Drawing from philosophical work on the nature of concepts and from empirical studies of visual perception, mental imagery, and numerical cognition, Giaquinto explores a major source of our grasp of mathematics, using examples from basic geometry, arithmetic, algebra, and real analysis.
Visual thinking - visual imagination or perception of diagrams and symbol arrays, and mental operations on them - is omnipresent in mathematics. Is this visual thinking merely a psychological aid, facilitating grasp of what is gathered by other means? Or does it also have epistemological functions, as a means of discovery, understanding, and even proof? By examining the many kinds of visual representation in mathematics and the diverse ways in which they are used, Marcus Giaquintoargues that visual thinking in mathematics is rarely just a superfluous aid; it usually has epistemological value, often as a means of discovery. Drawing from philosophical work on the nature of concepts and from empirical studies of visual perception, mental imagery, and numerical cognition,Giaquinto explores a major source of our grasp of mathematics, using examples from basic geometry, arithmetic, algebra, and real analysis. He shows how we can discern abstract general truths by means of specific images, how synthetic a priori knowledge is possible, and how visual means can help us grasp abstract structures.Visual Thinking in Mathematics reopens the investigation of earlier thinkers from Plato to Kant into the nature and epistemology of an individual's basic mathematical beliefs and abilities, in the new light shed by the maturing cognitive sciences. Clear and concise throughout, it will appeal to scholars and students of philosophy, mathematics, and psychology, as well as anyone with an interest in mathematical thinking.
Mathematics by Malcolm Scott MacKenzie,Roger B. Nelsen
Proofs without words are generally pictures or diagrams that help the reader see why a particular mathematical statement may be true, and how one could begin to go about proving it. While in some proofs without words an equation or two may appear to help guide that process, the emphasis is clearly on providing visual clues to stimulate mathematical thought. The proofs in this collection are arranged by topic into five chapters: Geometry and algebra; Trigonometry, calculus and analytic geometry; Inequalities; Integer sums; and Sequences and series. Teachers will find that many of the proofs in this collection are well suited for classroom discussion and for helping students to think visually in mathematics.
Mathematics by Walter Zimmermann,Steve Cunningham,Mathematical Association of America. Committee on Computers in Mathematics Education
Author: Walter Zimmermann,Steve Cunningham,Mathematical Association of America. Committee on Computers in Mathematics Education
Publisher: MAA Press
The twenty papers in the book give an overview of research analysis, practical experience, and informed opinion about the role of visualization in teaching and learning mathematics, especially at the undergraduate level. Visualization, in its broadest level. Visualization, in its broadest sense, is as old as mathematics, but progress in computer graphics has generated a renaissance of interest in visual representations and visual thinking in mathematics.
What does it mean to have a visual representation of a mathematical object, concept, or process? What visualization strategies support growth in mathematical thinking, reasoning, generalization, and knowledge? Is mathematical seeing culture-free? How can information drawn from studies in blind subjects help us understand the significance of a multimodal approach to learning mathematics? Toward a Visually-Oriented School Mathematics Curriculum explores a unified theory of visualization in school mathematical learning via the notion of progressive modeling. Based on the author’s longitudinal research investigations in elementary and middle school classrooms, the book provides a compelling empirical account of ways in which instruction can effectively orchestrate the transition from personally-constructed visuals, both externally-drawn and internally-derived, into more structured visual representations within the context of a socioculturally grounded mathematical activity. Both for teachers and researchers, a discussion of this topic is relevant in the history of the present. The ubiquity of technological tools and virtual spaces for learning and doing mathematics has aroused interest among concerned stakeholders about the role of mathematics in these contexts. The book begins with a prolegomenon on the author’s reflections on past and present visual studies in mathematics education. In the remaining seven chapters, visualization is pursued in terms of its role in bringing about progressions in mathematical symbolization, abduction, pattern generalization, and diagrammatization. Toward a Visually-Oriented School Mathematics Curriculum views issues surrounding visualization through the eyes of a classroom teacher-researcher; it draws on findings within and outside of mathematics education that help practitioners and scholars gain a better understanding of what it means to pleasurably experience the symmetric visual/symbolic reversal phenomenon – that is, seeing the visual in the symbolic and the symbolic in the visual."
