Scruton shows how the different religious and philosophical roots of Western and Islamic societies have resulted in those societies’ profoundly divergent beliefs about the nature of political order. For one thing, the idea of the social contract, crucial to the self-conception of Western nations, is entirely absent in Islamic societies. Similarly, Scruton explains why the notions of territorial jurisdiction, citizenship, and the independent legitimacy of secular authority and law are both specifically Western and fundamentally antipathetic to Islamic thought. And yet, says Scruton, for its adherents Islam provides amply for one of the most fundamental of human needs: the need for membership. In contrast, the decay of the West’s own political vision, and its concomitant preoccupation with individual choice, has finally led to a “culture of repudiation” in which that need goes increasingly unfulfilled, principally because the sources of its fulfillment—patriotism, religious belief, traditional ways of life—are routinely mocked. Globalization has made these facts an explosive mixture. Migration, modern communications, and the media have inexorably brought the formerly remote inhabitants of Islamic nations into constant contact with the images, products, and peoples of secular, liberal democracies. Scruton warns that in light of this new reality, certain Western assumptions—about consumption and prosperity, about borders and travel, about free trade and multinational corporations, and about multiculturalism—need to be thoroughly re-evaluated. The West and the Rest is a major contribution to the West’s public discourse about terrorism, civil society, and liberal democracy.
From the bestselling author of The Ascent of Money and The Square and the Tower Western civilization’s rise to global dominance is the single most important historical phenomenon of the past five centuries. How did the West overtake its Eastern rivals? And has the zenith of Western power now passed? Acclaimed historian Niall Ferguson argues that beginning in the fifteenth century, the West developed six powerful new concepts, or “killer applications”—competition, science, the rule of law, modern medicine, consumerism, and the work ethic—that the Rest lacked, allowing it to surge past all other competitors. Yet now, Ferguson shows how the Rest have downloaded the killer apps the West once monopolized, while the West has literally lost faith in itself. Chronicling the rise and fall of empires alongside clashes (and fusions) of civilizations, Civilization: The West and the Rest recasts world history with force and wit. Boldly argued and teeming with memorable characters, this is Ferguson at his very best.
History by Aidan Hehir,Natasha Kuhrt,Andrew Mumford
This book examines the different ways in which the laws governing the use of force and the conduct of warfare have become subject to intense scrutiny and contestation since the initiation of the war on terror. Since the end of the Cold War, the nature of security challenges has changed radically and this change has been recognised by the UN, governments and academics around the world. The 911 attacks and the subsequent launch of the 'war on terror' added a new dimension to this debate on the nature and utility of international law due to the demands from some quarters for a change in the laws governing self-defence and humanitarian intervention. This book analyses the nature of these debates and focuses on key issues that have led to the unprecedented contemporary questioning of both the utility and composition of international law on the use of force as well as the practicability of using force, including handling of ‘prisoners’ and ‘security risks’. It also identifies the sources of division and addresses the capacities of security policy and international law to adapt to the changed international environment. This book will of much interest to students of international law, war and conflict studies, and IR and Security Studies in general.
This book examines the evolving threat of terrorism and draws on the latest research to assess future trends. The author assumes that terrorism will remain a potent threat to the international system throughout the twenty-first century, primarily because of the convergence of two negative trends: the availability of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Weapons (CBRN) - also known as Weapons of Mass Destruction - and the proliferation of terrorist organizations seeking to achieve mass casualties. Even without the CBRN element, however, Smith maintains that terrorism will remain an ongoing threat. The book also explores specific aspects of contemporary terrorism, including political, social, economic, religious, and ideological factors, globalization as a stimulation to contemporary terrorism, the role of organized crime in terrorist movements, and more. Written with students in college and professional programs in mind, the book includes case studies interspersed throughout the chapters that provide clarifying examples.
