This text explores the changes that are unfolding in the character of work, managerial authority, and the employment relationship at the beginning of 21st century. It asks how such changes are reshaping people's working lives and the nature of their careers.
Social Science by Daniel B. Cornfield,Karen Campbell,Holly McCammon
Challenges and New Directions for the Sociology of Work
Author: Daniel B. Cornfield,Karen Campbell,Holly McCammon
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Category: Social Science
Working in Restructured Workplaces addresses contradictory influences in contemporary workplace restructuring, its impact on workers' lives, and the direction and nature of future changes in the workplace. This authentic collection of sociological thought and research consists of previous works in Work and Occupations and some commissioned specifically for this book to focus on the nature, causes, and consequences of workplace restructuring.
Christoph Engelbrecht weist einen positiven Zusammenhang zwischen dem Outsourcinggrad und dem Erfolg der Logistik nach. Er untermauert die Bedeutung der Flussorientierung eines Unternehmens und zeigt, dass eine zu starke Fixierung auf die Senkung der Logistikkosten kontraproduktiv ist.
Business & Economics by Jim Arrowsmith,Valeria Pulignano
Institutions and Outcomes in the Age of Globalization
Author: Jim Arrowsmith,Valeria Pulignano
Category: Business & Economics
Since the 1980s, the process of European economic integration, within a wider context of globalization, has accelerated employment change and placed a new premium on ‘flexible’ forms of work organization. The institutions of employment relations, specifically those concerning collective bargaining between employers and trade unions, have had to adapt accordingly. The Transformation of Employment Relations focuses not just on recent change, but charts the strategic choices that have influenced employment relations and examines these key developments in a comparative perspective. A historical and cross-national analysis of the most important and controversial ‘issues’ explores the motivation of the actors, the implementation of change, and its evolution in a diverse European context. The book highlights the policies and the role played by different institutional and social actors (employers, management, trade unions, professional associations and governments) and assesses the extent to which these policies and roles have had significant effects on outcomes. This comparative analysis of the transformation of work and employment regulation, within the context of a quarter-century timeframe, has not been undertaken in any other book. But this is no comparative handbook in which changes are largely described on a country-by-country basis, but instead, The Transformation of Employment Relations is rather focused thematically. As Europe copes with a serious economic crisis, understanding of the dynamics of work transformation has never been more important.
Information and the Interdisciplinary Research Process
Author: C.L. Palmer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Interdisciplinary inquiry has become more pervasive in recent decades, yet we still know little about the conduct of this type of research or the information problems associated with it. This book is one of few empirical studies of interdisciplinary knowledge practices. It examines how interdisciplinary scientists discover and exchange information and knowledge, highlighting how the boundaries between disciplines affect how information is used and how knowledge is constructed. It is written for scholars and practitioners with an interest in developing information systems and research environments to foster innovative scientific work. Target groups include researchers in information science, science studies, communication, as well as research administrators and information professionals.
