One of the characteristics of modern algebra is the development of new tools and concepts for exploring classes of algebraic systems, whereas the research on individual algebraic systems (e. g. , groups, rings, Lie algebras, etc. ) continues along traditional lines. The early work on classes of alge bras was concerned with showing that one class X of algebraic systems is actually contained in another class F. Modern research into the theory of classes was initiated in the 1930's by Birkhoff's work  on general varieties of algebras, and Neumann's work  on varieties of groups. A. I. Mal'cev made fundamental contributions to this modern development. ln his re ports [1, 3] of 1963 and 1966 to The Fourth All-Union Mathematics Con ference and to another international mathematics congress, striking the ories of classes of algebraic systems were presented. These were later included in his book . International interest in the theory of formations of finite groups was aroused, and rapidly heated up, during this time, thanks to the work of Gaschiitz  in 1963, and the work of Carter and Hawkes  in 1967. The major topics considered were saturated formations, Fitting classes, and Schunck classes. A class of groups is called a formation if it is closed with respect to homomorphic images and subdirect products. A formation is called saturated provided that G E F whenever Gjip(G) E F.
This book covers the latest achievements of the Theory of Classes of Finite Groups. It introduces some unpublished and fundamental advances in this Theory and provides a new insight into some classic facts in this area. By gathering the research of many authors scattered in hundreds of papers the book contributes to the understanding of the structure of finite groups by adapting and extending the successful techniques of the Theory of Finite Soluble Groups.
The notion of group is fundamental in our days, not only in mathematics, but also in classical mechanics, electromagnetism, theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, theory of elementary particles, etc. This notion has developed during a century and this development is connected with the names of great mathematicians as E. Galois, A. L. Cauchy, C. F. Gauss, W. R. Hamilton, C. Jordan, S. Lie, E. Cartan, H. Weyl, E. Wigner, and of many others. In mathematics, as in other sciences, the simple and fertile ideas make their way with difficulty and slowly; however, this long history would have been of a minor interest, had the notion of group remained connected only with rather restricted domains of mathematics, those in which it occurred at the beginning. But at present, groups have invaded almost all mathematical disciplines, mechanics, the largest part of physics, of chemistry, etc. We may say, without exaggeration, that this is the most important idea that occurred in mathematics since the invention of infinitesimal calculus; indeed, the notion of group expresses, in a precise and operational form, the vague and universal ideas of regularity and symmetry. The notion of group led to a profound understanding of the character of the laws which govern natural phenomena, permitting to formulate new laws, correcting certain inadequate formulations and providing unitary and non contradictory formulations for the investigated phenomena.
Most papers published in this volume are based on lectures presented at the Chico Conference on Semigroups held on the Chico campus of the Cal ifornia State University on April 10-12, 1986. The conference was spon sored by the California State University, Chico in cooperation with the Engineering Computer Sciences Department of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company. The program included seven 50-minute addresses and seventeen 30-minute lectures. Speakers were invited by the organizing committee consisting of S. M. Goberstein and P. M. Higgins. The purpose of the conference was to bring together some of the leading researchers in the area of semigroup theory for a discussion of major recent developments in the field. The algebraic theory of semigroups is growing so rapidly and new important results are being produced at such a rate that the need for another meeting was well justified. It was hoped that the conference would help to disseminate new results more rapidly among those working in semi groups and related areas and that the exchange of ideas would stimulate research in the subject even further. These hopes were realized beyond all expectations.
During the past forty years, a new trend in the theory of associative algebras, Lie algebras, and their representations has formed under the influence of mathematical logic and universal algebra, namely, the theory of varieties and identities of associative algebras, Lie algebras, and their representations. The last twenty years have seen the creation of the method of 2-words and $\alpha$-functions, which allowed a number of problems in the theory of groups, rings, Lie algebras, and their representations to be solved in a unified way. The possibilities of this method are far from exhausted. This book sums up the applications of the method of 2-words and $\alpha$-functions in the theory of varieties and gives a systematic exposition of contemporary achievements in the theory of identities of algebras and their representations closely related to this method. The aim is to make these topics accessible to a wider group of mathematicians.
This ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF MATHEMATICS aims to be a reference work for all parts of mathe matics. It is a translation with updates and editorial comments of the Soviet Mathematical Encyclopaedia published by 'Soviet Encyclopaedia Publishing House' in five volumes in 1977-1985. The annotated translation consists of ten volumes including a special index volume. There are three kinds of articles in this ENCYCLOPAEDIA. First of all there are survey-type articles dealing with the various main directions in mathematics (where a rather fme subdivi sion has been used). The main requirement for these articles has been that they should give a reasonably complete up-to-date account of the current state of affairs in these areas and that they should be maximally accessible. On the whole, these articles should be understandable to mathematics students in their first specialization years, to graduates from other mathematical areas and, depending on the specific subject, to specialists in other domains of science, en gineers and teachers of mathematics. These articles treat their material at a fairly general level and aim to give an idea of the kind of problems, techniques and concepts involved in the area in question. They also contain background and motivation rather than precise statements of precise theorems with detailed definitions and technical details on how to carry out proofs and constructions. The second kind of article, of medium length, contains more detailed concrete problems, results and techniques.
This book is a series of self-contained workshops in mathematics which aim to enthuse and inspire young people, their parents and teachers with the joy and excitement of modern mathematics. Written in an informal style, each chapter describes how novel mathematical ideas relate directly to real life. The chapters contain both a description of the mathematics and its applications together with problem sheets, their solutions and ideas for further work, project and field trips. Topics include; mazes, folk dancing, sundials, magic, castles, codes, number systems, and slide rules. This book should be accessible to young people from age thirteen upwards and yet contains material which should stretch the brightest students.
This book contains the proceedings of an international topology conference held in the town of Zagulba, near Baku in the former Soviet Union, in October 1987. Sponsored by the Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of Azerbaijan and the Steklov Mathematical Institute, the conference was organized by F. G. Maksudov and S. P. Novikov. About 400 mathematicians, including about 100 foreigners, attended the conference. The book covers aspects of general, algebraic, and low-dimensional topology.
'An excellent framework for various courses in Surgery Theory... very readable... I read this fine and carefully written book with great pleasure, and highly recommend it for everyone who wants to undertake a deeper study of Surgery Theory and its Applications.' -Alberto Cavicchioli (Modena), Zentralblatt MATHThis book is an introduction to surgery theory: the standard classification method for high-dimensional manifolds. It is aimed at graduate students, who have already had a basic topology course, and would now like to understand the topology of high-dimensional manifolds. This text contains entry-level accounts of the various prerequisites of both algebra and topology, including basic homotopy and homology, Poincare duality, bundles, cobordism, embeddings, immersions, Whitehead torsion, Poincare complexes, spherical fibrations and quadratic forms and formations. While concentrating on the basic mechanics of surgery, this book includes many worked examples, useful drawings for illustration of the algebra and references for further reading.