Artificial intelligence (AI) is a field within computer science that is attempting to build enhanced intelligence into computer systems. This book traces the history of the subject, from the early dreams of eighteenth-century (and earlier) pioneers to the more successful work of today's AI engineers. AI is becoming more and more a part of everyone's life. The technology is already embedded in face-recognizing cameras, speech-recognition software, Internet search engines, and health-care robots, among other applications. The book's many diagrams and easy-to-understand descriptions of AI programs will help the casual reader gain an understanding of how these and other AI systems actually work. Its thorough (but unobtrusive) end-of-chapter notes containing citations to important source materials will be of great use to AI scholars and researchers. This book promises to be the definitive history of a field that has captivated the imaginations of scientists, philosophers, and writers for centuries.
The Quest for Artificial Intelligence--and Where It's Taking Us Next
Author: Luke Dormehl
A fascinating look at Artificial Intelligence, from its humble Cold War beginnings to the dazzling future that is just around the corner. When most of us think about Artificial Intelligence, our minds go straight to cyborgs, robots, and sci-fi thrillers where machines take over the world. But the truth is that Artificial Intelligence is already among us. It exists in our smartphones, fitness trackers, and refrigerators that tell us when the milk will expire. In some ways, the future people dreamed of at the World's Fair in the 1960s is already here. We're teaching our machines how to think like humans, and they're learning at an incredible rate. In Thinking Machines, technology journalist Luke Dormehl takes you through the history of AI and how it makes up the foundations of the machines that think for us today. Furthermore, Dormehl speculates on the incredible--and possibly terrifying--future that's much closer than many would imagine. This remarkable book will invite you to marvel at what now seems commonplace and to dream about a future in which the scope of humanity may need to widen to include intelligent machines. From the Trade Paperback edition.
This book is a critique of Artificial Intelligence (AI) from the perspective of cognitive science – it seeks to examine what we have learned about human cognition from AI successes and failures. The book's goal is to separate those 'AI dreams' that either have been or could be realized from those that are constructed through discourse and are unrealizable. AI research has advanced many areas that are intellectually compelling and holds great promise for advances in science, engineering, and practical systems. After the 1980s, however, the field has often struggled to deliver widely on these promises. This book breaks new ground by analyzing how some of the driving dreams of people practicing AI research become valued contributions, while others devolve into unrealized and unrealizable projects.
Business & Economics by Peter Buxmann,Holger Schmidt
Dieses Buch soll dabei helfen, die neuen Technologien und Anwendungspotenziale der künstlichen Intelligenz besser zu verstehen und einzuordnen. Neben einer ausführlichen und verständlichen Vermittlung grundlegender Kenntnisse und ökonomischer Effekte der künstlichen Intelligenz enthält es viele Anwendungsbeispiele bekannter Unternehmen. Konzerne wie Amazon, IBM, Microsoft, SAP oder VW lassen die Leser in ihre KI-Labors schauen und erklären konkrete Projekte zu Themen, wie z. B. Chatbots, Quantencomputing, Gesichtserkennung, sprachbasierte Systeme oder den Einsatz von KI-Anwendungen in den Bereichen Marketing, Vertrieb, Finanzen, Personalwesen, Produktion, Gesundheit sowie Logistik. Das Buch richtet sich an Entscheider in Unternehmen, Studierende, Dozenten und alle, die sich ein Bild über die vielleicht wichtigste technologische Entwicklung in diesem Jahrhundert machen möchten.
