Fundamentals, Techniques, and Applications on a Femtosecond Time Scale
Author: Jean-Claude Diels,Wolfgang Rudolph
Category: Technology & Engineering
Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, Second Edition serves as an introduction to the phenomena of ultra short laser pulses and describes how this technology can be used to examine problems in areas such as electromagnetism, optics, and quantum mechanics. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena combines theoretical backgrounds and experimental techniques and will serve as a manual on designing and constructing femtosecond ("faster than electronics") systems or experiments from scratch. Beyond the simple optical system, the various sources of ultrashort pulses are presented, again with emphasis on the basic concepts and how they apply to the design of particular sources (dye lasers, solid state lasers, semiconductor lasers, fiber lasers, and sources based on frequency conversion). Provides an easy to follow guide through "faster than electronics" probing and detection methods THE manual on designing and constructing femtosecond systems and experiments Discusses essential technology for applications in micro-machining, femtochemistry, and medical imaging
An introduction to the fundamentals of lasers and pulsed optics, teaching readers the physics behind short and ultrashort laser pulses, and how to manipulate and measure them. Additionally, the text presents experiments and discusses the spectroscopic implications. This well-rounded book provides an up-to-date insight into one of the most exciting fields of laser physics.
The papers in this comprehensive volume survey many recent innovations in ultrashort pulse generation, and review the state of the art in compact, modelocked laser systems, discussing both their operational principles and potential applications. The book first covers the theory of short optical pulse generation by modelocking. Then, contributors discuss modelocking techniques in different types of lasers: solid state; diode-pumped; fiber; surface emitting semiconductor lasers; external cavity semiconductor lasers; hybrid soliton pulse sources; and monolithic colliding pulse modelocked diode lasers. Presenting both theoretical and experimental aspects throughout, this book will be invaluable to anyone interested in short pulse laser systems, and particularly to researchers involved in high speed communications or the investigation of ultrafast phenomena.
This book covers the physics, technology and applications of short pulse laser sources that generate pulses with durations of only a few optical cycles. The basic design considerations for the different systems such as lasers, parametric amplifiers and external compression techniques which have emerged over the last decade are discussed to give researchers and graduate students a thorough introduction to this field. The existence of these sources has opened many new fields of research that were not possible before. These are UV and EUV generation from table-top systems using high-harmonic generation, frequency metrology enabling optical frequency counting, high-resolution optical coherence tomography, strong-field ultrafast solid-state processes and ultrafast spectroscopy, to mention only a few. Many new applications will follow. The book attempts to give a comprehensive, while not excessive, introduction to this exciting new field that serves both experienced researchers and graduate students entering the field. The first half of the book covers the current physical principles, processes and design guidelines to generate pulses in the optical range comprising only a few cycles of light. Such as the generation of relatively low energy pulses at high repetition rates directly from the laser, parametric generation of medium energy pulses and high-energy pulses at low repetition rates using external compression in hollow fibers. The applications cover the revolution in frequency metrology and high-resolution laser spectroscopy to electric field synthesis in the optical range as well as the emerging field of high-harmonic generation and attosecond science, high-resolution optical imaging and novel ultrafast dynamics in semiconductors. These fields benefit from the strong electric fields accompanying these pulses in solids and gases during events comprising only a few cycles of light.
Technology & Engineering by Federico Canova,Luca Poletto
The book reviews the most recent achievements in optical technologies for XUV and X-ray coherent sources. Particular attention is given to free-electron-laser facilities, but also to other sources available at present, such as synchrotrons, high-order laser harmonics and X-ray lasers. The optical technologies relevant to each type of source are discussed. In addition, the main technologies used for photon handling and conditioning, namely multilayer mirrors, adaptive optics, crystals and gratings are explained. Experiments using coherent light received during the last decades a lot of attention for the X-ray regime. Strong efforts were taken for the realization of almost fully coherent sources, e.g. the free-electron lasers, both as independent sources in the femtosecond and attosecond regimes and as seeding sources for free-electron-lasers and X-ray gas lasers. In parallel to the development of sources, optical technologies for photon handling and conditioning of such coherent and intense X-ray beams advanced. New problems were faced for the realization of optical components of beamlines demanding to manage coherent X-ray photons, e.g. the preservation of coherence and time structure of ultra short pulses.
