How Design Shapes the Urban Climate
A beautifully laid-out square where you are nearly blown off your feet. A modern city apartment in which it is too hot to sleep in the summer. Everyone knows examples of urban architecture whose design fails to take the urban climate properly into account. The publication 'Weather in the City. How Design Determines the Urban Climate' explains and illustrates in a comprehensible way how smart urban design can enhance comfort in the city. The way we experience the urban climate depends on physical and psychological factors dictated by our surroundings. This book uses these factors to explain how the basic processes of the urban climate work and how they can be influenced by spatial planning and urban design. Richly illustrated with photographs, diagrams and practical examples Weather in the City is both a reference work and a source of inspiration for all those working to enhance the quality of city life: commisioners, policymakers, professionals and students in urban design, landscape architecture and planning.
Author: Edward Ng
Compact living is sustainable living. High-density cities can support closer amenities, encourage reduced trip lengths and the use of public transport and therefore reduce transport energy costs and carbon emissions. High-density planning also helps to control the spread of urban suburbs into open lands, improves efficiency in urban infrastructure and services, and results in environmental improvements that support higher quality of life in cities. Encouraging, even requiring, higher density urban development is a major policy and a central principle of growth management programmes used by planners around the world. However, such density creates design challenges and problems. A collection of experts in each of the related architectural and planning areas examines these environmental and social issues, and argues that high-density cities are a sustainable solution. It will be essential reading for anyone with an interest in sustainable urban development.
First Assessment Report of the Urban Climate Change Research Network
Author: Cynthia Rosenzweig,William D. Solecki,Stephen A. Hammer,Shagun Mehrotra
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Urban areas are home to over half the world's people and are at the forefront of the climate change issue. The need for a global research effort to establish the current understanding of climate change adaptation and mitigation at the city level is urgent. To meet this goal a coalition of international researchers - the Urban Climate Change Research Network (UCCRN) - was formed at the time of the C40 Large Cities Climate Summit in New York in 2007. This book is the First UCCRN Assessment Report on Climate Change and Cities. The authors are all international experts from a diverse range of cities with varying socio-economic conditions, from both the developing and developed world. It is invaluable for mayors, city officials and policymakers; urban sustainability officers and urban planners; and researchers, professors and advanced students.
Forecasting, Monitoring, and Meeting Users' Needs
Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Committee on Urban Meteorology: Scoping the Problem, Defining the Needs
Publisher: National Academies Press
According to the United Nations, three out of five people will be living in cities worldwide by the year 2030. The United States continues to experience urbanization with its vast urban corridors on the east and west coasts. Although urban weather is driven by large synoptic and meso-scale features, weather events unique to the urban environment arise from the characteristics of the typical urban setting, such as large areas covered by buildings of a variety of heights; paved streets and parking areas; means to supply electricity, natural gas, water, and raw materials; and generation of waste heat and materials. Urban Meteorology: Forecasting, Monitoring, and Meeting Users' Needs is based largely on the information provided at a Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate community workshop. This book describes the needs for end user communities, focusing in particular on needs that are not being met by current urban-level forecasting and monitoring. Urban Meteorology also describes current and emerging meteorological forecasting and monitoring capabilities that have had and will likely have the most impact on urban areas, some of which are not being utilized by the relevant end user communities. Urban Meteorology explains that users of urban meteorological information need high-quality information available in a wide variety of formats that foster its use and within time constraints set by users' decision processes. By advancing the science and technology related to urban meteorology with input from key end user communities, urban meteorologists can better meet the needs of diverse end users. To continue the advancement within the field of urban meteorology, there are both short-term needs-which might be addressed with small investments but promise large, quick returns-as well as future challenges that could require significant efforts and investments.