Die Nobelpreis-Schmiede Massachusetts Institute of Technology ist der bedeutendste technologische Think Tank der USA. Dort arbeitet Professor Max Tegmark mit den weltweit führenden Entwicklern künstlicher Intelligenz zusammen, die ihm exklusive Einblicke in ihre Labors gewähren. Die Erkenntnisse, die er daraus zieht, sind atemberaubend und zutiefst verstörend zugleich. Neigt sich die Ära der Menschen dem Ende zu? Der Physikprofessor Max Tegmark zeigt anhand der neusten Forschung, was die Menschheit erwartet. Hier eine Auswahl möglicher Szenarien: - Eroberer: Künstliche Intelligenz übernimmt die Macht und entledigt sich der Menschheit mit Methoden, die wir noch nicht einmal verstehen. - Der versklavte Gott: Die Menschen bemächtigen sich einer superintelligenten künstlichen Intelligenz und nutzen sie, um Hochtechnologien herzustellen. - Umkehr: Der technologische Fortschritt wird radikal unterbunden und wir kehren zu einer prä-technologischen Gesellschaft im Stil der Amish zurück. - Selbstzerstörung: Superintelligenz wird nicht erreicht, weil sich die Menschheit vorher nuklear oder anders selbst vernichtet. - Egalitäres Utopia: Es gibt weder Superintelligenz noch Besitz, Menschen und kybernetische Organismen existieren friedlich nebeneinander. Max Tegmark bietet kluge und fundierte Zukunftsszenarien basierend auf seinen exklusiven Einblicken in die aktuelle Forschung zur künstlichen Intelligenz.
Is it possible to construct an artificial person? Researchers in the field of artificial intelligence have for decades been developing computer programs that emulate human intelligence. This book goes beyond intelligence and describes how close we are to recreating many of the other capacities that make us human. These abilities include learning, creativity, consciousness, and emotion. The attempt to understand and engineer these abilities constitutes the new interdisciplinary field of artificial psychology, which is characterized by contributions from philosophy, cognitive psychology, neuroscience, computer science, and robotics. This work is intended for use as a main or supplementary introductory textbook for a course in cognitive psychology, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, or the philosophy of mind. It examines human abilities as operating requirements that an artificial person must have and analyzes them from a multidisciplinary approach. The book is comprehensive in scope, covering traditional topics like perception, memory, and problem solving. However, it also describes recent advances in the study of free will, ethical behavior, affective architectures, social robots, and hybrid human-machine societies.
The Creation of a Conscious Machine surveys the millennial quest to create an intelligent artifact, concludes that consciousness is the key to achieve this goal and proposes an understanding of Artificial Consciousness that is suitable for machine implementation. The text describes how achieving the goal of Artificial Intelligence will yield extraordinary intellectual benefits and deep insights into the human condition. It examines past attempts, from ancient times until today, to define intelligence and implement it, drawing useful lessons from each. In particular, the Turing Test, the current and most influential measure of Artificial Intelligence, is the subject of an in depth analysis. Ultimately, the author also rejects the Turing Test, and the concept of a test itself, as an inadequate measure of machine intelligence. Basing himself on this analysis, the author concludes that humans will only consider a machine to be truly intelligent if they also perceive it to be conscious. To realize the quest of Artificial Intelligence, it is thus necessary to implement consciousness. The author concludes by proposing a definition of Artificial Consciousness expressed as specification objectives that are suitable for software implementation. This makes it possible to build, today, the first generation of synthetic conscious beings.
What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)? What can it do and how is it created? In this highly accessible guide to the subject, Richard Urwin bases his assessment of AI on the definition of AI as a tool that is 'constructed to aid or substitute for human thought'. He explains how AI came about, the importance of the development of the computer and then examines how AI has developed over the years through the construction of computer programs and how the language used to construct these programs has become more and more sophisticated, thus allowing AI to become better and better. Along the way, you will discover numerous intriguing examples of how scientists have progressed the development of AI, learn about Fuzzy Logic and the ups and downs of computer programming, as well as finding out how research into brain function is continually influencing the field of AI. By turns fascinating and scary, Artificial Intelligence will take the reader on an amazing journey that covers everything from the habits of ants to the world of the stock market.
