Political Science

The Terrorist Identity

Explaining the Terrorist Threat

Author: Michael P. Arena,Bruce A. Arrigo

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814707165

Category: Political Science

Page: 301

View: 8247

Who would strap a bomb to his chest, walk into a crowded subway station and blow himself up? Only by examining how a terrorist understands his own identity and actions can this question be answered. The authors of The Terrorist Identity explore how the notion of self-concept combined with membership in terrorist and extremist groups, can shape and sustain the identity of a terrorist as well as their subsequent justification for violence and the legitimacy of their actions. The book provides an understanding of identity that draws on concepts from psychology, criminology, and sociology. Notably, the book examines several case studies of various terrorist groups, including: the Provisional Irish Republican Army, Hamas, the Shining Path, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, and racist Skinheads. By making the construct of identity central to this analysis The Terrorist Identity explains how violent and extremist collective behavior emerges culturally, how it informs the identity of group members socially, and how participants assume their place in these groups completely even at the expense of life-threatening harm to others or to themselves.
Social Science

The Spectacular Few

Prisoner Radicalization and the Evolving Terrorist Threat

Author: Mark S. Hamm

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814725449

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 4225

“Mark Hamm is, without doubt, the world’s leading expert on prison radicalization. Based on decades of research, this book presents a nuanced and sophisticated picture,. Beautifully written, it is the most complete, and the most empirically rigorous, account of this phenomenon to date. A must read for anyone interested in homegrown radicalization.”—Peter Neumann, Director of the International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation (ICSR), King’s College London The Madrid train bombers, shoe-bomber Richard Reid, al-Qaeda in Iraq, and the 9/11 attacks—all were led by men radicalized behind bars. Today’s prisons are hotbeds for personal transformation toward terrorist beliefs and actions due to the increasingly chaotic nature of prison life caused by mass incarceration. In The Spectacular Few, Mark Hamm, a former prison warden, demonstrates how prisoners use criminal cunning, collective resistance and nihilism to incite terrorism. Drawing from a wide range of sources, The Spectacular Few imagines the texture of prisoners’ lives. Hamm covers their criminal thinking styles, the social networks that influenced them, and personal “turning points” that set them on the pathway to violent extremism. Hamm argues that in order to understand terrorism today, we must come to terms with how prisoners are treated behind bars. Mark S. Hamm is a former prison warden from Arizona and currently Professor of Criminology at Indiana State University and a Senior Research Fellow at the Terrorism Center, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, The City University of New York. His books include Terrorism as Crime: From Oklahoma City to Al-Qaeda and Beyond (NYU Press, 2007). Alternative Criminology series
Social Science

Comic Book Crime

Truth, Justice, and the American Way

Author: Nickie D. Phillips,Staci Strobl

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814767877

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 3357

“Carrying ahead the project of cultural criminology, Phillips and Strobl dare to take seriously that which amuses and entertains us—and to find in it the most significant of themes. Audiences, images, ideologies of justice and injustice—all populate the pages of Comic Book Crime. The result is an analysis as colorful as a good comic, and as sharp as the point on a superhero’s sword.”—Jeff Ferrell, author of Empire of Scrounge Superman, Batman, Daredevil, and Wonder Woman are iconic cultural figures that embody values of order, fairness, justice, and retribution. Comic Book Crime digs deep into these and other celebrated characters, providing a comprehensive understanding of crime and justice in contemporary American comic books. This is a world where justice is delivered, where heroes save ordinary citizens from certain doom, where evil is easily identified and thwarted by powers far greater than mere mortals could possess. Nickie Phillips and Staci Strobl explore these representations and show that comic books, as a historically important American cultural medium, participate in both reflecting and shaping an American ideological identity that is often focused on ideas of the apocalypse, utopia, retribution, and nationalism. Through an analysis of approximately 200 comic books sold from 2002 to 2010, as well as several years of immersion in comic book fan culture, Phillips and Strobl reveal the kinds of themes and plots popular comics feature in a post-9/11 context. They discuss heroes’ calculations of “deathworthiness,” or who should be killed in meting out justice, and how these judgments have as much to do with the hero’s character as they do with the actions of the villains. This fascinating volume also analyzes how class, race, ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation are used to construct difference for both the heroes and the villains in ways that are both conservative and progressive. Engaging, sharp, and insightful, Comic Book Crime is a fresh take on the very meaning of truth, justice, and the American way. Nickie D. Phillips is Associate Professor in the Sociology and Criminal Justice Department at St. Francis College in Brooklyn, NY. Staci Strobl is Associate Professor in the Department of Law, Police Science and Criminal Justice Administration at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. In the Alternative Criminology series
Social Science