Rethinking Planning and Design Opportunities
Author: Rohinton Emmanuel
Publisher: World Scientific
Among the places worst hit by climate change are areas of high urban growth in the warm, humid tropics of Asia and Latin America. In these places, the global trend of rapid urbanisation and conditions of local warming compound the effects of climate change. This three-part book explores the unique local climate consequences of urban growth trajectories of tropical cities and provides strategies and design approaches to enhance the quality of life of tropical urban dwellers in the face of urban warming. Part One considers the philosophical basis of the climate challenge in this context and investigates tropical urbanism from the viewpoints of urban activity patterns and the notion of 'thermal pleasure'. Part Two explores specific, practical techniques in enhancing ventilation, shading and greenery as well as the challenges in local climate assessment in the tropics. Part Three explores the barriers and future opportunities for climate-sensitive urban planning and presents specific examples of good practice, contextualized within the wider global debate on adapting to climate change. Urban Climate Challenges in the Tropics is an indispensable companion for planners, designers, architects and students of all levels. Contents:Introduction (Rohinton Emmanuel)Achieving Thermal Pleasure in Tropical Urban Outdoors (Rohinton Emmanuel)Management of Shading and Public Places (Tzu-Ping Lin)Urban Air Ventilation in High-Density Cities in the Tropics (Edward Ng)Vegetation and Climate-sensitive Public Places (Denise H S Duarte)Urban Thermal Comfort in the Tropics (Erik Johansson)Urban Climate Mapping in the Tropics Narein Perera)Urban Climate Modeling: Challenges in the Tropics (Renganathan Giridharan)Urban Exemplars of Climate-sensitive Design (Patricia Drach)Integration of Climate Knowledge in Urban Design and Planning (Gerald Mills) Readership: Planners, designers, architects and advanced undergraduate and graduate students of architecture or planning and environmental management with a focus on the tropics. Key Features:Places the urban climate amelioration debate within the wider climate change debateFocuses specifically on an important and rapidly urbanizing region (the tropics)Provides practical advice to researchers and practitioners dealing with urban sustainability and climate sensitive design in the tropics
Author: T. R. Oke,G. Mills,A. Christen,J. A. Voogt
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Urban Climates is the first full synthesis of modern scientific and applied research on urban climates. The book begins with an outline of what constitutes an urban ecosystem. It develops a comprehensive terminology for the subject using scale and surface classification as key constructs. It explains the physical principles governing the creation of distinct urban climates, such as airflow around buildings, the heat island, precipitation modification and air pollution, and it then illustrates how this knowledge can be applied to moderate the undesirable consequences of urban development and help create more sustainable and resilient cities. With urban climate science now a fully-fledged field, this timely book fulfills the need to bring together the disparate parts of climate research on cities into a coherent framework. It is an ideal resource for students and researchers in fields such as climatology, urban hydrology, air quality, environmental engineering and urban design.
Author: Mr Roger Zetter,Ms Georgia Butina Watson
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Category: Political Science
Can conservation of the built heritage be reconciled with the speed of urban change in cities of the developing world? What are the tools of sustainable design and how can communities participate in the design of the environments in which they live and work? These are some of the questions explored within this innovative and richly illustrated book. A wealth of examples drawn from Mexico, Brazil, Indonesia, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, India and Myanmar demonstrate how rapid physical and social change has swept away historic urban quarters and the cultural heritage they represent. Written in an accessible style the rich mix of concepts, research methods, analysis and practice-based tools is designed for academics and professionals alike. Leading academics Zetter and Watson have produced a fascinating book that is amongst the first to explore the concept of urban sustainability within the context of urban design in the developing world.