A team of computer scientists, working at the engineering school of the University of California at Berkeley to create Artificial Intelligence, documents their struggle to reach an impossible goal and the controversies over their work
Dr. Kevin Warwick warns us that robots and machine intelligence pose an enormous threat to mankind. He is deeply critical of techniques used to measure human intelligence, in particular IQ tests. He believes these are both flawed and outdated. He has developed an entirely new theory, which proposes a universal view of intelligence, within which human, animal and even artificial intelligence are united for the first time.
Der Wettlauf um das Gehirn hat begonnen. Sowohl die EU als auch die USA haben gewaltige Forschungsprojekte ins Leben gerufen um das Geheimnis des menschlichen Denkens zu entschlüsseln. 2023 soll es dann soweit sein: Das menschliche Gehirn kann vollständig simuliert werden. In "Das Geheimnis des menschlichen Denkens" gewährt Googles Chefingenieur Ray Kurzweil einen spannenden Einblick in das Reverse Engineering des Gehirns. Er legt dar, wie mithilfe der Mustererkennungstheorie des Geistes der ungeheuren Komplexität des Gehirns beizukommen ist und wirft einen ebenso präzisen wie überraschenden Blick auf die am Horizont sich bereits abzeichnende Zukunft. Ist das menschliche Gehirn erst einmal simuliert, wird künstliche Intelligenz die Fähigkeiten des Menschen schon bald übertreffen. Ein Ereignis, das Kurzweil aufgrund der bereits in "Menschheit 2.0" entworfenen exponentiellen Wachstumskurve der Informationstechnologien bereits für das Jahr 2029 prognostiziert. Aber was dann? Kurzweil ist zuversichtlich, dass die Vorteile künstlicher Intelligenz mögliche Bedrohungsszenarien überwiegen und sie uns entscheidend dabei hilft, uns weiterzuentwickeln und die Herausforderungen der Zukunft zu meistern.
Technology & Engineering by Mateus Mendes,A. Paulo Coimbra,Manuel M. Crisóstomo
Quest for Intelligent Approaches Using a Sparse Distributed Memory
Author: Mateus Mendes,A. Paulo Coimbra,Manuel M. Crisóstomo
Category: Technology & Engineering
Starting with a summary of the history of Artificial Intelligence, this book makes the bridge to the modern debate on the definition of Intelligence and the path to building Intelligent Machines. Since the definition of Intelligence is itself subject to open debate, the quest for Intelligent machines is pursuing a moving target. Apparently, intelligent behaviour is, to a great extent, the result of using a sophisticated associative memory, more than the result of heavy processing. The book describes theories on how the brain works, associative memory models and how a particular model - the Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) - can be used to navigate a robot based on visual memories. Other robot navigation methods are also comprehensively revised and compared to the method proposed. The performance of the SDM-based robot has been tested in different typical problems, such as illumination changes, occlusions and image noise, taking the SDM to the limits. The results are extensively discussed in the book.
Political Science by Satya Nadella,Jill Tracie Nichols,Greg Shaw
Lange bevor es iPad oder Kindle gab, hatte Microsoft bereits ein Tablet und einen E-Reader entwickelt. Nur: Es hatte die Produkte nie genutzt und war gegen neue Innovatoren wie Apple, Google und Amazon ins Hintertreffen geraten. Um diesen Rückstand wieder aufzuholen, musste Microsoft nicht nur eine Strategie entwickeln, wie es künftig mit neuen Technologien wie künstlicher Intelligenz, Robotern und Co umgehen wollte – der einstige Vorreiter in Sachen Innovation musste seine Kultur vollkommen erneuern und seine Seele wiederfinden. Dies ist die Inside-Story dieser Transformation.
