Uncovering an Embattled Landscape
Author: William A. & Donald W. Linebaugh Griswold,Donald W. Linebaugh
The battles of Saratoga proved to be a turning point in the Revolutionary War when British forces under the command of General John Burgoyne surrendered to American forces led by General Horatio Gates. The Saratoga Campaign provides a new and greatly expanded understanding of the battles of Saratoga by drawing on the work of scholars in a broad range of academic disciplines. Presenting years of research by material culture scholars, archaeologists, historians, museum curators, military experts, and geophysicists, this definitive volume explores these important Revolutionary War battles and their aftermath, adding a physical and tangible dimension to the story of the Saratoga campaign. Presenting the latest hands-on research, The Saratoga Campaign is an original and multifaceted contribution to our understanding of this critical event in America's birth.
Tipping Point at Saratoga
Author: Dean Snow
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Saratoga Campaign, N.Y., 1777
The two battles that were fought in Saratoga, New York in the fall of 1777 marked the turning point in the American Revolutionary War. An inexperienced and improvised American army led by Horatio Gates faced off against the highly trained British and German forces led by "Gentleman Johnny"Burgoyne, whose strategy in confronting the Americans in upstate New York was to separate rebellious New England from the other colonies. Despite inferior organization and training, the Americans were able to exploit access to fresh reinforcements of men and materiel, and ultimately handed theBritish a stunning defeat. For the first time in the war, the American victory confirmed that independence from Great Britain was all but inevitable. Dean Snow's 1777: Tipping Point at Saratoga offers a detailed narrative of the final thirty-three days of the Saratoga campaign. Assimilating historical archaeology and the many letters, journals, and memoirs of the men and women who served in both armies, Snow provides an intimate retelling of thetwo battles. While the contrasting personalities and fates of Gates and Burgoyne are well known, they are but two of the actors who make up the larger drama of Saratoga. Snow highlights famous and less well-known participants alike, from the brave but, later, disloyal officer Benedict Arnold toFrederika von Riedesel, the wife of a major general in the British army whose eyewitness account of the battles is an important source. Snow, an archaeologist who excavated on the Saratoga battlefield, combines a vivid sense of time and place - weather, terrain, technology - with a keenunderstanding of the adversaries' motivations, challenges, and heroism into a narrative that resembles an historical novel. A must-read for anyone with an interest in the American history, 1777 is a thorough and engaging account of the battles that tipped the balance of the American War of Independence.
Turning Point of America's Revolutionary War
Author: Richard M. Ketchum
Publisher: Henry Holt and Company
In the summer of 1777 (twelve months after the Declaration of Indepence) the British launched an invasion from Canada under General John Burgoyne. It was the campaign that was supposed to the rebellion, but it resulted in a series of battles that changed America's history and that of the world. Stirring narrative history, skillfully told through the perspective of those who fought in the campaign, Saratoga brings to life as never before the inspiring story of Americans who did their utmost in what seemed a lost cause, achieving what proved to be the crucial victory of the Revolution. A New York Times Notable Book, 1997 Winner of the Fraunces Tavern Museum Award, 1997
The Social Bond in Iceland and Norway, c. 900-1300
Author: Jon Vidar Sigurdsson
Publisher: Cornell University Press
" ""To a faithful friend, straight are the roads and short.""—Odin, from the Havamal (c. 1000) Friendship was the most important social bond in Iceland and Norway during the Viking Age and the early Middle Ages. Far more significantly than kinship ties, it defined relations between chieftains, and between chieftains and householders. In Viking Friendship, Jon Vidar Sigurdsson explores the various ways in which friendship tied Icelandic and Norwegian societies together, its role in power struggles and ending conflicts, and how it shaped religious beliefs and practices both before and after the introduction of Christianity. Drawing on a wide range of Icelandic sagas and other sources, Sigurdsson details how loyalties between friends were established and maintained. The key elements of Viking friendship, he shows, were protection and generosity, which was most often expressed through gift giving and feasting. In a society without institutions that could guarantee support and security, these were crucial means of structuring mutual assistance. As a political force, friendship was essential in the decentralized Free State period in Iceland's history (from its settlement about 800 until it came under Norwegian control in the years 1262–1264) as local chieftains vied for power and peace. In Norway, where authority was more centralized, kings attempted to use friendship to secure the loyalty of their subjects. The strong reciprocal demands of Viking friendship also informed the relationship that individuals had both with the Old Norse gods and, after 1000, with Christianity's God and saints. Addressing such other aspects as the possibility of friendship between women and the relationship between friendship and kinship, Sigurdsson concludes by tracing the decline of friendship as the fundamental social bond in Iceland as a consequence of Norwegian rule. "
Author: Douglas R. Cubbison
In Burgoyne and the Saratoga Campaign, Douglas R. Cubbison presents the papers that Burgoyne gathered preparatory to his appearance before Parliament, together with Cubbison's own interpretive narrative of the campaign, based on these documents and other sources. The papers, most of them published here for the first time, comprise Burgoyne's correspondence with the governor general of Canada, the British secretary of state for America, and the commander of the British army during the Saratoga expedition.