Author: Jack E. Cermak,Alan G. Davenport,Erich J. Plate,Domingos X. Viegas
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
If one surveys the development of wind engineering, one comes to the conclusion that the challenge of urban climatology is one of the most important remaining tasks for the wind engineers. But what distinguishes wind engineering in urban areas from conventional wind engineering? Principally, the fact that the effects studied are usually unique to a particular situation, requiring consideration of the surroundings of the buildings. In the past, modelling criteria have been developed that make it possible to solve environmental problems with great confidence, and studies validated the models: at least in a neutrally stratified atmosphere. The approach adopted in the book is that of applied fluid mechanics, since this forms the basis for the evaluation of the urban wind field. Variables for air quality or loads are problem specific, or even random, and methods for studying them are based on risk analysis, which is also presented. Criteria are developed for a systematic approach to urban wind engineering problems, including parameter studies. The five sections of the book are: Fundamentals of urban boundary layer and dispersion; Forces on complex structures in built-up areas; Air pollution in cities; Numerical solution techniques; and Posters. A subject index is included.
Author: Markus Amann
Publisher: WHO Regional Office Europe
Ozone is a highly oxidative compound formed in the lower atmosphere (from gases originating to a large extent from anthropogenic sources) by photochemistry driven by solar radiation. Owing to its highly reactive chemical properties, ozone is harmful to vegetation, materials and human health. In the troposphere, ozone is also an efficient greenhouse gas. This report summarizes the results of a multidisciplinary analysis to assess the effects of ozone on health. The analysis indicates that ozone pollution affects the health of most of the populations of the WHO European Region, leading to a wide range of health problems. The effects include some 21,000 premature deaths each year in 25 countries in the European Union on and after days with high ozone levels. Current policies are not sufficient to reduce ozone levels in the Region or their impact in the next decade.
Man and Technology in Sparselands
Author: Yehuda Gradus
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The fact that approximately one-third of the world's land mass is arid desert may be congenial for the camel and the cactus, but not for people. Nevertheless, well over half a billion people, or 15% of the world's population live in arid desert areas. If the world's population were distributed evenly over the land surface, we would expect to find about 30% of the population inhabiting arid desert areas. Does the fact that 'only' 15% of the world's population live in an arid desert environment reflect the harshness of the environment? Or is it a testimony to the adaptability and ingenuity of mankind? Do we view the glass as half-full? Or half-empty? The contributors to Desert Development: Man and Technology in Sparselands adopt the position that the cup is half-full and, in fact, could be filled much more. Indeed, many arid desert zones do thrive with life, and given appropriate technological develop ment, such areas could support even greater popUlations. While the dire Malthusian prediction that rapid world population growth exceeds the carrying capacity of existent resource systems has gained popularity (typified by the 1972 Club of Rome book, Limits to Growth), there is a growing body of serious work which rejects such pessimistic 'depletion' models, in favor of models which are mildly optimistic.
Proceedings of the USERC Environment, Resources and Urban Development Workshop
Author: Edward A. Wolff
Category: Social Science
Urban Alternatives contains the proceedings of the USERC Environmental Resources and Urban Development Workshop held at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Maryland in November 1975. The workshop aims to obtain information on the technical implications of various possible urban development decisions. This book details the descriptions of the workshop and the process used to arrive at the recommendations. The workshops are organized into topics of urban development, energy, communications, meteorology, water resources, public health, in-situ sensing, remote sensing, socio-economic problems, and science technology and government.
How Our Cities Will Thrive in the Hotter Future
Author: Matthew E. Kahn
Publisher: Basic Books (AZ)
Category: Business & Economics
One of the worldÕs leading urban and environmental economists tells us what our lives will be like when climate change arrives
A Source Book for Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV)
Author: Deo Prasad,Mark Snow
Designing with Solar Power is the result of international collaborative research and development work carried out within the framework of the International Energy Agency's Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) and performed within its Task 7 on 'Photovoltaic power systems in the built environment'. Each chapter of this precisely detailed and informative book has been prepared by an international expert in a specific area related to the development, use and application of building-integrated photovoltaics (BiPV). Chapters not only cover the basics of solar power and electrical concepts, but also investigate the ways in which photovoltaics can be integrated into the design and creation of buildings equipped for the demands of the 21st century. The potential for BiPV, in both buildings and other structures, is explored together with broader issues such as market deployment, and international marketing and government strategies. In addition, more than 20 contemporary international case studies describe in detail how building-integrated photovoltaics have been applied to new and existing buildings, and discuss the architectural and technical quality, and the success of various strategies. Packed with photographs and illustrations, this book is an invaluable companion for architects, builders, designers, engineers, students and all involved with the exciting possibilities of building-integrated photovoltaics.
