Law

War and Law Since 1945

Author: Geoffrey Best

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198206992

Category: Law

Page: 434

View: 3586

Civilization has long sought to limit the violence and ugliness of war. This book traces the recent history of these efforts and explores important contemporary issues in the area. Geoffrey Best shows how the Second World War prompted reconstruction of international law, and charts the fortunes of its relations with war since then. He critically surveys the whole range of contemporary armed conflicts - high-tech international wars, wars of national liberation, revolutionary risingsand civil wars. Far more than a litany of the trouble-spots and tragedies of the second half of the twentieth century, this book offers an original and thought-provoking approach to contemporary history, law, politics and ethics, and will be essential reading for anyone concerned with war. Reviews of the hardback edition: `a magnificent exposition of the modern pursuit of legal restraint on warfare ... The lawyers of war and the international humanitarians would be well advised to ponder Bests Laws of War for its scholarly realism and its humanity.' London Review of Books `He writes with enormous authority and at times, for such a heavy subject, a delightfully light touch ... In obliging us to take the very notion of the ethical conduct of war so seriously, Geoffrey Best has performed an enormous service.' Lawrence Freedman, History Today `This is an important book, which the specialists in this subject will refer to for decades to come.' Noel Malcolm,Sunday Telegraph `To write a book of this character, which is scrupulous in never overstating success, and not lose faith in the process, you have to remain an optimist. Geoffrey Best has succeeded in doing this in his impressive study.' A.W. Brian Simpson, Times Literary Supplement `...ambitious, highly significant and courageous ... Interdisciplinary in approach, it is an important text for teachers, students and the practitioners of international relations alike ... Its conclusions, so relevant to the latter part of this century, should not be ignored.' Dermot Keogh, Irish Times `...affords new insights into war and its limits as defined by the law ... an interesting read ... Geoffrey Bests new book gives much food for thought to anyone interested in humanitarian law. It is well worth reading.' Hans-Peter Gasser, International Review of the Red Cross `Geoffrey Best does a signal service to lawyers, and to all students of the law of war, in his most recent examination of this field ... Dr Best has made an important contribution.' James J. Busuttil, International Relations `a sympathetic, intellectually tough and absolutely outstanding account of the contemporary role of the laws of war ... His writing is full of vivid imagery, enlivening what in other hands is often an arid landscape.' Adam Roberts, Survival
History

God and War

American Civil Religion since 1945

Author: Raymond Haberski, Jr.

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 0813553180

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 4387

Americans have long considered their country to be good—a nation "under God" with a profound role to play in the world. Yet nothing tests that proposition like war. Raymond Haberski argues that since 1945 the common moral assumptions expressed in an American civil religion have become increasingly defined by the nation's experience with war. God and War traces how three great postwar “trials”—the Cold War, the Vietnam War, and the War on Terror—have revealed the promise and perils of an American civil religion. Throughout the Cold War, Americans combined faith in God and faith in the nation to struggle against not only communism but their own internal demons. The Vietnam War tested whether America remained a nation "under God," inspiring, somewhat ironically, an awakening among a group of religious, intellectual and political leaders to save the nation's soul. With the tenth anniversary of 9/11 behind us and the subsequent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan winding down, Americans might now explore whether civil religion can exist apart from the power of war to affirm the value of the nation to its people and the world.
History

Postwar

A History of Europe Since 1945

Author: Tony Judt

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781440624766

Category: History

Page: 960

View: 5226

Finalist for the Pulitzer Prize Winner of the Council on Foreign Relations Arthur Ross Book Award One of the New York Times' Ten Best Books of the Year Almost a decade in the making, this much-anticipated grand history of postwar Europe from one of the world's most esteemed historians and intellectuals is a singular achievement. Postwar is the first modern history that covers all of Europe, both east and west, drawing on research in six languages to sweep readers through thirty-four nations and sixty years of political and cultural change-all in one integrated, enthralling narrative. Both intellectually ambitious and compelling to read, thrilling in its scope and delightful in its small details, Postwar is a rare joy.
History