A Military History of the Decisive Campaign of the American Revolution
Author: John Luzader
Publisher: Savas Beatie
The months-long 1777 Saratoga campaign was one of the most decisive of the entire Revolutionary War. The crushing British defeat prompted France to recognize the American colonies as an independent nation, declare war on England, and commit money, ships, arms, and men to the rebellion. John Luzader’s impressive Saratoga: A Military History of the Decisive Campaign of the American Revolution is the first all-encompassing objective account of these pivotal months in American history. British General John Burgoyne assembled his command at St. Johns in June 1777. His force consisted of numerous warships, more than 130 pieces of artillery, and 7,800 men including two large divisions of rested veteran British Regulars. Burgoyne intended to capture Albany, New York, wrest control of the vital Hudson River Valley from the colonists, and divide the Northern American colonies in half. Initial colonial opposition included widely separated fixed positions, small garrisons and commands, and feuding American commanders. Burgoyne’s primary opponent was General Horatio Gates, a haughty and divisive leader whose 8,000 men included several capable field commanders, including Benedict Arnold and Daniel Morgan. The series of battles large and small these men would engineer stunned the world and spun the colonial rebellion in an entirely different direction. The British offensive kicked off with a stunning victory at Fort Ticonderoga, followed by a sharp successful engagement at Hubbardton. Other actions erupted at Fort Stanwix, Oriskany, and Bennington. However, serious supply problems dogged Burgoyne’s column and, assistance from General William Howe failed to materialize. Faced with hungry troops and a powerful gathering of American troops, Burgoyne decided to take the offensive by crossing the Hudson River and moving against Gates. The complicated maneuvers and command frictions that followed sparked two major battles, one at Freeman’s Farm (September 19) and the second at Bemis Heights (October 7). Seared into the public consciousness as “the battle of Saratoga,” the engagements resulted in the humiliating defeat and ultimately the surrender of Burgoyne’s entire army. Decades in the making, former National Park Service staff historian John Luzader’s Saratoga combines strategic, political, and tactical history into a compelling portrait of this decisive campaign. His sweeping prose relies heavily upon original archival research and the author’s personal expertise with the challenging terrain. Complete with stunning original maps and photos, Saratoga will take its place as one of the important and illuminating campaign studies ever written. About the Author: A veteran of World War II and graduate of West Virginia University and the University of Texas, John Luzader worked for the U.S. Department of Defense as a research historian. Transferred to the U.S. Department of the Interior’s National Park Service, he conducted research for the preservation and interpretation of the Saratoga National Historic Park. Luzader planned and researched museum and outdoor exhibits for twelve national historical parks and served as the NPS’s central history office staff historian for the colonial and revolutionary periods. He lives with his wife Jean in a West Virginia retirement community. FINALIST / RUNNER-UP: The Army Historical Foundation Distinguished Writing Award for Operational / Battle History, 2008
Chinese Families in the Twenty-First Century
Author: Goncalo Santos,Stevan Harrell
Publisher: University of Washington Press
Each successive wave of revolution to hit modern China�political, cultural, and economic�has radically reshaped Chinese society. Whereas patriarchy defined the familial social structure for thousands of years, changing realities in the last hundred years have altered and even reversed long-held expectations. Transforming Patriarchy explores the private and public dimensions of these changes in present-day China. Patriarchy is not dead, but it is no longer the default arrangement for Chinese families: Daughters-in-law openly berate their fathers-in-law. Companies sell filial-piety insurance. Many couples live together before marriage, and in some parts of rural China, almost all brides are pregnant. Drawing on a multitude of sources and perspectives, this volume turns to the intimate territory of the family to challenge prevailing scholarly assumptions about gender and generational hierarchies in Chinese society. Case studies examine factors such as social class, geography, and globalization as they relate to patriarchal practice and resistance to it. The contributors bring the concept of patriarchy back to the heart of China studies while rethinking its significance in dominant Western-centric theories of modernity.