Worker Participation: Current Research and Future Trends, Volume 16 of Research in the Sociology of Work, offers cutting edge research on the character and implications of workplace participation. Written by some of the leading scholars in the sociology of workplace transformation and alternative organizations, the chapters here examine various outcomes, causes, and consequences related to participation programs and worker democracy today. Topics include ways in which participation schemes are socially constructed and negotiated; the meanings that workers attach to opportunities for involvement in the workplace; practice, participation, and consent in alternative organizations such as cooperatives and collectives; and theoretical treatments that call for new ways of thinking about workplace participation. Methodologically pluralist and concerned less with specific productivity effects of worker participation, this volume highlights the social structural, social constructionist, and meta theoretical dimensions of worker participation and democratic organizations in the twenty-first century. The global, 24/7 economy and the organizational changes it has generated have enormous implications for the organization, experience and use of time in (and out of) the workplace. In addition to eroding the boundary between home and work, creating time pressures both within and outside of the workplace, the need for businesses to compete in a 24/7 global economy has re-problematized time in the workplace. Drawing on sociology, labor economics, organizational behavior and social history, the papers in this volume examine either empirically or theoretically, a variety of aspects of time in the workplace. Contributors to this volume examine issues surrounding the distribution of and struggle over work hours and how these vary across a number of factors including race, class, occupation and other structural components of work. They examine temporal structures within organizations including inequities in flexible scheduling, entrainment and work teams, polychronicity, and how changing temporal structures affect professionalism and expertise. They also consider the way in which changing uses and organization of work time, in the context of economic instability and globalization, affect the difficulties of reconciling work and family. At the more micro-level, the papers consider individuals' perceptions and constructions and intersubjective constructions of time. To varying degrees, the authors speak to the policy implications or strategies for managing new times. Taken as a whole, these papers shed light on the way in which globalization and the emergence of a 24/7 economy have altered the ways, times, and meanings of time at work. Research in the Sociology of Work is now available online at ScienceDirect full-text online of volumes 10 onwards. *Examines various worker participation models and evaluates the success of their outcomes *Adopts a variety of methods and highlights the different dimensions of worker participation
History by Richard Corradini,Maximilian Diesenberger,Helmut Reimitz
Author: Richard Corradini,Maximilian Diesenberger,Helmut Reimitz
This volume provides a complex discussion of the variety of social efforts which were undertaken to create meaningful communities in the process of the formation of the early medieval gentes and kingdoms in the post-Roman west.
The Growing Impact of Scientific Knowledge on Social Relations
Author: Gernot Böhme,Nico Stehr
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The original essays collected here under the general title of The Knowledge Society were first commissioned for a conference held in the late fall of 1984 at the Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, West Germany. The conference in Darmstadt saw a larger number of contribu tions presented than could be accommodated in this edition of the Sociol ogy of the Sciences Yearbook. However, all contributions were important and affected those published in this collection. We are therefore grateful to all participants of the Darmstadt conference for their presentations and for their intense, useful as well as thoughtful discussion of all papers. Those chosen for publication in the Yearbook and those undoubtedly to be published elsewhere have all benefitted considerably from our discussions in Darmstadt which also included a number of the members of the edito rial board of the Yearbook. In addition, we are pleased that the authors were able to read and comment further on each other's papers prior to publication. As is the case in every endeavor of this kind, we have incurred many debts and are only able to acknowledge these at this point publicly while expressing our sincere thanks and appreciation for all the intellectual sup port and the considerable labor invested by a number of persons in the realization of the collection.
Business & Economics by Alice H. Eagly,Linda L. Carli
Despite real progress, women remain rare enough in elite positions of power that their presence still evokes a sense of wonder. In Through the Labyrinth, Alice Eagly and Linda Carli examine why women's paths to power remain difficult to traverse. First, Eagly and Carli prove that the glass ceiling is no longer a useful metaphor and offer seven reasons why. They propose the labyrinth as a better image and explain how to navigate through it. This important and practical book addresses such critical questions as: How far have women actually come as leaders? Do stereotypes and prejudices still limit women's opportunities? Do people resist women's leadership more than men's? And, do organisations create obstacles to women who would be leaders?This book's rich analysis is founded on scientific research from psychology, economics, sociology, political science, and management. The authors ground their conclusions in that research and invoke a wealth of engaging anecdotes and personal accounts to illustrate the practical principles that emerge. With excellent leadership in short supply, no group, organisation, or nation can afford to restrict women's access to leadership roles. This book evaluates whether such restrictions are present and, when they are, what we can do to eliminate them.
Teachers’ emotions have been issues drawing the attentions of educational scientists. Since teachers’ emotions has been regarded as a psychologial phenomonon, the educational scientists explain how teachers feel and how their feelings affect educational process with psychological theories. However, more and more educational scientists note that teachers’ emotions are socially constructed and the social construction of teachers’ emotions is not explained by the psychological theories. As a result, they swith their theoretical perspectives from psychology to sociology. In the literature, the sociological theories they have employed include the labor process theory, theory of bureaucracy, emotional labor theory, post-structuralism, theory of emotinoal geographies, and identity theory. Nevertheless, each of the theories has some limitations. Therefore, the goals of this book is to (1) introduce and review the sociological theories which are applied to explain teachers’ emotions critically and (2) propose a sociological framework and research agenda for further studies based on the critically review.
