The rule of law is acknowledged worldwide as central to good governance. Yet there often appears a huge gap between theory and practice, the acknowledgement no more than lip service. Where are the gaps? What are the problems? What is meant by 'the rule of law'? This book brings together the views of an extraordinary range of well-known authors. It contains essays by: Chief Justice Murray Gleeson, High Court of Australia; Justice Louise Arbour, Supreme Court of Canada; Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Supreme Court of USA; Dr Radhika Coomaraswamy, the UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women; and Professors Saunders (Australia), Dyzenhaus (Canada) and Troper (France). Each essay is followed by a substantial comment by a distinguished Australian jurist - Justices Gaudron and Hayne, Sir Anthony Mason, Elizabeth Evatt, and Professors Saunders and McCormack - to highlight the relevance of the issues raised for Australia. The essays cover issues such as: the debate about the meaning and application of the rule of law, nationally and internationally; the gaps between the theory and practice of the rule of law; relations between governments and people; the tensions between the judiciary and the elected branches of government (for example, ouster of the jurisdiction of the Australian courts); international criminal justice; and the position of women in situations of conflict and insurrection. The analyses in the book draw on topical events ranging from the Florida appeal in the election of President Bush (Justice Ginsburg) to the indictment of Slobodan Milosevic at the War Crimes Tribunal (Justice Arbour, who was prosecutor).
The rule of law has been celebrated as an unqualified human good and promoted around the world to secure economic development and political freedom. Yet there is considerable disagreement about just what the ideal of the rule of law requires. When people clamor for the preservation or extension of the rule of law, are they advocating a substantive conception of the rule of law respecting private property and promoting liberty, a formal conception emphasizing an inner morality of law, or a procedural conception stressing the right to be heard by an impartial tribunal and to make arguments about what the law is? When, if ever, are exertions of executive power outside the law justified on the ground that they may be necessary to maintain or restore the conditions for the rule of law in emergency circumstances, such as defending against terrorist attacks? What institutions or measures might be effective in bounding or checking such power? What are the promise and perils of attempting to build the rule of law after military interventions in conflict-ridden societies?When the might of intervening governments is brought to bear to make rights, does it distort rights and inflict costs that may more than offset the potential gains? In Getting to the Rule of Law a group of prominent, thoughtful contributors from a variety of disciplines address many of the theoretical legal, political, and moral issues raised by such questions and examine practical applications on the ground in the United States and around the world. This timely, interdisciplinary volume examines the ideal of the rule of law, questions when, if ever, executive power outside the law is justified to maintain or restore the rule of law, and explores the prospects for and perils of building the rule of law after military interventions.
What is the rule of law? Why does it matter? How well does America conform to the rule of law? And why do Americans, who profess such respect for the law, complain so often about our legal system? Drawing upon extensive experience in law, government service, teaching, and research, Boston University law school dean Ronald Cass offers a welcome contribution to the ongoing public discussion on law and society. After opening his discussion with chapters on the rule of law in American society, Cass turns to the hard case of its application to the president of the United States. Through this prism Cass examines the behavior of judges who may not always act according to a "perfect model." They may not always be perfectly constrained by law or achieve perfect justice through law. That, however, is the wrong thing to ask. Instead, says Cass, "looking at the ordinary case -- and asking not whether the decision advances particular aspirations for society, but whether it conforms to basic aspects of legal authority -- produces a more law-governed view of America judging." In fact, this book provides a much-needed corrective to criticism of the American legal system raised all too frequently by members of the academy and by politicians. Rather than concentrating on relatively minor inconsistencies in the law and slight departures from the ideal of perfectly constrained decision making, Cass argues that the energies of his fellow scholars could be better spent on more serious defects in the legal system. With a special section on the 2000 presidential election, including the Florida recount and Supreme Court decision, The Rule of Law in America offers a timely look at a subject of interest to legal scholars and general readers alike..
What is objectivity? What is the rule of law? Are the operations of legal systems objective? If so, in what ways and to what degrees are they objective? Does anything of importance depend on the objectivity of law? These are some of the principal questions addressed by Matthew H. Kramer in this lucid and wide-ranging study that introduces readers to vital areas of philosophical enquiry. As Kramer shows, objectivity and the rule of law are complicated phenomena, each comprising a number of distinct though overlapping dimensions. Although the connections between objectivity and the rule of law are intimate, they are also densely multi-faceted.
