The rule of law has been celebrated as an unqualified human good and promoted around the world to secure economic development and political freedom. Yet there is considerable disagreement about just what the ideal of the rule of law requires. When people clamor for the preservation or extension of the rule of law, are they advocating a substantive conception of the rule of law respecting private property and promoting liberty, a formal conception emphasizing an inner morality of law, or a procedural conception stressing the right to be heard by an impartial tribunal and to make arguments about what the law is? When, if ever, are exertions of executive power outside the law justified on the ground that they may be necessary to maintain or restore the conditions for the rule of law in emergency circumstances, such as defending against terrorist attacks? What institutions or measures might be effective in bounding or checking such power? What are the promise and perils of attempting to build the rule of law after military interventions in conflict-ridden societies?When the might of intervening governments is brought to bear to make rights, does it distort rights and inflict costs that may more than offset the potential gains? In Getting to the Rule of Law a group of prominent, thoughtful contributors from a variety of disciplines address many of the theoretical legal, political, and moral issues raised by such questions and examine practical applications on the ground in the United States and around the world. This timely, interdisciplinary volume examines the ideal of the rule of law, questions when, if ever, executive power outside the law is justified to maintain or restore the rule of law, and explores the prospects for and perils of building the rule of law after military interventions.
The rule of law is acknowledged worldwide as central to good governance. Yet there often appears a huge gap between theory and practice, the acknowledgement no more than lip service. Where are the gaps? What are the problems? What is meant by 'the rule of law'? This book brings together the views of an extraordinary range of well-known authors. It contains essays by: Chief Justice Murray Gleeson, High Court of Australia; Justice Louise Arbour, Supreme Court of Canada; Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Supreme Court of USA; Dr Radhika Coomaraswamy, the UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women; and Professors Saunders (Australia), Dyzenhaus (Canada) and Troper (France). Each essay is followed by a substantial comment by a distinguished Australian jurist - Justices Gaudron and Hayne, Sir Anthony Mason, Elizabeth Evatt, and Professors Saunders and McCormack - to highlight the relevance of the issues raised for Australia. The essays cover issues such as: the debate about the meaning and application of the rule of law, nationally and internationally; the gaps between the theory and practice of the rule of law; relations between governments and people; the tensions between the judiciary and the elected branches of government (for example, ouster of the jurisdiction of the Australian courts); international criminal justice; and the position of women in situations of conflict and insurrection. The analyses in the book draw on topical events ranging from the Florida appeal in the election of President Bush (Justice Ginsburg) to the indictment of Slobodan Milosevic at the War Crimes Tribunal (Justice Arbour, who was prosecutor).
What is the rule of law? Why does it matter? How well does America conform to the rule of law? And why do Americans, who profess such respect for the law, complain so often about our legal system? Drawing upon extensive experience in law, government service, teaching, and research, Boston University law school dean Ronald Cass offers a welcome contribution to the ongoing public discussion on law and society. After opening his discussion with chapters on the rule of law in American society, Cass turns to the hard case of its application to the president of the United States. Through this prism Cass examines the behavior of judges who may not always act according to a "perfect model." They may not always be perfectly constrained by law or achieve perfect justice through law. That, however, is the wrong thing to ask. Instead, says Cass, "looking at the ordinary case -- and asking not whether the decision advances particular aspirations for society, but whether it conforms to basic aspects of legal authority -- produces a more law-governed view of America judging." In fact, this book provides a much-needed corrective to criticism of the American legal system raised all too frequently by members of the academy and by politicians. Rather than concentrating on relatively minor inconsistencies in the law and slight departures from the ideal of perfectly constrained decision making, Cass argues that the energies of his fellow scholars could be better spent on more serious defects in the legal system. With a special section on the 2000 presidential election, including the Florida recount and Supreme Court decision, The Rule of Law in America offers a timely look at a subject of interest to legal scholars and general readers alike..