The Dynasty Years documents and analyses in detail 'the Dynasty phenomenon', the hotly debated success of the Hollywood-made 'Rolls Royce of a primetime soap' which heralded a profound transformation of European television. From the operatic camp of Krystle and Alexis' fight in the lilypond or the Moldavian wedding massacre to the unprecedented gay sub-plot, Dynasty represented, in the words of co-producer Esther Shapiro, "the ultimate dollhouse fantasy for middle-aged women". Using evidence from audience survey results, newspaper and magazine clippings and letters to broadcasters and drawing on semiotics, psychoanalysis, feminism and critical social theories, Jostein Gripsrud examines every aspect of Dynasty's production, reception and context. The result is a groundbreaking critical study. Jostein Gripsrud offers a theoretical but empirically grounded critique of many central positions in media studies, including notions of 'audience resistance' and the 'sovereign' audience and its freedom in meaning-making, arguing against what he perceives as the uncritical celebrations of the soap-opera genre in much contemporary media criticism.
This book analyses recent reform trends of European health care systems. Using eight European countries case studies it connects policy reforms with a healthcare quadrilemma, and compares how well these systems perform in terms of economic efficiency, medical achievements, social inequalities, and responsiveness to patients and workers.
Business & Economics by Enrique Fernandez-Macias,John Hurley,Donald Storrie
To what extent did European countries create 'more and better jobs' – as the EU's Lisbon agenda targeted - after 1995? And to what extent did employment growth in Europe between 1995-2007 reflect the pattern of growing good and bad jobs and a 'disappearing middle' identified in the US labour market? Addressing these questions, this collection describes the changing structure of jobs during the period of robust employment expansion that preceded the 2008 financial crisis. It also provides analysis of labour market developments in these developed economies in terms of gender, international mobility and debates over the quality of work. All of the contributions in this collection originate from a common jobs-based, structural approach to labour market analysis using the same comprehensive dataset.
This translation of Lyotard's first book, La Phenomenologie, supplies an important link to Lyotard's more recent works. Phenomenology presents a commentary on the phenomenological movement. From the dual perspectives of a work on, and of, phenomenology, Lyotard's text profiles the different aspects of phenomenology, focusing particularly on the writings of Hegel, Husserl, Merleau-Ponty, and Tran Duc Thao. Phenomenology marks a particular episode in Lyotard's reflections on the "philosophical project" and is emblematic of his critical reflections on philosophy's involvements in routine, daily commitments. Like Merleau-Ponty, in this work Lyotard eliminates philosophy as a "separate existence." Beyond offering an account of certain phenomenological themes, Lyotard's commentary explicates phenomenology's relevance to psychology, sociology, and history.
Japan is rightly regarded as one of the most technologically advanced countries in the world, yet the development and deployment of Internet technology in Japan has taken a different trajectory compared with Western nations. This is the first book to look at the specific dynamics of Japanese Internet use. It examines the crucial questions: * how the Japanese are using the Internet: from the prevalence of access via portable devices, to the fashion culture of mobile phones * how Japan's "cute culture" has colonized cyberspace * the role of the Internet in different musical subcultures * how different men's and women's groups have embraced technology to highlight problems of harassment and bullying * the social, cultural and political impacts of the Internet on Japanese society * how marginalized groups in Japanese society - gay men, those living with AIDS, members of new religious groups and Japan's hereditary sub-caste, the Burakumin - are challenging the mainstream by using the Internet. Examined from a variety of interdisciplinary perspectives, using a broad range of case-studies, this is an exciting and genuinely cutting-edge book which breaks new ground in Japanese studies and will be of value to anyone interested in Japanese culture, the Internet and cyberculture.