A Turning Point in the Revolutionary War
Author: Michael Burgan
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
The story behind two battles collectively known as the Battle of Saratoga makes an unforgettable tale, yet it's unfamiliar to many people. These battles are considered the turning point of the American Revolution. They halted Britain's southern advance and convinced France to provide invaluable military support and monetary aid to the American cause. Without victories in Saratoga, the American struggle for liberty may have fallen apart.
Author: Gregory D. Massey
A major general in the Continental Army during the American Revolution, Nathanael Greene has received historical attention as a commander who successfully coordinated the actions of seemingly disparate kinds of soldiers--regular Continental troops, militia men, and partisan guerrillas. He has often been acclaimed as the second most important military figure of the Revolution, behind George Washington. General Nathanael Greene and the American Revolution in the South offers new perspectives on Greene's leadership of Continental troops, his use of the mounted troops of South Carolina partisan leaders Thomas Sumter and Francis Marion, his integration of local militia into his fighting force, and his proposal that slaves be armed and freed in return for their military service. During the first five years of the War of Independence Greene served in the North as General George Washington's most trusted subordinate. Through successes, failures, and hard-earned experience, Greene learned that mobility, logistical support, and effective civil-military relations were crucial components of eighteenth-century warfare, and especially of a successful revolution. He applied these lessons as commander in the Southern Department, where he led one of the most startling turnabouts in American military history, reversing a rigid British occupation and saving American liberty. This collection of essays provides an assessment of the most important period of Greene's military career. Editors Gregory D. Massey and Jim Piecuch have compiled essays from distinguished scholars and written a joint introduction demonstrating how Greene's actions shaped the war in the South and deepening our understanding of Greene's role in winning American independence.
Soldiers & Civilians
Author: Michael P. Gabriel
Publisher: Arcadia Publishing
On August 16, 1777, a motley militia won a resounding victory near Bennington, Vermont, against combined German, British and Loyalist forces. ¬ This laid the foundation for the American victory at Saratoga two months later. Historian Michael P. Gabriel has collected over fifty firsthand accounts from the people who experienced this engagement, including veterans from both sides and civilians—women and children who witnessed the horrors of the battle. Gabriel also details a virtually unknown skirmish between Americans and Loyalists. These accounts, along with Gabriel’s overviews of the battle, bring to life the terror, fear and uncertainty that caused thousands to see the British army as loved ones departed to fight for the fledgling United States.