A collaboration of leading historians of European law and philosophers of law and politics identifying and explaining the practice of interpretation of law in the 18th century. The goal: establishing the actual practice in the Age of Enlightenment, and explaining why this was the case. The ideology of the Age was that law, i.e., the will of the sovereign, can be explicitly and appropriately stated, thus making interpretation redundant. However, the reality was that in the 18th century, there was no one leading source of national law that would be the object of interpretation. Instead, there was a plurality of sources of law: the Roman Law, local customary law, and the royal ordinance. However, in deciding a case in a court of law, the law must speak with one voice. Hence, interpretation to unify the norms was inevitable. What was the process? What role did justification in terms of reason, the hallmark of the Enlightenment, play? These are some of the questions addressed.
From the sprawling remnants of the Soviet empire to the southern tip of Africa, attempts are underway to replace arbitrary political regimes with governments constrained by the rule of law. This ideal which subordinates the wills of individuals, social movements--and even, sometimes, democratically elected majorities--to the requirements of law, is here explored by leading legal and political thinkers. Part I of The Rule of Law examines the interplay of democracy and the rule of law, while Part II focusses on the centuries-old debate about the meaning of the rule of law itself. Part III takes up the constraints that rationality exercises on the rule of law. If the rule of law is desirable partly because it is rational, then departures from that rule might also be desirable in the event that they can be shown to be rational. Part IV concentrates on the limits of the rule of law, considering the tensions between liberalism and the rule of law which exist despite the fact that reasoned commitment to the rule of the law is preeminently a liberal commitment. Contributing to the volume are: Robert A. Burt (Yale University), Steven J. Burton (University of Iowa), William N. Eskridge, Jr. (Georgetown University), John Ferejohn (Stanford University), Richard Flathman (Johns Hopkins University), Gerald F. Gaus (University of Minnesota, Duluth), Jean Hampton (University of Arizona), Russell Hardin (University of Chicago), James Johnson (University of Rochester), Jack Knight (Washington University), Stephen Macedo (Harvard University), David Schmidtz (Yale University), Lawrence B. Solum (Loyola Marymount University), Michael Walzer (Princeton University), Catherine Valcke (University of Toronto), and Michael P. Zuckert (Carleton College).
This important collection of articles, contributed by eminent scholars, judges & legal practitioners, addresses the fundamental issues of human rights, democracy, the rule of law & Islam. It covers a broad & diverse range of topics & discusses key issues & questions such as: . What lessons should emerging democracies learn from mature democracies in the promotion of human rights & respect for the rule of law? . Are democratic processes & human rights standards in the developed world really models that should be adopted by developing countries? . How are human rights protected in Islam & the Middle East? . What is Islamic constitutionalism & how does Islamic law provide for a democratic system of government? The book argues that the development of the rule of law, democracy & respect for human rights should be a process of interaction & integration on a global scale. In addition, it stresses that the integration of previously closed societies into the process of globalisation must take into account the indigenous traditions already existing in such societies, & the extent to which they will contribute to, & benefit from, the process as a whole.
Democracy by M. Ayo Ajomo,Akintunde Olusegun Obilade,Adesina Sambo
Reassessing Military Intervention in Iraq and Beyond
Author: Angeline Lewis
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Challenging the dominant rhetoric of international rule of law operations, this work reasserts the centrality of the community in building its own relationship with law, counselling military interveners to refocus exclusively on restoring security using their extraordinary powers under international law.
The rule of law neither celebrates human rights nor simply ratifies whatever happens to be on the statute books. At its core it simply guarantees that laws, however immoral or unjust, penalise people only for what they do, and never for what they are. Yet even when its moral accretions are stripped away, the rule of law offers protections that morality itself has trouble maintaining.This book draws on contemporary moral theory, philosophy of law and political theory to explore the rule of law. Offering new perspectives on contemporary moral issues, particularly those related to race relations, cultural diversity, and 'political correctness', Neumann argues that the rule of law does not compete with morality, but complements it, suggesting how, if we cannot find principles suitable to our societies, perhaps we can make societies that fit our principles.
'The Rule of Law' is a phrase much used but little examined. The idea of the rule of law as the foundation of modern states and civilisations has recently become even more talismanic than that of democracy, but what does it actually consist of? In this brilliant short book, Britain's former senior law lord, and one of the world's most acute legal minds, examines what the idea actually means. He makes clear that the rule of law is not an arid legal doctrine but is the foundation of a fair and just society, is a guarantee of responsible government, is an important contribution to economic growth and offers the best means yet devised for securing peace and co-operation. He briefly examines the historical origins of the rule, and then advances eight conditions which capture its essence as understood in western democracies today. He also discusses the strains imposed on the rule of law by the threat and experience of international terrorism. The book will be influential in many different fields and should become a key text for anyone interested in politics, society and the state of our world.