CHURCHILL

A Study in Greatness

Author: Geoffrey Best

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 9781852852535

Category: History

Page: 370

View: 2170

"We are all worms. But I do believe I am a glow-worm." --Churchill Winston Churchill's inspiring leadership in the Second World War once made him above criticism. In recent years his record has come under attack from revisionists. In Churchill: A Study in Greatness one of Britain's most distinguished historians rebuts these charges and makes sense of this extraordinary man and his long controversial, colourful, contradictory and heroic career. Geoffrey Best brings out both his strengths and his weaknesses, looking past the many received versions of Churchill in a biography that balances the private and the public man and offers a clear insight into Churchill's greatness. "We are all worms. But I do believe I am a glow-worm." --Churchill Winston Churchill's inspiring leadership in the Second World War once made him above criticism. In recent years his record has come under attack from revisionists. In Churchill: A Study in Greatness one of Britain's most distinguished historians rebuts these charges and makes sense of this extraordinary man and his long controversial, colourful, contradictory and heroic career. Geoffrey Best brings out both his strengths and his weaknesses, looking past the many received versions of Churchill in a biography that balances the private and the public man and offers a clear insight into Churchill's greatness.
Political Science

The United Nations Security Council and War

The Evolution of Thought and Practice since 1945

Author: Vaughan Lowe,Adam Roberts,Jennifer Welsh,Dominik Zaum

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191614939

Category: Political Science

Page: 816

View: 9696

This is the first major exploration of the United Nations Security Council's part in addressing the problem of war, both civil and international, since 1945. Both during and after the Cold War the Council has acted in a limited and selective manner, and its work has sometimes resulted in failure. It has not been - and was never equipped to be - the centre of a comprehensive system of collective security. However, it remains the body charged with primary responsibility for international peace and security. It offers unique opportunities for international consultation and military collaboration, and for developing legal and normative frameworks. It has played a part in the reduction in the incidence of international war in the period since 1945. This study examines the extent to which the work of the UN Security Council, as it has evolved, has or has not replaced older systems of power politics and practices regarding the use of force. Its starting point is the failure to implement the UN Charter scheme of having combat forces under direct UN command. Instead, the Council has advanced the use of international peacekeeping forces; it has authorized coalitions of states to take military action; and it has developed some unanticipated roles such as the establishment of post-conflict transitional administrations, international criminal tribunals, and anti-terrorism committees. The book, bringing together distinguished scholars and practitioners, draws on the methods of the lawyer, the historian, the student of international relations, and the practitioner. It begins with an introductory overview of the Council's evolving roles and responsibilities. It then discusses specific thematic issues, and through a wide range of case studies examines the scope and limitations of the Council's involvement in war. It offers frank accounts of how belligerents viewed the UN, and how the Council acted and sometimes failed to act. The appendices provide comprehensive information - much of it not previously brought together in this form - of the extraordinary range of the Council's activities. This book is a project of the Oxford Leverhulme Programme on the Changing Character of War.
Law

The Law Against War

The Prohibition on the Use of Force in Contemporary International Law

Author: Olivier Corten

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1847316050

Category: Law

Page: 569

View: 7519

The Law against War is a translated and updated version of a book published in 2008 in French (Le droit contre la guerre, Pedone). The aim of this book is to study the prohibition of the use of armed force in contemporary positive international law. Some commentators claim that the field has undergone substantial changes arising especially since the end of the Cold War in the 1990s. More specifically, several scholars consider that the prohibition laid down as a principle in the United Nations Charter of 1945 should be relaxed in the present-day context of international relations, a change that would seem to be reflected in the emergence of ideas such as 'humanitarian intervention', 'preventive war' or in the possibility of presuming Security Council authorisation under certain exceptional circumstances. The argument in this book is that while marked changes have been observed, above all since the 1990s, the legal regime laid down by the Charter remains founded on a genuine jus contra bellum and not on the jus ad bellum that characterised earlier periods. 'The law against war', as in the title of this book, is a literal rendering of the familiar Latin expression and at the same time it conveys the spirit of a rule that remains, without a doubt, one of the cornerstones of public international law. From the Foreword by Bruno Simma 'Corten's book is weighty not just by its size, but above all through the depth and comprehensiveness with which it analyzes the entirety of what the author calls the law against war, the jus contra bellum... Corten tackles his immense task with a combination of methodical rigour, applying modern positivism and abstaining from constructions of a lex ferenda, and great sensibility for the political context and the ensuing possibilities and limitations of the legal regulation of force.'
History