The Culture of Punishment

Prison, Society, and Spectacle

Author: Michelle Brown

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 9780814799994

Category: Social Science

Page: 251

View: 7535

Analyzes social aspects of prison, covering various theories about the role and function of punishment in society in the United States, including how the culture of imprisonment carries over into everyday life through television shows, movies, prison tourism, and other avenues, and examines the negative impact of penal spectatorship.
Social Science

Terrorism As Crime

From Oklahoma City to Al-Qaeda and Beyond

Author: Mark S. Hamm

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 9780814737453

Category: Social Science

Page: 271

View: 9761

Car bombing, suicide bombing, abduction, smuggling, homicide, and hijacking are all profoundly criminal acts. In Terrorism as Crime Mark S. Hamm presents an understanding of terrorism from a criminological point of view, arguing that the most successful way to understand, detect, prosecute and deter these acts is to use conventional criminal investigation methods. Whether in Oklahoma City or London, Terrorism as Crime demonstrates that criminal activity is the lifeblood of terrorist groups and that there are simple common denominators at work that can remove the mystery surrounding many of these terrorist groups. Once understood the vulnerabilities of these organizations can be exposed. This important volume focuses in on six case studies of crimes committed by jihad and domestic right wing groups, including biographies of more than two dozen terrorists along with descriptions of their organizations, strategies, and terrorist plots. Terrorism as Crime offers an original and significant framework for explaining international and domestic terrorism, as well as how future acts might be detected or exposed.
Political Science

The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism

Who Becomes a Terrorist and Why?

Author: Rex A. Hudson,Marilyn Majeska,Andrea M. Savada,Helen C. Metz,Library of Congress Federal Research Division

Publisher: Createspace Independent Pub

ISBN: 9781481134828

Category: Political Science

Page: 186

View: 1232

The purpose of this study is to focus attention on the types of individuals and groups that are prone to terrorism in an effort to help improve U.S. counterterrorist methods and policies. The emergence of amorphous and largely unknown terrorist individuals and groups operating independently and the new recruitment patters of some groups, such as recruiting suicide commandos, female and child terrorists, and scientists capable of developing weapons of mass destruction, provide a measure of urgency to increasing our understanding of the psychological and sociological dynamics of terrorist groups and individuals. The approach used in this study is twofold. First, the study examines the relevant literature and assesses the current knowledge of the subject. Second, the study seeks to develop psychological and sociological profiles of foreign terrorist individuals and selected groups to use as case studies in assessing trends, motivations, likely behavior, and actions that might deter such behavior, as well as reveal vulnerabilities that would aid in combating terrorist groups and individuals.
Political Science

The Mind of the Terrorist

The Psychology of Terrorism from the IRA to al-Qaeda

Author: Jerrold M. Post

Publisher: St. Martin's Press

ISBN: 9780230608597

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 2418

In contrast to the widely held assumption that terrorists as crazed fanatics, Jerrold Post demonstrates they are psychologically "normal" and that "hatred has been bred in the bone". He reveals the powerful motivations that drive these ordinary people to such extraordinary evil by exploring the different types of terrorists, from national-separatists like the Irish Republican Army to social revolutionary terrorists like the Shining Path, as well as religious extremists like al-Qaeda and Aum Shinrikyo. In The Mind of the Terrorist, Post uses his expertise to explain how the terrorist mind works and how this information can help us to combat terrorism more effectively.