Publisher: The Mathematical Association of America
Proofs without words (PWWs) are figures or diagrams that help the reader see why a particular mathematical statement is true, and how one might begin to formally prove it true. PWWs are not new, many date back to classical Greece, ancient China, and medieval Europe and the Middle East. PWWs have been regular features of the MAA journals Mathematics Magazine and The College Mathematics Journal for many years, and the MAA published the collections of PWWs Proofs Without Words: Exercises in Visual Thinking in 1993 and Proofs Without Words II: More Exercises in Visual Thinking in 2000. This book is the third such collection of PWWs. The proofs in the book are divided by topic into five chapters: Geometry & Algebra; Trigonometry, Calculus & Analytic Geometry; Inequalities; Integers & Integer Sums; and Infinite Series & Other Topics. The proofs in the book are intended primarily for the enjoyment of the reader, however, teachers will want to use them with students at many levels: high school courses from algebra through precalculus and calculus; college level courses in number theory, combinatorics, and discrete mathematics; and pre-service and in-service courses for teachers.
Like its predecessor, Proofs without Words, this book is a collection of pictures or diagrams that help the reader see why a particular mathematical statement may be true, and how one could begin to go about proving it. While in some proofs without words an equation or two may appear to help guide that process, the emphasis is clearly on providing visual clues to stimulate mathematical thought. The proofs in this collection are arranged by topic into five chapters: geometry and algebra; trigonometry, calculus and analytic geometry; inequalities; integer sums; and sequences and series. Teachers will find that many of the proofs in this collection are well suited for classroom discussion and for helping students to think visually in mathematics.
Mathematics by P. Mancosu,Klaus Frovin Jørgensen,S.A. Pedersen
Author: P. Mancosu,Klaus Frovin Jørgensen,S.A. Pedersen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
In the 20th century philosophy of mathematics has to a great extent been dominated by views developed during the so-called foundational crisis in the beginning of that century. These views have primarily focused on questions pertaining to the logical structure of mathematics and questions regarding the justi?cation and consistency of mathematics. Paradigmatic in this - spect is Hilbert’s program which inherits from Frege and Russell the project to formalize all areas of ordinary mathematics and then adds the requi- ment of a proof, by epistemically privileged means (?nitistic reasoning), of the consistency of such formalized theories. While interest in modi?ed v- sions of the original foundational programs is still thriving, in the second part of the twentieth century several philosophers and historians of mat- matics have questioned whether such foundational programs could exhaust the realm of important philosophical problems to be raised about the nature of mathematics. Some have done so in open confrontation (and hostility) to the logically based analysis of mathematics which characterized the cl- sical foundational programs, while others (and many of the contributors to this book belong to this tradition) have only called for an extension of the range of questions and problems that should be raised in connection with an understanding of mathematics. The focus has turned thus to a consideration of what mathematicians are actually doing when they produce mathematics. Questions concerning concept-formation, understanding, heuristics, changes instyle of reasoning, the role of analogies and diagrams etc.
This book gives a coherent and unified presentation of a new direction of work in philosophy of mathematics. This new approach in philosophy of mathematics requires extensive attention to mathematical practice and provides philosophical analyses of important novel characteristics of contemporary (twentieth century) mathematics and of many aspects of mathematical activity-such as visualization, explanation, understanding etc.-- which escape purely formal logicaltreatment.The book consists of a lengthy introduction by the editor and of eight chapters written by some of the very best scholars in this area. Each chapter consists of a short introduction to the general topic of the chapter and of a longer research article in the very same area. Theeight topics selected represent a broad spectrum of the contemporary philosophical reflection on different aspects of mathematical practice: Diagrammatic reasoning and representational systems; Visualization; Mathematical Explanation; Purity of Methods; Mathematical Concepts; Philosophical relevance of category theory; Philosophical aspects of computer science in mathematics; Philosophical impact of recent developments in mathematical physics.
Big ideas in the mathematics curriculum for older school students, especially those that are hard to learn and hard to teach, are covered in this book. It will be a first port of call for research about teaching big ideas for students from 9-19 and also has implications for a wider range of students. These are the ideas that really matter, that students get stuck on, and that can be obstacles to future learning. It shows how students learn, why they sometimes get things wrong, and the strengths and pitfalls of various teaching approaches. Contemporary high-profile topics like modelling are included. The authors are experienced teachers, researchers and mathematics educators, and many teachers and researchers have been involved in the thinking behind this book, funded by the Nuffield Foundation. An associated website, hosted by the Nuffield Foundation, summarises the key messages in the book and connects them to examples of classroom tasks that address important learning issues about particular mathematical ideas.
Mathematics by Roger Nelsen,Claudi Alsina,Roger B. Nelsen
Author: Roger Nelsen,Claudi Alsina,Roger B. Nelsen
The object of this book is to show how visualization techniques may be employed to produce pictures that have interest for the creation, communication and teaching of mathematics. Mathematical drawings related to proofs have been produced since antiquity in China, Arabia, Greece and India but only in the last thirty years has there been a growing interest in so-called 'proofs without words.' In this book the authors show that behind most of the pictures 'proving' mathematical relations are some well-understood methods. The first part of the book consists of twenty short chapters, each one describing a method to visualize some mathematical idea (a proof, a concept, an operation,...) and several applications to concrete cases. Following this the book examines general pedagogical considerations concerning the development of visual thinking, practical approaches for making visualizations in the classroom and a discussion of the role that hands-on material plays in this process.