The Laws of War

Constraints on Warfare in the Western World

Author: Michael Howard,George J. Andreopoulos,Mark R. Shulman

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300070620

Category: History

Page: 311

View: 1560

This book explores not only the formal constraints on the conduct of war throughout Western history but also the unwritten conventions about what is permissible in the course of military operations. Ranging from classical antiquity to the present, eminent historians discuss the legal and cultural regulation of violence in such areas as belligerent rights, the treatment of prisoners and civilians, the observing of truces and immunities, the use of particular weapons, siege warfare, codes of honor, and war crimes. The book begins with a general overview of the subject by Michael Howard. The contributors then discuss the formal and informal constraints on conducting war as they existed in classical antiquity, the age of chivalry, early modern Europe, colonial America, and the age of Napoleon. They also examine how these constraints have been applied to wars at sea, on land, and in the air, planning for nuclear war, and national liberation struggles, in which one of the participants is not an organized state. The book concludes with reflections by Paul Kennedy and George Andreopoulos on the main challenges facing the quest for humanitarian norms in warfare in the future.
History

The Internationalists

How a Radical Plan to Outlaw War Remade the World

Author: Oona A. Hathaway,Scott J. Shapiro

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 150110988X

Category: History

Page: 608

View: 7459

“An original book…about individuals who used ideas to change the world” (The New Yorker)—the fascinating exploration into the creation and history of the Paris Peace Pact, an often overlooked but transformative treaty that laid the foundation for the international system we live under today. In 1928, the leaders of the world assembled in Paris to outlaw war. Within the year, the treaty signed that day, known as the Peace Pact, had been ratified by nearly every state in the world. War, for the first time in history, had become illegal. But within a decade of its signing, each state that had gathered in Paris to renounce war was at war. And in the century that followed, the Peace Pact was dismissed as an act of folly and an unmistakable failure. This book argues that the Peace Pact ushered in a sustained march toward peace that lasts to this day. A “thought-provoking and comprehensively researched book” (The Wall Street Journal), The Internationalists tells the story of the Peace Pact through a fascinating and diverse array of lawyers, politicians, and intellectuals. It reveals the centuries-long struggle of ideas over the role of war in a just world order. It details the brutal world of conflict the Peace Pact helped extinguish, and the subsequent era where tariffs and sanctions take the place of tanks and gunships. The Internationalists is “indispensable” (The Washington Post). Accessible and gripping, this book will change the way we view the history of the twentieth century—and how we must work together to protect the global order the internationalists fought to make possible. “A fascinating and challenging book, which raises gravely important issues for the present…Given the state of the world, The Internationalists has come along at the right moment” (The Financial Times).
Law

Searching for a 'Principle of Humanity' in International Humanitarian Law

Author: Kjetil Mujezinović Larsen,Camilla Guldahl Cooper,Gro Nystuen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107021847

Category: Law

Page: 365

View: 1731

An examination of whether there is a legally independent 'principle of humanity' in international humanitarian law.
History