Crimes Committed by Terrorist Groups

Theory, Research, and Prevention

Author: Mark S. Hamm

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 1437929591

Category:

Page: 245

View: 4604

This is a print on demand edition of a hard to find publication. Examines terrorists¿ involvement in a variety of crimes ranging from motor vehicle violations, immigration fraud, and mfg. illegal firearms to counterfeiting, armed bank robbery, and smuggling weapons of mass destruction. There are 3 parts: (1) Compares the criminality of internat. jihad groups with domestic right-wing groups. (2) Six case studies of crimes includes trial transcripts, official reports, previous scholarship, and interviews with law enforce. officials and former terrorists are used to explore skills that made crimes possible; or events and lack of skill that the prevented crimes. Includes brief bio. of the terrorists along with descriptions of their org., strategies, and plots. (3) Analysis of the themes in closing arguments of the transcripts in Part 2. Illus.
Social Science

The French Connection in Criminology

Rediscovering Crime, Law, and Social Change

Author: Bruce A. Arrigo,Robert C. Schehr,Dragan Milovanovic

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780791463550

Category: Social Science

Page: 198

View: 3995

Brings the insights of postmodernism to the concerns of criminology and includes examples of how social theory can function in the real-world realm of criminal law. Winner of the 2005 Outstanding Book Award presented by the Crime and Juvenile Delinquency Division of the Society for the Study of Social Problems
Law

Critical Criminology at the Edge

Postmodern Perspectives, Integration, and Applications

Author: Dragan Milovanovic

Publisher: Praeger Publishers

ISBN: 9780275968281

Category: Law

Page: 292

View: 974

Introduces key emerging perspectives in postmodern analysis and discusses their application in criminology, law, and social justice.
Social Science

Media and Terrorism

Global Perspectives

Author: Des Freedman,Daya Kishan Thussu

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446291839

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 4942

"This is an excellent source which puts students in the heart of the contemporary discussion and encourages them to form opinions. It is a great resource for seminars as well as gateways to research." - Paul Matthews, University College Birmingham "An excellent text that covers not only how the media cover acts of terrorism but also how terror groups can manipulate the media." - David Lowe, Liverpool John Moores University Have the media contributed to exacerbating the political, cultural and religious divides within Western societies and the world at large? How can media be deployed to enrich, not inhibit, dialogue? To what extent has the media, in all its forms, questioned, celebrated or simply accepted the unleashing of a 'war on terror'? Media and Terrorism: Global Perspectives brings together leading scholars to explore how the world's media have influenced, and in turn, been influenced by terrorism and the war on terror in the aftermath of 9/11. Accessible and user-friendly with lively and current case studies, it is an essential handbook on the dynamics of war and the media in a global context.

Terrorists' Use of the Internet

Assessment and Response

Author: M. Conway,L. Jarvis,O. Lehane

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 1614997659

Category:

Page: 416

View: 9451

Terrorist use of the Internet has become a focus of media, policy, and scholarly attention in recent years. Terrorists use the Internet in a variety of ways, the most important being for propaganda purposes and operations-related content, but it is also potentially a means or target of attack.This book presents revised versions of a selection of papers delivered at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on 'Terrorists' Use of the Internet' held in Dublin, Ireland in June 2016. One aim of the workshop was to nurture dialogue between members of the academic, policy and practitioner communities, so the 60 delegates from 13 countries who attended the workshop included representatives from each of these. The participants encompassed a wide range of expertise (including engineering, computer science, law, criminology, political science, international relations, history, and linguistics) and the chapters contained herein reflect these diverse professional and disciplinary backgrounds. The workshop also aimed to address the convergence of threats. Following an introduction which provides an overview of the various ways in which terrorists use the Internet, the book's remaining 25 chapters are grouped into 5 sections on cyber terrorism and critical infrastructure protection; cyber-enabled terrorist financing; jihadi online propaganda; online counterterrorism; and innovative approaches and responses.The book will be of interest to all those who need to maintain an awareness of the ways in which terrorists use the Internet and require an insight into how the threats posed by this use can be countered.