Logic, Symbolic and mathematical by Alfred North Whitehead,Bertrand Russell
Warum die meisten Prognosen falsch sind und manche trotzdem zutreffen - Der New York Times Bestseller
Author: Nate Silver
Publisher: Heyne Verlag
Category: Business & Economics
Zuverlässige Vorhersagen sind doch möglich! Nate Silver ist der heimliche Gewinner der amerikanischen Präsidentschaftswahlen 2012: ein begnadeter Statistiker, als »Prognose-Popstar« und »Wundernerd« weltberühmt geworden. Er hat die Wahlergebnisse aller 50 amerikanischen Bundesstaaten absolut exakt vorausgesagt – doch damit nicht genug: Jetzt zeigt Nate Silver, wie seine Prognosen in Zukunft Terroranschläge, Umweltkatastrophen und Finanzkrisen verhindern sollen. Gelingt ihm die Abschaffung des Zufalls? Warum werden Wettervorhersagen immer besser, während die Terrorattacken vom 11.09.2001 niemand kommen sah? Warum erkennen Ökonomen eine globale Finanzkrise nicht einmal dann, wenn diese bereits begonnen hat? Das Problem ist nicht der Mangel an Informationen, sondern dass wir die verfügbaren Daten nicht richtig deuten. Zuverlässige Prognosen aber würden uns helfen, Zufälle und Ungewissheiten abzuwehren und unser Schicksal selbst zu bestimmen. Nate Silver zeigt, dass und wie das geht. Erstmals wendet er seine Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung nicht nur auf Wahlprognosen an, sondern auf die großen Probleme unserer Zeit: die Finanzmärkte, Ratingagenturen, Epidemien, Erdbeben, den Klimawandel, den Terrorismus. In all diesen Fällen gibt es zahlreiche Prognosen von Experten, die er überprüft – und erklärt, warum sie meist falsch sind. Gleichzeitig schildert er, wie es gelingen kann, im Rauschen der Daten die wesentlichen Informationen herauszufiltern. Ein unterhaltsamer und spannender Augenöffner!
Computers by Serge Autexier,John Campbell,Julio Rubio,Volker Sorge,Masakazu Suzuki,Freek Wiedijk
This book constitutes the joint refereed proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Symbolic Computation, AISC 2008, the 15th Symposium on the Integration of Symbolic Computation and Mechanized Reasoning, Calculemus 2008, and the 7th International Conference on Mathematical Knowledge Management, MKM 2008, held in Birmingham, UK, in July/August as CICM 2008, the Conferences on Intelligent Computer Mathematics. The 14 revised full papers for AISC 2008, 10 revised full papers for Calculemus 2008, and 18 revised full papers for MKM 2008, plus 5 invited talks, were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 81 submissions for a joint presentation in the book. The papers cover different aspects of traditional branches in CS such as computer algebra, theorem proving, and artificial intelligence in general, as well as newly emerging ones such as user interfaces, knowledge management, and theory exploration, thus facilitating the development of integrated mechanized mathematical assistants that will be routinely used by mathematicians, computer scientists, and engineers in their every-day business.
Every year, thousands of students in the USA declare mathematics as their major. Many are extremely intelligent and hardworking. However, even the best will encounter challenges, because upper-level mathematics involves not only independent study and learning from lectures, but also a fundamental shift from calculation to proof. This shift is demanding but it need not be mysterious — research has revealed many insights into the mathematical thinking required, and this book translates these into practical advice for a student audience. It covers every aspect of studying as a mathematics major, from tackling abstract intellectual challenges to interacting with professors and making good use of study time. Part 1 discusses the nature of upper-level mathematics, and explains how students can adapt and extend their existing skills in order to develop good understanding. Part 2 covers study skills as these relate to mathematics, and suggests practical approaches to learning effectively while enjoying undergraduate life. As the first mathematics-specific study guide, this friendly, practical text is essential reading for any mathematics major.
Focuses on the need to meet the economic and social needs of today's society while looking at America's colleges and universities. Identifies colleges' goals focusing primarily on two-year college programs. Includes: leadership activities in education and human resources; leveraged program support (instrumentation and laboratory improvement, undergraduate faculty enhancement, young scholars, alliances for minority participation, rural systemic initiatives, teacher enhancement, and much more). Charts and tables.