Components, Services, Materials
Author: John Goulding
Category: Technology & Engineering
This directory has become a valued source of information for energy-efficient building designers and specifiers throughout Europe and the details and scope of product, service and supplier listings have again been extensively updated for this edition.
Author: Jean P. Palutikof,Sarah L. Boulter,Jon Barnett,David Rissik
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
The book advances knowledge about climate change adaptation practices through a series of case studies. It presents important evidence about adaptation practices in agriculture, businesses, the coastal zone, community services, disaster management, ecosystems, indigneous populations, and settlements and infrastructure. In addition to 38 case studies across these sectors, the book contains horizon-scoping essays from international experts in adaptation research, including Hallie Eakin, Susanne Moser, Jonathon Overpeck, Bill Solecki, and Gary Yohe. Australia’s social-ecological systems have a long history of adapting to climate variability and change, and in recent decades has been a world-leader in implementing and researching adaptation, making this book of universal relevance to all those working to adapt our environment and societies to climate change.
The Peril and Promise of Urban Life in the Age of Climate Change
Author: Ashley Dawson
Publisher: Verso Books
A cutting exploration of how cities drive climate change while being on the frontlines of the coming climate crisis How will climate change affect our lives? Where will its impacts be most deeply felt? Are we doing enough to protect ourselves from the coming chaos? In Extreme Cities, Ashley Dawson argues that cities are ground zero for climate change, contributing the lion’s share of carbon to the atmosphere, while also lying on the frontlines of rising sea levels. Today, the majority of the world’s megacities are located in coastal zones, yet few of them are adequately prepared for the floods that will increasingly menace their shores. Instead, most continue to develop luxury waterfront condos for the elite and industrial facilities for corporations. These not only intensify carbon emissions, but also place coastal residents at greater risk when water levels rise. In Extreme Cities, Dawson offers an alarming portrait of the future of our cities, describing the efforts of Staten Island, New York, and Shishmareff, Alaska residents to relocate; Holland’s models for defending against the seas; and the development of New York City before and after Hurricane Sandy. Our best hope lies not with fortified sea walls, he argues. Rather, it lies with urban movements already fighting to remake our cities in a more just and equitable way. As much a harrowing study as a call to arms Extreme Cities is a necessary read for anyone concerned with the threat of global warming, and of the cities of the world.
The Science of Adaptation to Climate Change
Author: Zinta Zommers,Keith Alverson
In Resilience: The Science of Adaptation to Climate Change leading experts analyze and question ongoing adaptation interventions. Contributions span different disciplinary perspectives, from law to engineering, and cover different regions from Africa to the Pacific. Chapters assess the need for adaptation, highlighting climate change impacts such as sea level rise, increases in temperature, changing hydrological variability, and threats to food security. The book then discusses the state of global legislation and means of tracking progress. It reviews ways to build resilience in a range of contexts— from the Arctic, to small island states, to urban areas, across food and energy systems. Critical tools for adaptation planning are highlighted - from social capital and ethics, to decision support systems, to innovative finance and risk transfer mechanisms. Controversies related to geoengineering and migration are also discussed. This book is an indispensable resource for scientists, practitioners, and policy makers working in climate change adaptation, sustainable development, ecosystem management, and urban planning. Provides a summary of tools and methods used in adaptation including recent innovations Includes chapters from a diverse range of authors from academic institutions, humanitarian organizations, and the United Nations Evaluates adaptation options, highlighting gaps in knowledge where further research or new tools are needed
Deduced from Meteorological Observations
Author: Luke Howard
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Luke Howard published this work of statistics on weather conditions in London in two volumes, in 1818 and 1820.