We cannot see the world as it is because we face it in a 'contaminated' vein. That is, our conceptual scheme and biological constitution condition our world view. The legal normative world we are dealing with has some special features, like the primacy of practical reason over theoretical reason and the primacy of the internal point of view over the external point of view. Although it is not a feature of all legal traditions, 'legal dogmatics' is a privileged way of knowing legal normative object, that is, our legal orders. But we are not undertaking - as legal scholars - an empiricist enterprise because, among other reasons, we are not interested in the reality 'in itself' but in the 'relevant' reality, at least for us. In this respect, we do not only depend on theories (like physicists) but also on legal authoritative sources, that is, power and legitimacy. Legal scholars (and other participants in the legal life) are not neutral observers of their own world, trying to discover some hidden truth. They are committed experts trying to describe, justify and improve the legal order.
An international team of authors looks at the role law has played in the transformation of Russia and evaluates the legal achievements of the Putin administration against the background of Russia's changing relationship with Europe.
Law by James J. Heckman,Robert L. Nelson,Lee Cabatingan
Author: James J. Heckman,Robert L. Nelson,Lee Cabatingan
Global Perspectives on the Rule of Law is a collection of original research on the rule of law from a panel of leading economists, political scientists, legal scholars, sociologists and historians. The chapters critically analyze the meaning and foundations of the rule of law and its relationship to economic and democratic development, challenging many of the underlying assumptions guiding the burgeoning field of rule of law development. The combination of jurisprudential, quantitative, historical/comparative, and theoretical analyses seeks to chart a new course in scholarship on the rule of law: the volume as a whole takes seriously the role of law in pursuing global justice, while confronting the complexity of instituting the rule of law and delivering its promised benefits. Written for scholars, practitioners, and policy-makers, Global Perspectives on the Rule of Law offers a unique combination of jurisprudential and empirical research that will be provocative and relevant to those who are attempting to understand and advance the rule of law globally. The chapters progress from broad questions regarding current rule of development efforts and the concept of rule of law to more specific issues pertaining to economic and democratic development. Specific countries, such as China, India, and seventeenth century England and the Netherlands, serve as case studies in some chapters, while broad global surveys feature in other chapters. Indeed, this impressive scope of research ushers in the next generation of scholarship in this area.
Philosophy by Yasutomo Morigiwa,Michael Stolleis,Jean-Louis Halperin
A collaboration of leading historians of European law and philosophers of law and politics identifying and explaining the practice of interpretation of law in the 18th century. The goal: establishing the actual practice in the Age of Enlightenment, and explaining why this was the case. The ideology of the Age was that law, i.e., the will of the sovereign, can be explicitly and appropriately stated, thus making interpretation redundant. However, the reality was that in the 18th century, there was no one leading source of national law that would be the object of interpretation. Instead, there was a plurality of sources of law: the Roman Law, local customary law, and the royal ordinance. However, in deciding a case in a court of law, the law must speak with one voice. Hence, interpretation to unify the norms was inevitable. What was the process? What role did justification in terms of reason, the hallmark of the Enlightenment, play? These are some of the questions addressed.
This important collection of articles, contributed by eminent scholars, judges & legal practitioners, addresses the fundamental issues of human rights, democracy, the rule of law & Islam. It covers a broad & diverse range of topics & discusses key issues & questions such as: . What lessons should emerging democracies learn from mature democracies in the promotion of human rights & respect for the rule of law? . Are democratic processes & human rights standards in the developed world really models that should be adopted by developing countries? . How are human rights protected in Islam & the Middle East? . What is Islamic constitutionalism & how does Islamic law provide for a democratic system of government? The book argues that the development of the rule of law, democracy & respect for human rights should be a process of interaction & integration on a global scale. In addition, it stresses that the integration of previously closed societies into the process of globalisation must take into account the indigenous traditions already existing in such societies, & the extent to which they will contribute to, & benefit from, the process as a whole.
Freedom and the Rule of Law takes a critical look at the historical beginnings of law in the United States, and how that history has influenced current trends regarding law and freedom. Anthony Peacock has compiled articles that examine the relationship between freedom and the rule of law in America. The rule of law is fundamental to all liberal constitutional regimes whose political orders recognize the equal natural rights of all.
From the sprawling remnants of the Soviet empire to the southern tip of Africa, attempts are underway to replace arbitrary political regimes with governments constrained by the rule of law. This ideal which subordinates the wills of individuals, social movements--and even, sometimes, democratically elected majorities--to the requirements of law, is here explored by leading legal and political thinkers. Part I of The Rule of Law examines the interplay of democracy and the rule of law, while Part II focusses on the centuries-old debate about the meaning of the rule of law itself. Part III takes up the constraints that rationality exercises on the rule of law. If the rule of law is desirable partly because it is rational, then departures from that rule might also be desirable in the event that they can be shown to be rational. Part IV concentrates on the limits of the rule of law, considering the tensions between liberalism and the rule of law which exist despite the fact that reasoned commitment to the rule of the law is preeminently a liberal commitment. Contributing to the volume are: Robert A. Burt (Yale University), Steven J. Burton (University of Iowa), William N. Eskridge, Jr. (Georgetown University), John Ferejohn (Stanford University), Richard Flathman (Johns Hopkins University), Gerald F. Gaus (University of Minnesota, Duluth), Jean Hampton (University of Arizona), Russell Hardin (University of Chicago), James Johnson (University of Rochester), Jack Knight (Washington University), Stephen Macedo (Harvard University), David Schmidtz (Yale University), Lawrence B. Solum (Loyola Marymount University), Michael Walzer (Princeton University), Catherine Valcke (University of Toronto), and Michael P. Zuckert (Carleton College).