Computers by Alex Roland,Professor of History Alex Roland,Philip Shiman
DARPA and the Quest for Machine Intelligence, 1983-1993
Author: Alex Roland,Professor of History Alex Roland,Philip Shiman
Publisher: MIT Press
The story of the U.S. Department of Defense's extraordinary effort, in the period from 1983 to 1993, to achieve machine intelligence. This is the story of an extraordinary effort by the U.S. Department of Defense to hasten the advent of "machines that think." From 1983 to 1993, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) spent an extra $1 billion on computer research aimed at achieving artificial intelligence. The Strategic Computing Initiative (SCI) was conceived as an integrated plan to promote computer chip design and manufacture, computer architecture, and artificial intelligence software. What distinguished SCI from other large-scale technology programs was that it self-consciously set out to advance an entire research front. The SCI succeeded in fostering significant technological successes, even though it never achieved machine intelligence. The goal provided a powerful organizing principle for a suite of related research programs, but it did not solve the problem of coordinating these programs. In retrospect, it is hard to see how it could have.In Strategic Computing, Alex Roland and Philip Shiman uncover the roles played in the SCI by technology, individuals, and social and political forces. They explore DARPA culture, especially the information processing culture within the agency, and they evaluate the SCI's accomplishments and set them in the context of overall computer development during this period. Their book is an important contribution to our understanding of the complex sources of contemporary computing.
Dr. Kevin Warwick is deeply critical of techniques used to measure human intelligence, in particular IQ tests. He believes these are both flawed and outdated. He has developed an entirely new theory, which proposes a universal view of intelligence, within which human, animal and even artificial intelligence are united for the first time. Challenging and controversial, QI will stimulate widespread argument and discussion. * Brings ideas on intelligence up to date and aligns them with the world in which we now live * Overturns much current thinking on intelligence * Reveals how IQ testing has been misused in the past, including how the US used low IQ scores as a basis for 'voluntary' sterilisation and rejection of refugees from Nazism * Examines the intelligence of animals, machines and robots, and considers the ways in which they are more intelligent than humans * Includes results of a special survey which shows how foods, drinks, television and other factors affect 'IQ' test results
The Quest for Common Ground Between Humans and Robots
Author: John Markoff
As robots are increasingly integrated into modern society—on the battlefield and the road, in business, education, and health—Pulitzer-Prize-winning New York Times science writer John Markoff searches for an answer to one of the most important questions of our age: will these machines help us, or will they replace us? In the past decade alone, Google introduced us to driverless cars, Apple debuted a personal assistant that we keep in our pockets, and an Internet of Things connected the smaller tasks of everyday life to the farthest reaches of the internet. There is little doubt that robots are now an integral part of society, and cheap sensors and powerful computers will ensure that, in the coming years, these robots will soon act on their own. This new era offers the promise of immense computing power, but it also reframes a question first raised more than half a century ago, at the birth of the intelligent machine: Will we control these systems, or will they control us? In Machines of Loving Grace, New York Times reporter John Markoff, the first reporter to cover the World Wide Web, offers a sweeping history of the complicated and evolving relationship between humans and computers. Over the recent years, the pace of technological change has accelerated dramatically, reintroducing this difficult ethical quandary with newer and far weightier consequences. As Markoff chronicles the history of automation, from the birth of the artificial intelligence and intelligence augmentation communities in the 1950s, to the modern day brain trusts at Google and Apple in Silicon Valley, and on to the expanding tech corridor between Boston and New York, he traces the different ways developers have addressed this fundamental problem and urges them to carefully consider the consequences of their work. We are on the verge of a technological revolution, Markoff argues, and robots will profoundly transform the way our lives are organized. Developers must now draw a bright line between what is human and what is machine, or risk upsetting the delicate balance between them.
This book looks at artificial life science - A-Life, an important new area of scientific research involving the disciplines of microbiology, evolutionary theory, physics, chemistry and computer science. In the 1940s a mathematician named John von Neumann, a man with a claim to being the father of the modern computer, invented a hypothetical mathematical entity called a cellular automaton. His aim was to construct a machine that could reproduce itself. In the years since, with the development of hugely more sophisticated and complex computers, von Neumann's insights have gradually led to a point where scientists have created, within the wiring of these machines, something that so closely simulates life that it may, arguably, be called life. This machine reproduces itself, mutates, evolves through generations and dies.