Seminar paper from the year 2003 in the subject English - Pedagogy, Didactics, Literature Studies, grade: Sehr Gut, University of Innsbruck (Anglistik und Amerikanistik), 19 entries in the bibliography, language: English, comment: The present seminar paper is concerned with the Present Perfect Tense of the English language. It will be shown that the Present Perfect is a problematic tense to learn and to teach because it has so many notions and uses. It will be proved that a major difficulty in learning this tense arises from the interference from the learner's mother tongue. In the field of TEFL this paper is meant to aid both teachers and students., abstract: It has to be mentioned that this paper mainly deals with the Present Perfect Simple because otherwise this topic would have become too complex. Furthermore, the present perfect is not always used the same way in British and American English. In the current paper, however, the used examples represent British Standard English. It will be shown that the Present Perfect is a problematic tense to learn and to teach because it has so many notions and uses. It will be proved that a major difficulty in learning this tense arises from the interference from the learner's mother tongue. As far as teaching is concerned, when introducing a new piece of grammar we always have to teach not only the form, but also its functions, and not only meaning but also use. Therefore, teaching the present perfect is quite a difficult task. This paper will also discuss critical questions teachers should ask themselves and the various notions and uses of the present perfect in detail, providing at the same time possible ways of teaching them with quoted activities from different coursebooks.
The authors bridge the gap between the semantic and syntactic properties of verb tense and aspect, and suggest a unified account of tense and aspect using Chomsky's Principles and Parameters Framework. They compare tense and aspect systems in Romance languages with Germanic ones.
Language Arts & Disciplines by Miriam R. Eisenstein
The recent recognition of dynamic yet consistent variation, as well as rules, in language use is applied to second languages. The 18 chapters by researchers and methodologists explore the influence of such factors as context, relative social status, target language variety, and psychological aspects
The papers in this volume deal with the languages of ancient Italy and the Romance dialects that grew from them. The arrangement of papers in the volume is topical, starting with ancient Italy and moving upward in time and outward in space through general Romance to Italian, French and Provençal, Spanish, Romanian and Sardinian.
Language Arts & Disciplines by Wolfgang U. Dressler
TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS is a series of books that open new perspectives in our understanding of language. The series publishes state-of-the-art work on core areas of linguistics across theoretical frameworks as well as studies that provide new insights by building bridges to neighbouring fields such as neuroscience and cognitive science. TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS considers itself a forum for cutting-edge research based on solid empirical data on language in its various manifestations, including sign languages. It regards linguistic variation in its synchronic and diachronic dimensions as well as in its social contexts as important sources of insight for a better understanding of the design of linguistic systems and the ecology and evolution of language. TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS publishes monographs and outstanding dissertations as well as edited volumes, which provide the opportunity to address controversial topics from different empirical and theoretical viewpoints. High quality standards are ensured through anonymous reviewing.
Study Aids by GMAC (Graduate Management Admission Council)
This comprehensive examination of tense and grammatical aspect provides fascinating insight into how languages indicate distinctions of time. Providing an in-depth survey of the scholarship from the ancient Greeks through the 1980s, Time and the Verb explains and evaluates every major issue and theory, concentrating on familiar Classical and modern European languages. An invaluable reference tool as well as a major contribution to the history of linguistic sciences, this book will be the standard against which future work on tense and aspect is measured.
1. OUTLINE German has the three main perfect constructions which are illustrated in (1. 1). 1 In each of these constructions, the verb appears in the past participial form and is combined with an auxiliary - in this case, haben ('have'); other verbs form their perfect constructions with the auxiliary sein ('be'). 2 The auxiliary can then be com bined with a tense -Le. the present tense as in (Ua), the past tense as in (b), or the future tense as in (c). 3 (1. 1) a. PRESENT PERFECT: Die Eule hat die Schule verlassen. the owl has the school left b. PAST PERFECT: Die Eule hatte die Schule verlassen. the owl had the school left c. FUTURE PERFECT: Die Eule wird die Schule verlassen haben. the owl will the school left have As will shortly become clear, the present perfect is the most intricate of the perfect constructions in German. It has been investigated intensely in the past, with the result that today there is little doubt about what the core problems concerning its semantics are.
The following is neither exclusively the study of a philosopher nor a problem, and yet is both as well. Alfred Schutz is now recogniz ed to have been a profoundly insightful philosopher who explor ed the nature of social reality and the social sciences. His works are exercising a great influence in a wide range of problems and disciplines, the latter including the social sciences themselves. All of this is testimony to the sagacity and penetrating character of his analyses as well as the fruitfulness and soundness of his con cepts. Philosophy proceeds, however, by not merely accepting the work of great philosophers, but by engaging them in critical philosophic dialogue. It is time for this interchange to begin with respect to Schutz's work. To some extent, then, this work is di rected to that task. It does not undertake a systematic treat ment of the whole of Schutz's philosophy, for much more work in many aspects of his thought is yet to be done before such a pro ject can reasonably be undertaken. Yet, the issue of concern in this study is, I now believe, the philosophic center of the whole of Schutz's work.
This new edition of Teach EFL is the ultimate practical reference guide to teaching English as a Foreign Language. 'Riddell's book is a classic - it answers all those questions new language teachers have....covers an amazing amount in a clear accessible way.' David Carr, Director of Teacher Training International House London This book is packed with information on: -effective teaching techniques. -sound classroom management. -practical lesson planning. -successful job hunting and career development. This is an indispensable book for all new and experienced EFL teachers: a step-by-step guide on what to teach and how to teach it. This edition has been fully revised to include: -up-to-date information on technology as an aid to learning. -comprehensive information on the increasingly popular task-based learning. -invaluable advice on making the transition from learning to teaching. -clear guidance on ongoing professional development. -useful examples of teaching in different international contexts. Rely on Teach Yourself, trusted by learners for over 75 years.