A comprehensive treatment of ultrafast optics This book fills the need for a thorough and detailed account of ultrafast optics. Written by one of the most preeminent researchers in the field, it sheds new light on technology that has already had a revolutionary impact on precision frequency metrology, high-speed electrical testing, biomedical imaging, and in revealing the initial steps in chemical reactions. Ultrafast Optics begins with a summary of ultrashort laser pulses and their practical applications in a range of real-world settings. Next, it reviews important background material, including an introduction to Fourier series and Fourier transforms, and goes on to cover: Principles of mode-locking Ultrafast pulse measurement methods Dispersion and dispersion compensation Ultrafast nonlinear optics: second order Ultrafast nonlinear optics: third order Mode-locking: selected advanced topics Manipulation of ultrashort pulses Ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy Terahertz time-domain electromagnetics Professor Weiner's expertise and cutting-edge research result in a book that is destined to become a seminal text for engineers, researchers, and graduate students alike.
Expensive, delicate, and difficult to operate, femtosecond lasers have already won two Nobel Prizes and created multi-billion dollar industries. As these lasers break out of laboratories for use in real-world large-scale applications, the number of people using them increases. This book provides a fresh perspective on femtosecond lasers, discussing how they are soon to become a universal light source, spanning any timescale and generating any wavelength of light. Starting from the basics of light itself, this book presents in an everyday manner, with clear illustrations and without formulas, what makes this class of lasers so versatile and the future of many more applications. Many of the subjects covered in this book are described in plain words for the first time.
Technology & Engineering by Roberto Osellame,Giulio Cerullo,Roberta Ramponi
Femtosecond laser micromachining of transparent material is a powerful and versatile technology. In fact, it can be applied to several materials. It is a maskless technology that allows rapid device prototyping, has intrinsic three-dimensional capabilities and can produce both photonic and microfluidic devices. For these reasons it is ideally suited for the fabrication of complex microsystems with unprecedented functionalities. The book is mainly focused on micromachining of transparent materials which, due to the nonlinear absorption mechanism of ultrashort pulses, allows unique three-dimensional capabilities and can be exploited for the fabrication of complex microsystems with unprecedented functionalities.This book presents an overview of the state of the art of this rapidly emerging topic with contributions from leading experts in the field, ranging from principles of nonlinear material modification to fabrication techniques and applications to photonics and optofluidics.
Technology & Engineering by Mikiyo Yamashita,Hidemi Shigekawa,Ryuji Morita
Deals with both the ultrashort laser-pulse technology in the few- to mono-cycle region and the laser-surface-controlled scanning-tunneling microscopy (STM) extending into the spatiotemporal extreme technology. The former covers the theory of nonlinear pulse propagation beyond the slowly-varing-envelope approximation, the generation and active chirp compensation of ultrabroadband optical pulses, the amplitude and phase characterization of few- to mono-cycle pulses, and the feedback field control for the mono-cycle-like pulse generation. In addition, the wavelength-multiplex shaping of ultrabroadband pulses, and the carrier-phase measurement and control of few-cycle pulses are described. The latter covers the CW-laser-excitation STM, the femtosecond-time-resolved STM and atomic-level surface phenomena controlled by femtosecond pulses.
Technology & Engineering by Sonia Boscolo,Christophe Finot
This book is a contemporary overview of selected topics in fiber optics. It focuses on the latest research results on light wave manipulation using nonlinear optical fibers, with the aim of capturing some of the most innovative developments on this topic. The book's scope covers both fundamentals and applications from both theoretical and experimental perspectives, with topics including linear and nonlinear effects, pulse propagation phenomena and pulse shaping, solitons and rogue waves, novel optical fibers, supercontinuum generation, polarisation management, optical signal processing, fiber lasers, optical wave turbulence, light propagation in disordered fiber media and slow and fast light. With contributions from leading-edge scientists in the field of nonlinear photonics and fiber optics, they offer an overview of the latest advances in their own research area. The listing of recent research papers at the end of each chapter is useful for researchers using the book as a reference. As the book addresses fundamental and practical photonics problems, it will also be of interest to, and benefit, broader academic communities, including areas such as nonlinear science, applied mathematics and physics and optical engineering. It offers the reader a wide and critical overview of the state-of-the-art within this practical – as well as fundamentally important and interesting – area of modern science, providing a useful reference which will encourage further research and advances in the field. Offers a study of various phenomena encountered by the manipulation of fundamental properties of light, such as the intensity profile, phase and state of polarisation, in optical fibers, as well as the new applications already made possible by the fiber-optic light wave manipulation technology Describes research results on light wave manipulation with particular emphasis on pulse shaping using nonlinear optics and guided waves, offering the most innovative developments in this area The editors are leading experts in the field and have sourced contributions from leading-edge scientists and their colleagues in the field of nonlinear photonics and fiber optics, providing an overview of the latest advances in their own research area
This new edition features numerous updates and additions. Especially 4 new chapters on Fiber Optics, Integrated Optics, Frequency Combs and Interferometry reflect the changes since the first edition. In addition, major complete updates for the chapters: Optical Materials and Their Properties, Optical Detectors, Nanooptics, and Optics far Beyond the Diffraction Limit. Features Contains over 1000 two-color illustrations. Includes over 120 comprehensive tables with properties of optical materials and light sources. Emphasizes physical concepts over extensive mathematical derivations. Chapters with summaries, detailed index Delivers a wealth of up-to-date references.