The World Since 1945

An International History

Author: P. M. H. Bell,Mark Gilbert

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1472534425

Category: History

Page: 584

View: 5231

A masterly synthesis of the history of the contemporary world, The World Since 1945 offers the ideal introduction to the events of the period between the end of the Second World War and the present day. P. M. H. Bell and Mark Gilbert balance a clear narrative with in-depth analysis to guide the reader through the aftermath of the Second World War, the Cold War, decolonization, Détente and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, up to the on-going ethnic strife and political instability of the 21st century. The new edition has been thoroughly revised to fully reflect developments in the history and historiography of the post-war world, and features five new chapters on the post-Cold War world, covering topics including: - The rise and fall of American hegemony - The decline of Europe - The rise of Asia - Political Islam as a global force - The role of human rights The World Since 1945 challenges us to better understand what happened and why in the post-war period and shows the ways in which the past continues to exercise a profound influence on the present. It is essential reading for any student of contemporary history.
History

Churchill and War

Author: Geoffrey Best

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 9781852855413

Category: History

Page: 360

View: 6140

A dramatic evaluation of the impact of war on Winston Churchill's leadership abilities draws on the World War II prime minister's writings as a war correspondent, journalist, and historian, exploring how his early military experiences informed his subsequent decisions and helped him protect Europe in later conflicts.
Law

Neutrality in International Law

From the Sixteenth Century to 1945

Author: Kentaro Wani

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1351978551

Category: Law

Page: 224

View: 7471

Neutrality is a legal relationship between a belligerent State and a State not participating in a war, namely a neutral State. The law of neutrality is a body of rules and principles that regulates the legal relations of neutrality. The law of neutrality obliges neutral States to treat all belligerent States impartially and to abstain from providing military and other assistance to belligerents. The law of neutrality is a branch of international law that developed in the nineteenth century, when international law allowed unlimited freedom of sovereign States to resort to war. Thus, there has been much debate as to whether such a branch of law remains valid in modern international law, which generally prohibits war and the use of force by States. While there has been much debate regarding the current status of neutrality in modern international law, there is a general agreement among scholars as to the basic features of the traditional law of neutrality. Wani challenges the conventional understanding of the traditional neutrality by re-examining the historical development of the law of neutrality from the sixteenth century to 1945. The modification of the conventional understanding will provide a fundamentally new framework for discussing the current status of neutrality in modern international law.
Political Science

The State, War, and the State of War

Author: Kalevi Jaakko Holsti

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521577908

Category: Political Science

Page: 254

View: 340

Why do we have Rwandas, Bosnias, and Somalias? This book explores the sources of such bitter, prolonged conflicts that result in immense human tragedies of civilian deaths and mass refugee flows. The author argues that such conflicts, and not wars between states, are the wars of the future. What can the United Nations and other international institutions do about them? Can organizations designed to manage conflicts between states successfully manage wars whose origins are domestic? The author develops some ideas about conflict resolution and peace derived from such recent experiences of war.
Political Science

The United States and Western Europe Since 1945

From "Empire" by Invitation to Transatlantic Drift

Author: Geir Lundestad

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191647780

Category: Political Science

Page: 352

View: 9889

Based on new and existing research by a world-class scholar, this is the first book in twenty years to examine the dynamics of the entire American-West European relationship since 1945. The relationship between the United States and Western Europe has always been crucial and recent events dictate that it is becoming ever more so. In this important new work, Geir Lundestad analyses the balance between the cooperation and conflict which has characterized this relationship in the post-war period. He examines talk of transatlantic drift, and the strain now apparent between the USA and the nation states of Western Europe. In the concluding section, Lundestad offers a topical view of the future of transatlantic interaction. Throughout the work Lundestad's much cited 'empire by invitation' thesis is both put into practice and extended in time and scope. This book is essential reading for anyone interested in one of the most important and enduring international relationships of the last sixty years.
Political Science

World Politics since 1945

Author: Peter Calvocoressi

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317863607

Category: Political Science

Page: 856

View: 2218

“The most lucid, comprehensive, intelligent and reliable account of post-war modern history on the market.” Teaching Politics “The book compels admiration for its thoroughness, its scope, the masterly ordering of its immense material.” The Sunday Times The ninth edition of this enormously successful standard work has been expanded to take into account the developments of the last 10 years, including the wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Sudan; the accelerating emergence of India and China as major powers; the major political developments in Latin America, including the rise and perhaps fall of Chavez in Venezuela; the march of globalisation and the popular protest movements against; the expansion eastwards of the European Union; instability in the Middle East and the question of oil and energy supply. Marked throughout by Calvocoressi’s characteristic erudition and elegance, World Politics since 1945 is essential reading for those who need to understand the great sweeps of contemporary history
Political Science