Author: Don Troiani
Publisher: Stackpole Books
Vibrant color paintings illustrate soldiers and battles of the war Color photos of seldom-seen period artifacts such as uniforms, weapons, and other equipment In this collection, renowned artist Don Troiani teams up with leading artifact historian James L. Kochan to present the American Revolution as it has existed only in our imaginations: in living color. From Bunker Hill to Yorktown, from Washington to Cornwallis, from the Minute Men to the Black Watch, these pages are packed with scenes of grand action and great characters, recreated in the vivid blues and reds that defined the Revolutionary era. Troiani's depictions of these legendary fife-and-drum soldiers are based on firsthand accounts and, wherever possible, surviving artifacts. Scores of color photographs of these objects--many of them from private collections and seen here for the very first time--accompany the paintings. Items range from muskets and beautifully ornate swords to more unique pieces such as badges with unit insignia or patriotic slogans and Baron von Steuben's liquor chest. More than just a glimpse into a world long past, this is the closest the modern reader can get to experiencing the Revolutionary War firsthand.
Historical Archaeology in the Garden State
Author: Richard Francis Veit
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
When people think of archaeology, they commonly think of unearthing the remains of ancient civilizations in Egypt, Greece, Rome, Central or South America. But some fascinating history can be found in your own New Jersey backyard 3⁄4 if you know where to look. Richard Veit takes readers on a well-organized guided tour through four hundred years of Garden State development as seen through archaeology in Digging New Jerseys Past. This illustrated guidebook takes readers to some of the states most interesting discoveries and tells us what has been learned or is being learned from them. The diverse array of archaeological sites, drawn from all parts of the state, includes a seventeenth-century Dutch trading post, the site of the Battle of Monmouth, the gravemarkers of freed slaves, and a 1920s railroad roundhouse, among others. Veit begins by explaining what archaeologists do: How do they know where to dig? What sites are likely to yield important information? How do archaeologists excavate a site? How are artifacts cataloged, stored, and interpreted? He then moves through the states history, from the contact of first peoples and explorers, to colonial homesteads, Revolutionary War battlefields, cemeteries, railroads, and factories. Veit concludes with some thoughts about the future of archaeological research in New Jersey and with suggestions on ways that interested individuals can become involved in the field.
Propaganda, the Olympics, and U.S. Foreign Policy
Author: Toby C Rider
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
It is the early Cold War. The Soviet Union appears to be in irresistible ascendance, and moves to exploit the Olympic Games as a vehicle for promoting international communism. In response, the United States conceives a subtle, far-reaching psychological warfare campaign to blunt the Soviet advance. Drawing on newly declassified materials and archives, Toby C. Rider chronicles how the US government used the Olympics to promote democracy and its own policy aims during the tense early phase of the Cold War. Rider shows how the government, though constrained by traditions against interference in the Games, eluded detection by cooperating with private groups, including secretly funded émigré organizations bent on liberating their home countries from Soviet control. At the same time, the United States appropriated Olympic host cities to hype the American economic and political system while, behind the scenes, the government attempted clandestine manipulation of the International Olympic Committee. Rider also details the campaigns that sent propaganda materials around the globe as the United States mobilized culture in general, and sports in particular, to fight the communist threat.
Domestic Architecture and Plantation Landscapes in Early Virginia
Author: Camille Wells
The Chesapeake region of eastern Virginia and Maryland offers a wealth of evidence for readers and researchers who want to discover what life was like in early America. In this eagerly anticipated volume, Camille Wells, one of the foremost experts on eighteenth-century Virginia architecture, gathers the discoveries unearthed during a career spent studying the buildings and plantations across this geographic area. Drawing on the skills and insights of archaeologists and architectural historians to uncover and make sense of layers of construction and reconstruction, as well as material evidence and records ranging from ceramics, furniture, and textiles to estate inventories and newspaper advertisements, Wells poses meaningful questions about the past and proposes new ways to understand the origins of American society. The research gathered in this cohesive and engaging collection views the wider history of the colonial and early national periods through the lens of lauded as well as previously unrecorded sites in the Tidewater and Piedmont regions. The subjects are equally wide-ranging, from the way domestic architecture articulates problems and possibilities that found forceful expression in the Revolution; to the values and choices made by those who lived in unprepossessing circumstances as well as those who built statement gentry houses intended to dominate the landscape. Other essays address the challenges of discovering historically accurate room functions and furnishings as well as the way Colonial Revival attitudes still dominate much of what is imagined about the early Virginia past. Taken together, these beautifully written and accessible essays will be essential reading for those interested in architecture, material culture, and the ways they reveal the complexities of the nation's history.