Since the events of September 11, 2001, the world has entered into a period fraught with uncertainty and yet there shines a renewed hope to enlarge the peace and advance human rights. The central hope of the War on Terror rests in the great promise of a world more fully based on governments who adhere to human rights and democratic values. It offers a chance to advance human rights and democracy in areas of the world heretofore untouched. America's strongest weapon in the War on Terror does not rest with our military might or police functions. America's strongest weapon is our uncompromising commitment to the freedoms and civil liberties embodied in our Constitution and reflected in the U.N. Charter. The United States of American can only be successful if we follow a rule of law roote in human rights and democratic principles.Terrorism, like crime, can never be completely eradicated. At the time the first edition was published we were just entering our War on Terror. Although it was realized at the time that legal and policy challenges would exist, no one could have predicted exactly what events would take place. We have made progress in finding and arresting terrorists,including some of the top leaders of al-Qaeda, however our fight is not over. In the last few years our war on terror has lead us into Afghanistan and Iraq, Saddam Hussein has been captured, and a new Iraqi government has been established.The second edition of Winning the War on Terror, has been updated to include some of our nations biggest changes in fighting the war. This book highlights some of the legal and policy challenges that confront the United States, and emphasizes the importance of developing capable military forces while promoting democracy as the long-term solution to terrorism. It includes new chapters on the Iraqi war, the Iraqi democracy, the Supreme court decisions on detainees, the interrogation techniques of the US and cyber terrorism.TOPICS INCLUDE What is terrorism? The War on Terror Expanding the War on Terror Civil liberties and the War on Terror Necessity for laws of war Avoiding terrorism Leading the wayPax Americana or the rule of law? The role of the military and Army Special Forces in promoting human rights America must stay the course
Rights, Liberties & the Rule of Law is a casebook reader outlining the landmark Supreme Court cases that concern our rights and liberties as Americans. Students will be able to read the relevant opinions from the justices in the original. Each section is followed by questions for review and discussion.
The rule of law is frequently invoked in political debate, yet rarely defined with any precision. Some employ it as a synonym for democracy, others for the subordination of the legislature to a written constitution and its judicial guardians. It has been seen as obedience to the duly-recognised government, a form of governing through formal and general rule-like laws and the rule of principle. Given this diversity of view, it is perhaps unsurprising that certain scholars have regarded the concept as no more than a self-congratulatory rhetorical device. This collection of eighteen key essays from jurists, political theorists and public law political scientists, aims to explore the role law plays in the political system. The introduction evaluates their arguments. The first eleven essays identify the standard features associated with the rule of law. These are held to derive less from any characteristics of law per se than from a style of legislating and judging that gives equal consideration to all citizens. The next seven essays then explore how different ways of separating and dispersing power contribute to this democratic style of rule by forcing politicians and judges alike to treat people as equals and regard none as above the law.
This volume compares the different conceptions of the rule of law that have developed in different legal cultures. It describes the social purposes and practical applications of the rule of law and how it might be improved in the varied circumstances.
"If the daunting challenges now facing the world are to be overcome, it must be in important part through the medium of rules, internationally agreed, internationally implemented and, if necessary, internationally enforced. That is what the rule of law requires in the international order." - Lord Bingham (Chapter 1) *** The maintenance and promotion of the rule of law is of fundamental importance for human dignity and the well-being of people everywhere, providing the foundations for good governance, an effective economy, and a fair society. Its relevance extends across a wide range in the affairs of people and states: in laws of armed conflict; in laws outlawing corruption and governing constitutional affairs; in energy and environmental rights; in the respective roles and powers of the various arms of government and agencies at national, regional and international level; in the independence of the judiciary; and in human rights. This book explores some key issues concerning the rule of law in the international and comparative context, clarifying key aspects of the rule of law and applying them to real life examples across the world, including: the impact of business on human rights; anti-competitive practices and the role of European Union bodies; the development of international investment law; the use of comparative law to inform national decision-making; and the effects of international criminal law and practice. The analyses in this book are provided by some of the world's leading lawyers - Yves Fortier, Mary Robinson, Jane Stapleton, Keir Starmer, and Lord Bingham - as well as senior researchers of the British Institute of International and Comparative, as it celebrated 50 years of promoting the rule of law in an international and comparative context.