Why Is the Present Perfect Such a Problematic Tense?

Author: Cornelia Gitterle

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3656003750

Category:

Page: 28

View: 8392

Seminar paper from the year 2003 in the subject English - Pedagogy, Didactics, Literature Studies, grade: Sehr Gut, University of Innsbruck (Anglistik und Amerikanistik), 19 entries in the bibliography, language: English, comment: The present seminar paper is concerned with the Present Perfect Tense of the English language. It will be shown that the Present Perfect is a problematic tense to learn and to teach because it has so many notions and uses. It will be proved that a major difficulty in learning this tense arises from the interference from the learner's mother tongue. In the field of TEFL this paper is meant to aid both teachers and students., abstract: It has to be mentioned that this paper mainly deals with the Present Perfect Simple because otherwise this topic would have become too complex. Furthermore, the present perfect is not always used the same way in British and American English. In the current paper, however, the used examples represent British Standard English. It will be shown that the Present Perfect is a problematic tense to learn and to teach because it has so many notions and uses. It will be proved that a major difficulty in learning this tense arises from the interference from the learner's mother tongue. As far as teaching is concerned, when introducing a new piece of grammar we always have to teach not only the form, but also its functions, and not only meaning but also use. Therefore, teaching the present perfect is quite a difficult task. This paper will also discuss critical questions teachers should ask themselves and the various notions and uses of the present perfect in detail, providing at the same time possible ways of teaching them with quoted activities from different coursebooks.
Language Arts & Disciplines

Tense and Aspect

From Semantics to Morphosyntax

Author: Alessandra Giorgi,Fabio Pianesi

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195357884

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 336

View: 9786

The authors bridge the gap between the semantic and syntactic properties of verb tense and aspect, and suggest a unified account of tense and aspect using Chomsky's Principles and Parameters Framework. They compare tense and aspect systems in Romance languages with Germanic ones.
Language Arts & Disciplines

Tense and Aspect : From Semantics to Morphosyntax

From Semantics to Morphosyntax

Author: Alessandra Giorgi Associate Professor in the Department of Linguistics University of Bergamo,Trento Fabio Pianesi Research Scientist Institute for Technology and Scientific Research (IRST)

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198025238

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 336

View: 939

The authors bridge the gap between the semantic and syntactic properties of verb tense and aspect, and suggest a unified account of tense and aspect using Chomsky's Principles and Parameters Framework. They compare tense and aspect systems in Romance languages with Germanic ones.
Language Arts & Disciplines

Sprachwandelvergleich – Comparing Diachronies

Author: Jürg Fleischer,Horst J. Simon

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110313464

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 237

View: 2816

The contributions to this volume address the model of diachronic language comparison that has emerged from the field of contrastive linguistics. The volume's aim is to use language comparison to derive principles of language change that allow for generalizations that go beyond single languages. Indeed, the phenomenon of change observed in a particular language is thrown into sharper relief when compared to comparable developments in other languages. Such a comparison also facilitates the identification of change that is highly specific to a single language. The articles in the volume illustrate the relevance of these concepts for phonological, morphological, and syntactic changes.
Language Arts & Disciplines

The Dynamic Interlanguage

Empirical Studies in School Language Variation

Author: Miriam R. Eisenstein

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306431746

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 323

View: 5167

The recent recognition of dynamic yet consistent variation, as well as rules, in language use is applied to second languages. The 18 chapters by researchers and methodologists explore the influence of such factors as context, relative social status, target language variety, and psychological aspects
Language Arts & Disciplines

Advances in Morphology

Author: Wolfgang U. Dressler,Martin Prinzhorn,John R. Rennison

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110148534

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 207

View: 5514

TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS is a series of books that open new perspectives in our understanding of language. The series publishes state-of-the-art work on core areas of linguistics across theoretical frameworks as well as studies that provide new insights by building bridges to neighbouring fields such as neuroscience and cognitive science. TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS considers itself a forum for cutting-edge research based on solid empirical data on language in its various manifestations, including sign languages. It regards linguistic variation in its synchronic and diachronic dimensions as well as in its social contexts as important sources of insight for a better understanding of the design of linguistic systems and the ecology and evolution of language. TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS publishes monographs and outstanding dissertations as well as edited volumes, which provide the opportunity to address controversial topics from different empirical and theoretical viewpoints. High quality standards are ensured through anonymous reviewing.
Language Arts & Disciplines