Science of Coercion

Communication Research & Psychological Warfare, 1945–1960

Author: Christopher Simpson

Publisher: Open Road Media

ISBN: 1497672708

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

View: 9685

A provocative and eye-opening study of the essential role the US military and the Central Intelligence Agency played in the advancement of communication studies during the Cold War era, now with a new introduction by Robert W. McChesney and a new preface by the author Since the mid-twentieth century, the great advances in our knowledge about the most effective methods of mass communication and persuasion have been visible in a wide range of professional fields, including journalism, marketing, public relations, interrogation, and public opinion studies. However, the birth of the modern science of mass communication had surprising and somewhat troubling midwives: the military and covert intelligence arms of the US government. In this fascinating study, author Christopher Simpson uses long-classified documents from the Pentagon, the CIA, and other national security agencies to demonstrate how this seemingly benign social science grew directly out of secret government-funded research into psychological warfare. It reveals that many of the most respected pioneers in the field of communication science were knowingly complicit in America’s Cold War efforts, regardless of their personal politics or individual moralities, and that their findings on mass communication were eventually employed for the purposes of propaganda, subversion, intimidation, and counterinsurgency. An important, thought-provoking work, Science of Coercion shines a blazing light into a hitherto remote and shadowy corner of Cold War history.
Political Science

Religion and International Law

Author: Mark W. Janis,Carolyn Maree Evans

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 9789041111746

Category: Political Science

Page: 513

View: 9764

One of the great tasks, perhaps the greatest, weighing on modern international lawyers is to craft a universal law and legal process capable of ordering relations among diverse people with differing religions, histories, cultures, laws, and languages. In so doing, we need to take the world's peoples as we find them and not pretend out of existence their wide variety. This volume builds on the eleven essaysedited by Mark Janis in 1991 in The Influence of Religion and the Development of International Law, more than doubling its authors and essays and covering more religious traditions. Now included are studies of the interface between international law and ancient religions, Confucianism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, as well as essays addressing the impact of religious thought on the literature and sources of international law, international courts, and human rights law.
Political Science

The Politics of Globality since 1945

Assembling the Planet

Author: Rens van Munster,Casper Sylvest

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317239881

Category: Political Science

Page: 202

View: 5728

This timely, comprehensive and interdisciplinary volume advances an original argument about the complex roots and multiple politics of globality. It shows that technological innovations and decisive developments since 1945 – from the nuclear revolution to anthropogenic climate change and debates about the Anthropocene – have prompted reflections on the global condition of humanity and helped reshape political communities by making the world (appear) small, manageable and interconnected. The contributors stress how human beings have transformed both their habitat and their view of human-earth relations since 1945. Such changes have been accompanied by important shifts in political visions, prompted new forms of human association, encouraged legal and institutional reform and spurred ideas about ecological humility. At the same time, the spatially all-encompassing nature of globality have also informed projects of human mastery and a range of practices historically associated with militarization and a strongly statist conception of national security. This volume reflects on these paradoxical relationships, their history and contemporary relevance. Contributing to the overlapping concerns of four burgeoning fields of study across the humanities and the social sciences - globality and globalization studies; geopolitics and political geography; Anthropocene studies; global governance and political theory – the book will be of great use to scholars and graduates working in these areas.
Law

Origins of the Right of Self-Defence in International Law

From the Caroline Incident to the United Nations Charter

Author: Tadashi Mori

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004355006

Category: Law

Page: 288

View: 7479

This book defines the right of self-defence as understood in and before 1945 and offers a possible better alternative for interpreting the significance of the precondition provided for in the Article 51 of the United Nations Charter.