Social Science by Peter Wehling,Willy Viehöver,Sophia Koenen
Patient Associations, Health Movements and Biomedicine
Author: Peter Wehling,Willy Viehöver,Sophia Koenen
Category: Social Science
Patient organizations and social health movements offer one of the most important and illuminating examples of civil society engagement and participation in scientific research and research politics. Influencing the research agenda, and initiating, funding and accelerating the development of diagnostic tools, effective therapies and appropriate health-care for their area of interest, they may champion alternative, sometimes controversial, programs or critique dominant medical paradigms. Some movements and organizations advocate for medical recognition of contested illnesses, as with fibromyalgia orADHD, while some attempt to "de-medicalize" others, such as obesity or autism. Bringing together an international selection of leading scholars and representatives from patients' organizations, this comprehensive collection explores the interaction between civil society groups and biomedical science, technology development, and research politics. It takes stock of the key findings of the research conducted in the field over the past two decades and addresses emerging problems and future challenges concerning the interrelations between health movements and patient organisations on the one hand, and biomedical research and research policies on the other hand. Combining empirical case studies with conceptual discussion, the book discusses how public participation can contribute to, as well as restrict, the democratization of scientific knowledge production. This volume is an important reference for academics and researchers with an interest in the sociology of health and illness, science and technology studies, the sociology of knowledge, medical ethics or healthcare management and research, as well as medical researchers and those involved with health-related civil society organizations.
The Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa (OSSREA) is a network of social scientists in the sub-region established in 1980. Its main objectives are to encourage and promote interest; to engage in collaborative research; to facilitate scholarly exchange of ideas and publication between individuals and institutions engaged in the study and research in the social sciences. OSSREA also aims to promote the training of social scientists from the sub-region in the study of and research in the social sciences and to encourage establishment of institutions dedicated to this goal. In pursuance of and consistent with its objectives, OSSREA established a fund to provide research grants and training fellowships to social scientists from the sub-region. Every year OSSREA offers, on a competitive basis, two limited types of research grants: the first on topics related to the social sciences in general and the second on gender issues in particular. The grants assist the social scientists to conduct field research in an eastern or southern African country, society, institutions, sector, or problem area. The objectives of the social science competition are intended to encourage and promote upcoming scholars from the sub-region to conduct research in the social, economic, political or other problems. Moreover, it aims to strengthen and raise the capacity of faculty members and students in field research, and promote the subsequent availability of research fmdings for teaching as well as to inform individuals and institutions.
The year 2011 marks the twentieth anniversary of the end of the Soviet Union. This may be an appropriate time to evaluate the adoption by previously state socialist societies of other economic and political models. The transition has sometimes been described in positive terms, as a movement to free societies with open markets and democratic elections. Others have argued that the transition has created weak, poverty-stricken states with undeveloped civil societies ruled by unresponsive political elites. Which is the more accurate assessment? David Lane examines a few of the theoretical approaches that help explain the trajectory of change from socialism to capitalism. He focuses on two main approaches in this volume—elite theories and social class. Theories dwelling on the role of elites regard the transformation from socialism to capitalism as a type of system transfer in which elites craft democratic and market institutions into the space left by state socialism. Lane contrasts this interpretation with class-based theories, which consider transformation in terms of revolution, and explain why such theories have not been considered the best way of framing the transition in the post-socialist states. While recognizing that elites can play important roles and have the capacity to transform societies, Lane contends that elite theories alone are inadequate to explain a system change that brings free markets. In contrast, he proposes a class approach in which two groups characterize state socialism: an administrative class and an acquisition class.
The Handbook of Urban Studies provides the first comprehensive, up-to-date account of the urban condition, relevant to a wide readership from academics to researchers and policymakers. It provides a theoretically and empirically informed account embracing all the different disciplines contributing to urban studies. Leading authors identify key issues and questions and future trends for further research and present their findings so that, where appropriate, they are relevant to the needs of policymakers. Using the city as a unifying structure, the Handbook provides an holistic appreciation of urban structure and change, and of the theories by which we understand the structure, development and changing character