Mob Justice and Police in Petrograd
Author: Tsuyoshi Hasegawa
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Russians from all walks of life joyously celebrated the end of Nicholas II’s monarchy, but one year later, amid widespread civil strife and lawlessness, a fearful citizenry stayed out of sight. Tsuyoshi Hasegawa offers a new perspective on Russia’s revolutionary year through the lens of violent crime and its devastating effect on ordinary people.
Discovering Sensory Processing and How It Supports Attention, Focus and Regulation Skills
Author: Paula Aquilla
Understanding our sensory processing ability helps us to understand our likes, dislikes, and regulation style. i.e.: the strategies we use to help keep ourselves in a calm, alert state. The calm alert state is the state necessary for learning! Knowing how to stay regulated is a life skill. This ability enables us to function in different environments, in different situations and with different people. The Sensory Detective Curriculum is a resource that can be used in a school setting to enable children to learn more about themselves and others. It meets learning goals in science and social studies and can provide a platform to discuss how we behave and communicate with each other. Opening this discussion can help us understand how tensions can rise, how bullying can happen and how children in our own classroom can feel lonely, isolated and misunderstood.The Sensory Detective Curriculum enables students to discover sensory processing and how it supports attention, focus and regulation skills. Learning adventures include: * the neurology of sensory processing, * how sensory processing supports the nervous system to pay attention and focus, * how emotion is connected to sensory processing and regulation. Each chapter has fun activities for students to not only deepen their understanding but to apply this understanding to their own classroom.
Uncovering the Hidden History of Cooperation, Cooperative Movements, and Communalism in America
Author: John Curl
Publisher: PM Press
Seeking to reclaim a history that has remained largely ignored by historians, this dramatic and stirring account examines each of the definitive American cooperative movements for social change—farmer, union, consumer, and communalist—that have been all but erased from collective memory. With an expansive sweep and breathtaking detail, this scholarly yet eminently readable chronicle follows the American worker from the colonial workshop to the modern mass-assembly line, from the family farm to the corporate hierarchy, ultimately painting a vivid panorama of those who built the United States and those who will shape its future. This second edition contains a new introduction by Ishmael Reed, a new preface by the author that discusses cooperatives in the Great Recession of 2008 and their future in the 21st century, and a new chapter on the role co-ops played in the food revolution of the 1970s.
The Rise of Soy in America
Author: Matthew Roth
Publisher: Culture America (Hardcover)
Magic Bean traces the paths by which the soybean--as a crop, food, and idea--made its way into American farming, bodies, and culture over the course of the twentieth century. Along the way, it shows that its coming was by no means predictable, even as its consequences have been important.
63 Reasons to Believe There Was a Conspiracy to Assassinate JFK
Author: Jesse Ventura,Dick Russell,David Wayne
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Unless you’ve been living under a rock for the past fifty years, you’re aware of the many hypotheses that the assassination of President John F. Kennedy was not done by one man. Whether you’ve read one or a dozen of the books on this topic, there’s no way to fully grasp the depth of this conspiracy. For the first time ever, New York Times bestselling authors Jesse Ventura and Dick Russell have teamed up with some of the most respected and influential assassination researchers to put together the ultimate compendium that covers every angle—from the plot to the murder—of JFK. They Killed Our President will not only discuss the most famous of theories, but will also bring to light new and recently discovered information, which together shows that the United States government not only was behind this egregious plot, but took every step to make sure that the truth would not come out. With 2013 marking the fiftieth anniversary of JFK’s assassination, this is the perfect time for They Killed Our President to be available to readers. The research and information in this book are unprecedented, and there’s nobody better to bring this to everyone’s attention than the former governor of Minnesota and US Navy SEAL, Jesse Ventura.