Technology & Engineering by Shuntaro Watanabe,Midorikawa Katsumi
This book brings together in a single volume the most up-to-date results in the field presented at Ultrafast Optics and Applications of High Field and Short Wavelength Sources 2005. The volume contains keynote and invited contributions together with carefully selected regular contributions. The book aims at the highest level of presentation to make it useful as a reference for those working in the field.
Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.
Technology & Engineering by Andrei Stalmashonak,Gerhard Seifert,Amin Abdolvand
Author: Andrei Stalmashonak,Gerhard Seifert,Amin Abdolvand
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Technology & Engineering
Glasses containing metallic nanoparticles exhibit very promising linear and nonlinear optical properties, mainly due to the surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) of the nanoparticles. The spectral position in the visible and near-infrared range and polarization dependence of the SPR are characteristically determined by the nanoparticles’ shapes. The focus of Ultra-Short Pulsed Laser Engineered Metal-Glass Nanocomposites is the interaction of intense ultra-short laser pulses with glass containing silver nanoparticles embedded in soda-lime glass, and nanostructural modifications in metal-glass nanocomposites induced by such laser pulses. In order to provide a comprehensive physical picture of the processes leading to laser-induced persistent shape transformation of the nanoparticles, series of experimental results investigating the dependences of laser assisted shape modifications of nanoparticles with laser pulse intensity, excitation wavelength, temperature are considered. In addition, the resulting local optical dichroism allows producing very flexibly polarizing optical (sub-) microstructures with well-specified optical properties. The achieved considerable progress towards technological application of this technique, in particular also for long-term optical data storage, is also discussed.
Attosecond optical pulse generation, along with the related process of high-order harmonic generation, is redefining ultrafast physics and chemistry. A practical understanding of attosecond optics requires significant background information and foundational theory to make full use of these cutting-edge lasers and advance the technology toward the next generation of ultrafast lasers. Fundamentals of Attosecond Optics provides the first focused introduction to the field. The author presents the underlying concepts and techniques required to enter the field, as well as recent research advances that are driving the field forward. A stand-alone textbook for courses on attosecond optics and the interaction of matter with ultrafast, high-power lasers, the book begins with basic theory and gradually advances to more complex ideas. Using both semi-classical models and quantum mechanics theories, the author explains foundational concepts and mechanisms including femtosecond lasers, high-order harmonic generation, and the technological leap that inspired attosecond pulse generation. The book introduces techniques for generating attosecond train using the basis of high-order harmonics, followed by an explanation of gating methods for extracting single isolated pulses. Chapters examine the connection between attosecond pulses and high harmonic generation, the use of driving lasers as key tools in attosecond generation, the mechanism of chirped pulse amplification, and the generation of few-cycle pulses. The book looks at carrier-envelope phase stabilization and the theoretical foundations for single atom and dipole phase response. It discusses propagation effects, introducing several approaches for improving phase matching; attosecond pulse generation and characterization, covering attosecond pulse train and single isolated pulses; and several examples of experimental applications for attosecond pulses.
An introductory guide to laser technologies in very diverse fields from nuclear and particle physics to medicine, astronomy and ultra-precise metrology written by reputable laser experts who think that science should be entertaining.