Since cosmopolitanism has often been conceived as a tenet of 'Western civilization' that emanates from its Enlightenment-based origins in a humanist age of modernity, Iranian Identity and Cosmopolitanism: Spheres of Belonging advances a highly innovative gesture by contemplating the implications and relevance of the idea in a so-called non-Western cultural territory. The particularities of the Iranian and Islamic context shed new light on advancements and obstacles to cosmopolitan praxis. The volume provides four principle disciplinary assessments of cosmopolitanism: philosophy, political science, sociology, and cultural studies,including literary criticism. The authors in this collection critically examine topics including the historical encounter between Iranian and Western thinkers and its impact on Iranian political ideals; the tension between maintaining apolitical-theology rooted in metaphysical assumptions and the prerequisite of secularism in cosmopolitan and democratic philosophies. This highly innovative volume will be of interest to scholars and students of Middle Eastern and Iranian Studies, Islamic Studies, Globalization, Political Science and Philosophy.
Islam's relationship to liberal-democratic politics has emerged as one of the most pressing and contentious issues in international affairs. In Islam, Secularism, and Liberal Democracy, Nader Hashemi challenges the widely held belief among social scientists that religious politics and liberal-democratic development are structurally incompatible. This book argues for a rethinking of democratic theory so that it incorporates the variable of religion in the development of liberal democracy. In the process, it proves that an indigenous theory of Muslim secularism is not only possible, but is a necessary requirement for the advancement of liberal democracy in Muslim societies.
As our great economic machine grinds relentlessly forward into a future of declining fossil fuel supplies, climate change and ecosystem failure, governments are at long last beginning to question the very structure of the global economy. In this fresh, politically charged analysis, Jonathon Porritt wades in on the most pressing question of the 21st century: can capitalism, as the only real economic game in town, be retooled to deliver a sustainable future? Porritt argues that indeed it can, and it must, as he lays out the framework for a new ?sustainable capitalism? that cuts across the political divide and promises a prosperous future of wealth, equity and ecosystem integrity.
Troy analyses how the understanding of religion in Realism and the English School helps in working towards the greater good in international relations, studying religion within the overall framework of international affairs and the field of peace studies.
The book seeks to untangle the complexities of how America and the West work within emerging markets, addressing the political and diplomatic implications of investment alongside emerging theory within IPE and its implications for the USA.
The Causes and Consequences of Foreign Perceptions of America
Author: Stephen Brooks
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
Category: Political Science
One of the ironies of the post-Cold War world, in which the power of the United States is without rival, is that the costs of isolationism and ignorance are greater than ever. The temptation to imagine that the rest of the world matters less than before is enticing, as America basks in the triumphant glow of a world in which capitalism and democracy, under the aegis of American leadership, are thought to have vanquished all rivals. Although it is unlikely that Americans will come to pay much attention to the rest of the world anytime soon—except when their citizens are threatened or killed abroad, or when they are persuaded that the threat of foreigners doing harm at home seems real—their failure to do so cripples the ability of the United States to understand a world in which American interests, security, and prosperity are embedded to an unprecedented degree. As Others See Us investigates the causes and consequences of the world’s perceptions of America. It proceeds from the premise that the images, ideas, and information that foreign populations have of the United States and Americans come from a number of sources, most of which are mediated. Some of these sources are American, Hollywood especially. Others are located outside the country, in the media, educational, religious, and political systems through which foreign populations learn about America. Any attempt to understand the "what" and "why" of foreign perceptions of America needs to look closely at these external determinants of how the image and interpretation of the United States is constructed in different societies.