Afrique du Sud - Politique et gouvernement - 1948-1961 by Anthony S. Mathews
Author: James J. Heckman,Robert L. Nelson,Lee Cabatingan
Global Perspectives on the Rule of Law is a collection of original research on the rule of law from a panel of leading economists, political scientists, legal scholars, sociologists and historians. The chapters critically analyze the meaning and foundations of the rule of law and its relationship to economic and democratic development, challenging many of the underlying assumptions guiding the burgeoning field of rule of law development. The combination of jurisprudential, quantitative, historical/comparative, and theoretical analyses seeks to chart a new course in scholarship on the rule of law: the volume as a whole takes seriously the role of law in pursuing global justice, while confronting the complexity of instituting the rule of law and delivering its promised benefits. Written for scholars, practitioners, and policy-makers, Global Perspectives on the Rule of Law offers a unique combination of jurisprudential and empirical research that will be provocative and relevant to those who are attempting to understand and advance the rule of law globally. The chapters progress from broad questions regarding current rule of development efforts and the concept of rule of law to more specific issues pertaining to economic and democratic development. Specific countries, such as China, India, and seventeenth century England and the Netherlands, serve as case studies in some chapters, while broad global surveys feature in other chapters. Indeed, this impressive scope of research ushers in the next generation of scholarship in this area.
Freedom and the Rule of Law takes a critical look at the historical beginnings of law in the United States, and how that history has influenced current trends regarding law and freedom. Anthony Peacock has compiled articles that examine the relationship between freedom and the rule of law in America. The rule of law is fundamental to all liberal constitutional regimes whose political orders recognize the equal natural rights of all.
Elusive Reform explores one of the Latin American countries' biggest challenges: establishing a rule of law. Based on a close examination of historical patterns, it demonstrates how executive power and judicial disarray thwart progress toward judicial independence, state accountability, and citizen access to effective means of conflict resolution. Ungar critiques the wide spectrum of agencies responsible for enforcing the law, from the police and prisons to provincial governors, the attorney general, and the judiciary itself. He similarly analyzes the region's most recent reform innovations, among them judicial councils, national ombudsmen, and community justice forums. Although his focus is on Argentina and Venezuela, he presents valuable material on other Latin American countries, particularly Bolivia. Exposing many overlooked vulnerabilities of Latin America's democratic institutions, Elusive Reform broadens our understanding of democracy itself. Ungar explores one of the Latin American countries' biggest challenges: establishing a rule of law.
An account of the lawyers who helped over centuries to develop and protect civil liberties, human rights and the Rule of Law. Also discusses breaches of the Rule of Law in modern cases and in response to terrorism. Champions of the Rule of Law looks at an overarching principle of English law. It describes how a powerful and fundamental rule came about and how it has been preserved in the face of attempts to circumvent it. Standing at the heart of all matters of justice and now exported to many parts of the world the Rule of Law holds, in short, that the law applies in equal measure to everyone. No matter how high, mighty or privileged someone may be, or whatever claim or allegation is being made, all those coming before it should always be treated in just the same way as anyone else will be. Events in both modern times and across legal history readily demonstrate the sometimes precarious nature of the rule and the need for champions who are prepared to uphold and defend itand whilst the need for such a rule may seem obvious on any balanced view of how justice should be dispensed, the central importance of the rule is by no means intuitive to some people. This means that there is always a need to re-iterate the purpose of the rule, the arguments behind it and to understand the mechanisms which safeguard and protect it. Whenever the Rule of Law does fall under threat, whether due to arrogance, claims to special treatment, misguided understandings, dubious explanations or lack of due process, there is a need for people of the calibre of those described in this book to step forward. Quite apart from the books interest for lawyers, historians and students it will appeal to anyone seeking reassurance that justice is truly blind, fair, even-handed and accessible to all. With a Foreword by Lord Steyn.