This book gives a detailed overview on this new and exciting field at the boundary of physics and chemistry. Laser-induced ultrafast molecuar dynamics is presented for many textbook-like examples of model molecules and clusters. Experimental results on phenomena like wave packet propagation, ultrafast photodissociation and femtosecond structural redistribution are presented and described theoretically.
A comprehensive introduction to the burgeoning field of photonics The field of photonics is finding increasing applications across a broad range of industries. While many other books provide an overview of the subject, Fundamentals of Light Sources and Lasers closes a clear gap in the current literature by concentrating on the principles of laser operation as well as providing coverage of important concepts necessary to fully understand the principles involved. The scope of the book includes everything a professional needs to get up to speed in the field, as well as all the material necessary to serve as an excellent introductory laser course for students. Ideal for self-study as well as structured coursework, the book offers thorough coverage of: * The nature of light and atomic emission * Basic quantum mechanics and laser processes * Cavity optics, fast-pulse production, and nonlinear optical phenomena * Laser technology, including visible gas lasers, UV gas lasers, infrared gas lasers, solid-state lasers, semiconductor lasers and tunable dye lasers Extensive real-world case studies are included to help readers appreciate the practical applications of the material covered. *An Instructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all the problems in the book is available from the Wiley editorial department.
Technology & Engineering by Markus Kitzler,Stefanie Gräfe
From Atoms to Solids, from Lasers to Intense X-rays
Author: Markus Kitzler,Stefanie Gräfe
Category: Technology & Engineering
This book documents the recent vivid developments in the research field of ultrashort intense light pulses for probing and controlling ultrafast dynamics. The recent fascinating results in studying and controlling ultrafast dynamics in ever more complicated systems such as (bio-)molecules and structures of meso- to macroscopic sizes on ever shorter time-scales are presented. The book is written by some of the most eminent experimental and theoretical experts in the field. It covers the new groundbreaking research directions that were opened by the availability of new light sources such as fully controlled intense laser fields with durations down to a single oscillation cycle, short-wavelength laser-driven attosecond pulses and intense X-ray pulses from the upcoming free electron lasers. These light sources allowed the investigation of dynamics in atoms, molecules, clusters, on surfaces and very recently also in nanostructures and solids in new regimes of parameters which, in turn, led to the identification of completely new dynamics and methods for controlling it. Example topics covered by this book include the study of ultrafast processes in large molecules using attosecond pulses, control of ultrafast electron dynamics in solids with shaped femtosecond laser pulses, light-driven ultrafast plasmonic processes on surfaces and in nanostructures as well as research on atomic and molecular systems under intense X-ray radiation. This book is equally helpful for people who would like to step into this field (e.g. young researchers), for whom it provides a broad introduction, as well as for already experienced researchers who may enjoy the exhaustive discussion that covers the research on essentially all currently studied objects and with all available ultrafast pulse sources.
Technology & Engineering by Trevor Hall,Sergey V. Gaponenko
"Extreme Photonics & Applications" arises from the 2008 NATO Advanced Study Institute in Laser Control & Monitoring in New Materials, Biomedicine, Environment, Security and Defense. Leading experts in the manipulation of light offered by recent advances in laser physics and nanoscience were invited to give lectures in their fields of expertise and participate in discussions on current research, applications and new directions. The sum of their contributions to this book is a primer for the state of scientific knowledge and the issues within the subject of photonics taken to the extreme frontiers: molding light at the ultra-finest scales, which represents the beginning of the end to limitations in optical science for the benefit of 21st Century technological societies. Laser light is an exquisite tool for physical and chemical research. Physicists have recently developed pulsed lasers with such short durations that one laser shot takes the time of one molecular vibration or one electron rotation in an atom, which makes it possible to observe their internal electronic structure, thereby enabling the study of physical processes and new chemical reactions. In parallel, advances in micro- and nano-structured photonic materials allow the precise manipulation of light on its natural scale of a wavelength. Photonic crystals, plasmons and related metamaterials - composed of subwavelength nanostructures - permit the manipulation of their dispersive properties and have allowed the experimental confirmation of bizarre new effects such as slow light and negative refraction. These advances open a vista on a new era in which it is possible to build lasers and engineer materials to control and use photons as precisely as it is already possible to do with electrons. http://www.photonics.uottawa.ca/nato-asi-2008/