The Domestic Terrorist Threat

Background and Issues for Congress

Author: Jerome Bjelopera

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 9781503020924

Category:

Page: 70

View: 5589

The emphasis of counterterrorism policy in the United States since Al Qaeda's attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11) has been on jihadist terrorism. However, in the last decade, domestic terrorists-people who commit crimes within the homeland and draw inspiration from U.S.-based extremist ideologies and movements-have killed American citizens and damaged property across the country. Not all of these criminals have been prosecuted under terrorism statutes. This latter point is not meant to imply that domestic terrorists should be taken any less seriously than other terrorists.
Business & Economics

Adaptive Space: How GM and Other Companies are Positively Disrupting Themselves and Transforming into Agile Organizations

How GM and Other Companies are Positively Disrupting Themselves and Transforming into Agile Organizations

Author: Michael J. Arena

Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional

ISBN: 1260118037

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 304

View: 7403

Lack of Agility is the kiss of death. Position your company to succeed in world of change. To edge out the competition in today’s disruptive environment, you need to ensure that your company is agile—that it can respond to change instantly and effectively. Because fast and furious change is the only thing you can count on in business today. Network expert Michael Arena helped enable GM’s legendary turnaround. In these pages, he explains how you can transform your own company through the concept of adaptive space. Based on hundreds of interviews and the author’s own groundbreaking study of dozens of organizations spanning a variety of industries, Adaptive Space shows how to position your company for today—and for the future—by enabling creativity, innovation, and novel ideas to flow freely among teams, across departments, and throughout the company. Using GM as the main case study—along with the stories of other highly adaptive organizations, like Apple, Amazon, Disney, and Gore—Arena provides a model you can follow to reinvent your company. It’s about inspiring employees to explore new ideas, empowering the most creative people and teams to spread their ideas across the organization, and operationalizing the entrepreneurial spirit so adaptability is set in stone. Hesitation is a killer in today’s business landscape. With Adaptive Space, you have everything you need to confront disruption with smart, confident actions and seize the valuable opportunities that come with change.
Philosophy

Suicide Terrorism

Author: Ami Pedahzur

Publisher: Polity

ISBN: 9780745633831

Category: Philosophy

Page: 261

View: 3612

Suicide terrorism in its modern form made its first appearance in Lebanon in the early 1980s. Over the last quarter century, terrorist attacks perpetrated by suicide bombers have spread to many corners of the world and have become a major threat for both the governments and citizens of numerous countries. Can this devastating phenomenon be attributed to a specific religion or culture? What are the causes and motivations that lead ordinary people to embark upon suicide attacks? How are potential bombers trained for their mission? And is it possible for democratic governments to effectively cope with this challenge? In this compelling book, Ami Pedazhur investigates the root causes of suicide terrorism and its rapid proliferation in recent years. Drawing on a variety of sources, the book explores the use of human bombs in Lebanon, Israel, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Chechnya, Iraq, and the ostentatious attacks of Al–Qaeda and the global jihad. It is the only book to offer such an in–depth, up–to–date, cross cultural analysis of suicide terrorism in the twenty–first Century.
Political Science

