is there still a place for the farm in today’s America? The family farm lies at the heart of our national identity, yet its future is in peril. Rick Hammond grew up on a small ranch, and for forty years he has raised cattle and crops on his wife’s fifth-generation homestead in York County, Nebraska, in hopes of passing it on to their four children. But as the handoff nears, their small family farm—and their entire way of life—are under siege. Rising corporate ownership of land and livestock is forcing small farmers to get bigger and bigger, assuming more debt and more risk. At the same time, after nearly a decade of record-high corn and soybean prices, the bottom has dropped out of the markets, making it ever harder for small farmers to shoulder their loans. All the while, the Hammonds are confronted by encroaching pipelines, groundwater depletion, climate change, and shifting trade policies. Far from an isolated refuge beyond the reach of global events, the family farm is increasingly at the crossroads of emerging technologies and international detente. Following the Hammonds from harvest to harvest, Ted Genoways explores this rapidly changing landscape of small, traditional farming operations, mapping as it unfolds day to day. This Blessed Earth is both a concise exploration of the history of the American small farm and a vivid, nuanced portrait of one family’s fight to preserve their legacy and the life they love.
History

Watering the Revolution

An Environmental and Technological History of Agrarian Reform in Mexico

Author: Mikael D. Wolfe

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822373068

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 6433

In Watering the Revolution Mikael D. Wolfe transforms our understanding of Mexican agrarian reform through an environmental and technological history of water management in the emblematic Laguna region. Drawing on extensive archival research in Mexico and the United States, Wolfe shows how during the long Mexican Revolution (1910-1940) engineers’ distribution of water paradoxically undermined land distribution. In so doing, he highlights the intrinsic tension engineers faced between the urgent need for water conservation and the imperative for development during the contentious modernization of the Laguna's existing flood irrigation method into one regulated by high dams, concrete-lined canals, and motorized groundwater pumps. This tension generally resolved in favor of development, which unintentionally diminished and contaminated the water supply while deepening existing rural social inequalities by dividing people into water haves and have-nots, regardless of their access to land. By uncovering the varied motivations behind the Mexican government’s decision to use invasive and damaging technologies despite knowing they were ecologically unsustainable, Wolfe tells a cautionary tale of the long-term consequences of short-sighted development policies.
Food supply

Call of the Reed Warbler

A New Agriculture, A New Earth

Author: Charles Massy

Publisher: Chelsea Green Publishing

ISBN: 1603588132

Category: Food supply

Page: 528

View: 694

In Call of the Reed Warbler, Charles Massy explores regenerative agriculture and the vital connection between our soil and our health. It is the story of how a grassroots revolution--a true underground insurgency--can save the planet, help reduce and reverse climate change, and build healthy people and healthy communities, pivoting significantly on our relationship with growing and consuming food. Using his personal experience as a touchstone--from an unknowing, chemical-using farmer with dead soils to a radical ecologist farmer carefully regenerating a 2000-hectare property to a state of natural health--Massy tells the real story behind industrial agriculture and the global profit-obsessed corporations driving it. With evocative stories, he shows how other innovative and courageous farmers are finding a new way. At stake is not only a revolution in human health and in our communities, but the very survival of the planet. For farmers, backyard gardeners, food buyers, health workers, policy makers, and public leaders alike, Call of the Reed Warbler offers a tangible path forward and a powerful and moving paean of hope. It's not too late to regenerate the earth. Call of the Reed Warbler shows the way forward for the future of our food supply, our planet, and our health.
Business & Economics

Who Really Feeds the World?

The Failures of Agribusiness and the Promise of Agroecology

Author: Vandana Shiva

Publisher: North Atlantic Books

ISBN: 1623170621

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 192

View: 698

"An in-depth look at agroecology, an alternative to the world's current food crisis" --Provided by publisher.
History

The Great Meadow

Farmers and the Land in Colonial Concord

Author: Brian Donahue

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300123692

Category: History

Page: 311

View: 4333

"Employing precise geographical information system (GIS) mapping of land ownership and land use, Donahue describes how the land was settled and how mixed husbandry was developed in Concord. By reconstructing several farm neighborhoods and following them through many generations, he reveals a diverse sustainable farming system of tillage, orchards, pastures, hay meadows, and woodlots that required careful management of soil and water. Donahue concludes that ecological degradation came to Concord only later, when nineteenth-century economic and social forces undercut the environmental balance that earlier colonial farmers had nurtured."--Jacket.
History