Completely revised and updated, the fifth edition of thiswell-regarded textbook charts key topics and recent research inglobalization along with the latest complexities and controversiesin the field. Includes a new section on globalization and identity and newreadings on global inequality, mental illness, structural violence,microfinance, blood diamonds, world citizenship, the global justicemovement, and sumo wrestling Contains essential, thought-provoking readings by prominentscholars, activists, and organizations on the many dimensions ofglobalization, from political and economic issues to cultural andexperiential ones Examines foundational topics, such as the experience ofglobalization, economic and political globalization, the role ofmedia and religion in cultural globalization, women’s rights,environmentalism, global civil society, and the alternativeglobalization movement Retains the helpful student features from prior editions,including an accessible format, concise introductions to majortopics, stimulating examples, and discussion questions for eachselection and section
Despite an array of predictions that Germany's foreign policy would be unable to adapt easily to the postunification, post-Cold War environment, it has in fact remained effective, even as it evolves in response to myriad challenges. Scott Erb analyzes German policy, with an emphasis on the transitions from 1980 to the present. Erb argues that Germany's success in dealing with a rapidly changing world rests on principles of multilateralism and cooperative institution building developed during the Cold War. These principles are especially well suited now, he finds, as interdependence and turbulence bring traditional notions of sovereignty and self-interest into question. Germany, he concludes, offers a sound model of foreign policy in an age of globalization.
From one of the twelve founding members of Delta Force, a collection of commentary on the future of war. In Beyond Shock and Awe, media commentator Eric Haney—a founding member of Delta Force and author of Inside Delta Force—along with other noted military analysts and award-nominated editor Brian M. Thomsen, examines how our military must evolve to face changing times, technology, and adversaries. From limited wars to possible large scale invasions of Syria or Iran—or a major military stand-down with North Korea—Beyond Shock and Awe is a fresh, provocative peek at America’s army of the future. Contributors include: • Harlan K. Ullman and James P. Wade Jr. which first used the term “shock and awe” • Kevin Dockery on the weapons of future wars • Professor William Forstchen on how precision guided weaponry will eliminate “problem” individuals before they can start a war • Eugene Sullivan on such legal issues as preemptive attacks and military tribunals • Paul A. Thomsen on integrating military intelligence into strategic warfare • John Helfers on the importance of cultural knowledge in winning wars and building alliances • Eric Haney on the many ways in which Rapid Dominance of an adversary can be gained through Shock and Awe.
The West, the Rising Rest, and the Coming Global Turn
Author: Charles A. Kupchan
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Political Science
The world is on the cusp of a global turn. Between 1500 and 1800, the West sprinted ahead of other centers of power in Asia and the Middle East. Europe and the United States have dominated the world since. But today the West's preeminence is slipping away as China, India, Brazil and other emerging powers rise. Although most strategists recognize that the dominance of the West is on the wane, they are confident that its founding ideas--democracy, capitalism, and secular nationalism--will continue to spread, ensuring that the Western order will outlast its primacy. In No One's World, Charles A. Kupchan boldly challenges this view, arguing that the world is headed for political and ideological diversity; emerging powers will neither defer to the West's lead nor converge toward the Western way. The ascent of the West was the product of social and economic conditions unique to Europe and the United States. As other regions now rise, they are following their own paths to modernity and embracing their own conceptions of domestic and international order. Kupchan contends that the Western order will not be displaced by a new great power or dominant political model. The twenty-first century will not belong to America, China, Asia, or anyone else. It will be no one's world. For the first time in history, an interdependent world will be without a center of gravity or global guardian. More than simply diagnosing what lies ahead, Kupchan provides a detailed strategy for striking a bargain between the West and the rising rest by fashioning a new consensus on issues of legitimacy, sovereignty, and governance. Thoughtful, provocative, sweeping in scope, this work is nothing less than a global guidebook for the 21st century.
The term 'globalization' generally refers to the homogenization of cultures across the world due to Western encroachment. However, as this book explains, the process is far more subtle, complex and uneven. Taking as its starting point the fundamental question of whether globalization exists, Living with Globalization provides a lively discussion of one of the most used and abused concepts in the twenty-first century. If globalization is a valid construct, it manifests itself in lived experience, not in abstract theories. Examining the ways in which globalization is contributing to patterns of conflict, Living with Globalization explores a variety of case studies, ranging from 9/11 to identity formation. The book reveals the complex ramifications of globalization on society, government and everyday lives.