The Psychology of Terrorism

Author: John G. Horgan

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134701497

Category: Political Science

Page: 184

View: 8441

This new edition of John Horgan's critically acclaimed book is fully revised and expanded. The book presents a critical analysis of our existing knowledge and understanding of terrorist psychology. Despite the on-going search for a terrorist pathology, the most insightful and evidence-based research to date not only illustrates the lack of any identifiable psychopathology in terrorists, but demonstrates how frighteningly 'normal' and unremarkable in psychological terms are those who engage in terrorist activity. By producing a clearer map of the processes that impinge upon the individual terrorist, a different type of terrorist psychology emerges, one which has clearer implications for efforts at countering and disrupting violent extremism in today's world. In this 2nd edition, Horgan further develops his approach to the arc of terrorism by delving deeper into his IED model of Involvement, Engagement and Disengagement – the three phases of terrorism experienced by every single terrorist. Drawing on new and exciting research from the past decade, with new details from interviews with terrorists ranging from al-Qaeda to left-wing revolutionaries, biographies and autobiographies of former terrorists, and insights from historic and contemporary terrorist attacks since 2005, Horgan presents a fully revised and expanded edition of his signature text. This new edition of The Psychology of Terrorism will be essential reading for students of terrorism and political violence, and counterterrorism studies, and recommended for forensic psychology, criminology, international security and IR in general.
Social Science

Graffiti Lives

Beyond the Tag in New York's Urban Underground

Author: Gregory J. Snyder

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814740456

Category: Social Science

Page: 241

View: 9154

Surveys New York's current graffiti scene, with artist profiles, a historical overview, and discussions about the myths associated with the art form, concerns about its appearance in public spaces, and career possibilities beyond the streets.
Law

Radicalization, Terrorism, and Conflict

Author: Tali Walters,Rachel Monaghan

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 144385090X

Category: Law

Page: 335

View: 2311

Radicalization, Terrorism, and Conflict is a collection of scholarly works, authored by international researchers and leading thinkers, addressing contemporary, history-making issues in international security and terrorism from an interdisciplinary perspective. Contributors to this edited volume represent global perspectives, ideas, analysis, and research. Radicalization, Terrorism, and Conflict transmits relevant findings, theory, and policy ideas for scholars of security and terrorism studies, for policy makers, and to the general public who are interested in keeping up with this global area of concern. It provides a jumping-off point for conversation and collaboration that can lead to new knowledge and broader understanding. As an interdisciplinary collection of manuscripts, this book integrates and synthesizes theory, research, and public policy analysis in an effort to solve the complex questions and problems presented by this topic. Recognition of the need to approach the problems of radicalization, terrorism, and interpersonal conflict from an interdisciplinary perspective is gaining strength within academic settings, policy institutes, and global conferences. Unlike most recent edited books on the subject that are on the market at this time, Radicalization, Terrorism, and Conflict provides an interdisciplinary approach to understanding related current issues. This approach encourages a broader perspective and thought process, trans-discipline and global collaboration and cooperation, and an integrated synthesis of knowledge. Radicalization, Terrorism, and Conflict opens with an analysis of the ongoing phenomenon of the Arab Spring. In Section 1, contributors look at how players in the theatres of local and international terror become radicalized. Section 2 analyzes how terrorism becomes manifest in the global theatre and how governments and their actors attempt to prevent it. Section 3 presents research to bring understanding to the actors’ behavior and provide settings for future collaboration in understanding these phenomena.
Social Science

Criminology Theory and Terrorism

New Applications and Approaches

Author: Joshua D. Freilich,Gary LaFree

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317512014

Category: Social Science

Page: 214

View: 361

Although there has been an increase in research on terrorism across the social and behavioural sciences in the past few decades, until recently most of this work has originated from political science, psychology or economics. Therefore, our focus in this book on criminological conceptual frameworks and empirical studies that engage terrorism and responses to it is unique. We include a distinguished group of researchers that offer their distinctive insights into criminological perspectives on terrorism. The contributors focus on criminological perspectives that have rarely, if ever, been previously applied to the study of terrorism. This includes a range of perspectives from rational choice to social disorganization; from strain to routine activities theory. This volume will advance understanding of terrorism by taking advantage of criminological contributions, and at the same time will serve as a useful update to the criminologists and their students already working in this area. It would also be a helpful introduction to those criminologists and their students who would like to be more engaged in this important area of research. This book was originally published as a special issue of Terrorism and Political Violence.