Nature's Perfect Food

How Milk Became America's Drink

Author: E. Melanie Dupuis

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 9780814719374

Category: History

Page: 310

View: 8628

For over a century, America's nutrition authorities have heralded milk as "nature's perfect food," as "indispensable" and "the most complete food." These milk "boosters" have ranged from consumer activists, to government nutritionists, to the American Dairy Council and its ubiquitous milk moustache ads. The image of milk as wholesome and body-building has a long history, but is it accurate? Recently, within the newest social movements around food, milk has lost favor. Vegan anti-milk rhetoric portrays the dairy industry as cruel to animals and milk as bad for humans. Recently, books with titles like, "Milk: The Deadly Poison," and "Don't Drink Your Milk" have portrayed milk as toxic and unhealthy. Controversies over genetically-engineered cows and questions about antibiotic residue have also prompted consumers to question whether the milk they drink each day is truly good for them. In Nature's Perfect Food Melanie Dupuis illuminates these questions by telling the story of how Americans came to drink milk. We learn how cow's milk, which was associated with bacteria and disease became a staple of the American diet. Along the way we encounter 19th century evangelists who were convinced that cow's milk was the perfect food with divine properties, brewers whose tainted cow feed poisoned the milk supply, and informal wetnursing networks that were destroyed with the onset of urbanization and industrialization. Informative and entertaining, Nature's Perfect Food will be the standard work on the history of milk.
Business & Economics

Monocultures of the Mind

Perspectives on Biodiversity and Biotechnology

Author: Vandana Shiva

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 9781856492188

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 184

View: 6974

Vandana Shiva has established herself as a leading independent thinker and voice for the South in that critically important nexus where questions of development strategy, the environment and the posititon of women in society coincide. In this new volume, she brings together her thinking on the protection of biodiversity, the implications of biotechnology, and the consequences for agriculture of the global pre-eminence of Western-style scientific knowledge.In lucid and accessible fashion, she examines the current threats to the planet's biodiversity and the environmental and human consequences of its erosion and replacement by monocultural production. She shows how the new Biodiversity Convention has been gravely undermined by a mixture of diplomatic dilution during the process of negotiation and Northern hi-tech interests making money out of the new biotechnologies. She explains what these technologies involve and gives examples of their impact in practice. She questions their claims to improving natural species for the good of all and highlights the ethical and environmental problems posed.Underlying her arguments is the view that the North's particular approach to scientific understanding has led to a system of monoculture in agriculture - a model that is not being foisted on the South, displacing its societies' ecologically sounder, indigenous and age-old experiences of truly sustainable food cultivation, forest management and animal husbandry. This rapidly accelerating process of technology and system transfer is impoverishing huge numbers of people, disrupting the social systems that provide them with security and dignity, and will ultimately result in a sterile planet in both North and South, In a policy intervention of potentially great significance, she calls instead for a halt, at international as well as local level, to the aid and market incentives to both large-scale destruction of habitats where biodiversity thrives and the introduction of centralised, homogenous systems of cultivation.
Technology & Engineering

The End of Plenty: The Race to Feed a Crowded World

Author: Joel K. Bourne

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393248046

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 5237

“An urgent and at times terrifying dispatch from a distinguished reporter who has given heart and soul to his subject.”—Hampton Sides When the demographer Robert Malthus (1766–1834) famously outlined the brutal relationship between food and population, he never imagined the success of modern scientific agriculture. In the mid-twentieth century, an unprecedented agricultural advancement known as the Green Revolution brought hybrid seeds, chemical fertilizers, and improved irrigation that drove the greatest population boom in history—but left ecological devastation in its wake. In The End of Plenty, award-winning environmental journalist Joel K. Bourne Jr. puts our race to feed the world in dramatic perspective. With a skyrocketing world population and tightening global grain supplies spurring riots and revolutions, humanity must produce as much food in the next four decades as it has since the beginning of civilization to avoid a Malthusian catastrophe. Yet climate change could render half our farmland useless by century’s end. Writing with an agronomist’s eye for practical solutions and a journalist’s keen sense of character, detail, and the natural world, Bourne takes readers from his family farm to international agricultural hotspots to introduce the new generation of farmers and scientists engaged in the greatest challenge humanity has ever faced. He discovers young, corporate cowboys trying to revive Ukraine as Europe’s breadbasket, a Canadian aquaculturist channeling ancient Chinese traditions, the visionary behind the world’s largest organic sugar-cane plantation, and many other extraordinary individuals struggling to increase food supplies—quickly and sustainably—as droughts, floods, and heat waves hammer crops around the globe. Part history, part reportage and advocacy, The End of Plenty is a panoramic account of the future of food, and a clarion call for anyone concerned about our planet and its people.
Science

Hybrid

The History and Science of Plant Breeding

Author: Noel Kingsbury

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226437051

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 4710

Disheartened by the shrink-wrapped, Styrofoam-packed state of contemporary supermarket fruits and vegetables, many shoppers hark back to a more innocent time, to visions of succulent red tomatoes plucked straight from the vine, gleaming orange carrots pulled from loamy brown soil, swirling heads of green lettuce basking in the sun. With Hybrid, Noel Kingsbury reveals that even those imaginary perfect foods are themselves far from anything that could properly be called natural; rather, they represent the end of a millennia-long history of selective breeding and hybridization. Starting his story at the birth of agriculture, Kingsbury traces the history of human attempts to make plants more reliable, productive, and nutritious—a story that owes as much to accident and error as to innovation and experiment. Drawing on historical and scientific accounts, as well as a rich trove of anecdotes, Kingsbury shows how scientists, amateur breeders, and countless anonymous farmers and gardeners slowly caused the evolutionary pressures of nature to be supplanted by those of human needs—and thus led us from sparse wild grasses to succulent corn cobs, and from mealy, white wild carrots to the juicy vegetables we enjoy today. At the same time, Kingsbury reminds us that contemporary controversies over the Green Revolution and genetically modified crops are not new; plant breeding has always had a political dimension. A powerful reminder of the complicated and ever-evolving relationship between humans and the natural world, Hybrid will give readers a thoughtful new perspective on—and a renewed appreciation of—the cereal crops, vegetables, fruits, and flowers that are central to our way of life.
Agricultural biotechnology

Seed Sovereignty, Food Security

Women in the Vanguard of the Fight Against GMOs and Corporate Agriculture

Author: Vandana Shiva

Publisher: North Atlantic Books

ISBN: 1623170281

Category: Agricultural biotechnology

Page: 399

View: 5127

In this unique anthology, women from around the world write about the movement to change the current, industrial paradigm of how we grow our food. As seed keepers and food producers, as scientists, activists, and scholars, they are dedicated to renewing a food system that is better aligned with ecological processes as well as human health and global social justice. Seed Sovereignty, Food Security is an argument for just that--a reclaiming of traditional methods of agricultural practice in order to secure a healthy, nourishing future for all of us. Whether tackling the thorny question of GMO safety or criticizing the impact of big agribusiness on traditional communities, these women are in the vanguard of defending the right of people everywhere to practice local, biodiverse, and organic farming as an alternative to industrial agriculture. Contents * Seed Sovereignty, Food Security VANDANA SHIVA * Fields of Hope and Power FRANCES MOORE LAPPÉ & ANNA LAPPÉ * The Ethics of Agricultural Biotechnology BETH BURROWS * Food Politics, the Food Movement and Public Health MARION NESTLE * Autism and Glyphosate: Connecting the Dots STEPHANIE SENEFF * The New Genetics and Dangers of GMOs MAE-WAN HO * Seed Emergency: Germany SUSANNE GURA * GM Soy as Feed for Animals Affects Posterity IRINA ERMAKOVA & ALEXANDER BARANOFF * Seeds in France TIPHAINE BURBAN * Kokopelli vs. Graines Baumaux BLANCHE MAGARINOS-REY * If People Are Asked, They Say NO to GMOs FLORIANNE KOECHLIN * The Italian Context MARIA GRAZIA MAMMUCINI * The Untold American Revolution: Seed in the US DEBBIE BARKER * Reviving Native Sioux Agriculture Systems SUZANNE FOOTE * In Praise of the Leadership of Indigenous Women WINONA LADUKE * Moms Across America: Shaking up the System ZEN HONEYCUTT * Seed Freedom and Seed Sovereignty: Bangladesh Today FARIDA AKHTER * Monsanto and Biosafety in Nepal KUSUM HACHHETHU * Sowing Seeds of Freedom VANDANA SHIVA * The Loss of Crop Genetic Diversity in the Changing World TEWOLDE BERHAN GEBRE EGZIABHER & SUE EDWARDS * Seed Sovereignty and Ecological Integrity in Africa MARIAM MAYET * Conserving the Diversity of Peasant Seeds ANA DE ITA * Celebrating the Chile Nativo ISAURA ANDALUZ * Seed Saving and Women in Peru PATRICIA FLORES * The Seeds of Liberation in Latin America SANDRA BAQUEDANO & SARA LARRAÍN * The Other Mothers and the Fight against GMOs in Argentina ANA BROCCOLI * Seeding Knowledge: Australia SUSAN HAWTHORNE
Gardening

Sowing Seeds in the Desert

Natural Farming, Global Restoration, and Ultimate Food Security

Author: Masanobu Fukuoka

Publisher: Chelsea Green Publishing

ISBN: 1603585222

Category: Gardening

Page: 168

View: 4003

Argues that the Earth's deteriorating condition is man-made and outlines a way for the process to be reversed by rehabilitating the deserts using natural farming.
Technology & Engineering

Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080931391

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 464

View: 1202

Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, Second Edition addresses important issues by examining topics of global agriculture and food systems that are key to understanding the challenges we face. Questions it addresses include: Will we be able to produce enough food to meet the increasing dietary needs and wants of the additional two billion people expected to inhabit our planet by 2050? Will we be able to meet the need for so much more food while simultaneously reducing adverse environmental effects of today’s agriculture practices? Will we be able to produce the additional food using less land and water than we use now? These are among the most important challenges that face our planet in the coming decades. The broad themes of food systems and people, agriculture and the environment, the science of agriculture, agricultural products, and agricultural production systems are covered in more than 200 separate chapters of this work. The book provides information that serves as the foundation for discussion of the food and environment challenges of the world. An international group of highly respected authors addresses these issues from a global perspective and provides the background, references, and linkages for further exploration of each of topics of this comprehensive work. Addresses important challenges of sustainability and efficiency from a global perspective. Takes a detailed look at the important issues affecting the agricultural and food industries today. Full colour throughout.
Business & Economics

One Billion Hungry

Can We Feed the World?

Author: Gordon Conway

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801466105

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 464

View: 6588

Hunger is a daily reality for a billion people. More than six decades after the technological discoveries that led to the Green Revolution aimed at ending world hunger, regular food shortages, malnutrition, and poverty still plague vast swaths of the world. And with increasing food prices, climate change, resource inequality, and an ever-increasing global population, the future holds further challenges. In One Billion Hungry, Sir Gordon Conway, one of the world's foremost experts on global food needs, explains the many interrelated issues critical to our global food supply from the science of agricultural advances to the politics of food security. He expands the discussion begun in his influential The Doubly Green Revolution: Food for All in the Twenty-First Century, emphasizing the essential combination of increased food production, environmental stability, and poverty reduction necessary to end endemic hunger on our planet. Beginning with a definition of hunger and how it is calculated, and moving through issues topically both detailed and comprehensive, each chapter focuses on specific challenges and solutions, ranging in scope from the farmer's daily life to the global movement of food, money, and ideas. Drawing on the latest scientific research and the results of projects around the world, Conway addresses the concepts and realities of our global food needs: the legacy of the Green Revolution; the impact of market forces on food availability; the promise and perils of genetically modified foods; agricultural innovation in regard to crops, livestock, pest control, soil, and water; and the need to both adapt to and slow the rate of climate change. One Billion Hungry will be welcomed by all readers seeking a multifacted understanding of our global food supply, food security, international agricultural development, and sustainability.