Time and the Verb

A Guide to Tense and Aspect

Author: Robert I. Binnick

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195345134

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 584

View: 572

This comprehensive examination of tense and grammatical aspect provides fascinating insight into how languages indicate distinctions of time. Providing an in-depth survey of the scholarship from the ancient Greeks through the 1980s, Time and the Verb explains and evaluates every major issue and theory, concentrating on familiar Classical and modern European languages. An invaluable reference tool as well as a major contribution to the history of linguistic sciences, this book will be the standard against which future work on tense and aspect is measured.
Language Arts & Disciplines

The German Perfect

Its semantic composition and its interactions with temporal adverbials

Author: R. Musan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401005524

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 275

View: 6016

1. OUTLINE German has the three main perfect constructions which are illustrated in (1. 1). 1 In each of these constructions, the verb appears in the past participial form and is combined with an auxiliary - in this case, haben ('have'); other verbs form their perfect constructions with the auxiliary sein ('be'). 2 The auxiliary can then be com bined with a tense -Le. the present tense as in (Ua), the past tense as in (b), or the future tense as in (c). 3 (1. 1) a. PRESENT PERFECT: Die Eule hat die Schule verlassen. the owl has the school left b. PAST PERFECT: Die Eule hatte die Schule verlassen. the owl had the school left c. FUTURE PERFECT: Die Eule wird die Schule verlassen haben. the owl will the school left have As will shortly become clear, the present perfect is the most intricate of the perfect constructions in German. It has been investigated intensely in the past, with the result that today there is little doubt about what the core problems concerning its semantics are.
Language Arts & Disciplines

CHP

The Conversational Historical Present in American English Narrative

Author: Nessa Wolfson

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110851695

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 126

View: 7623

Psychology

Moral Obligations

Action, Intention, and Valuation

Author: Thomas E. Wren

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 1412843561

Category: Psychology

Page: 148

View: 7765

There are many ways of writing about the moral life; Moral Obligations follows the way of what philosophers call ""meta-ethics"": the analysis, not of particular moral problems, but of how the concepts used in formulating and solving them, concepts like ""right"" and ""obligatory,"" have significance and power over us. The meta-ethical part of this book is preceded by a discussion of action, in which Wren lays the foundations for the argument that moral obligation is a part of the formal structure of human agency. Wren's argument is practical and social-psychological: it is to help all, starting with those who are already committed to some version of the ethic of individual dignity, to promote interagency fellowship and peace as a result of seeing a certain truth, namely, the truth that the urgency of their feelings of moral obligation derives from a unspoken intention to belong to a community of agents. Moral Obligations begins with the philosophy of action, and then it reviews the historical debate about the nature of obligation and its social context. This is followed by a section about action in general: it establishes the standpoint of the agent and makes an inventory of several species of action. Later chapters summarize the foregoing themes, with emphasis on the unspoken side of intention, and develop them in conjunction with an analysis of the hypothetical imperative. The work closes with a discussion of the dilemma of membership in competing moral communities.
Foreign Language Study

Second language teaching in Canada

a German symposium, May 3-5, 1979, University of Victoria, B.C.

Author: Peter G. Liddell,Canadian Association of University Teachers of German

Publisher: Cautg

ISBN: N.A

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 108

View: 4785

Language Arts & Disciplines

The Expressivity of Grammar

Grammatical Devices Expressing Emotion across Time

Author: Axel Hübler

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110800179

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 260

View: 9450

The future of English linguistics as envisaged by the editors of Topics in English Linguistics lies in empirical studies which integrate work in English linguistics into general and theoretical linguistics on the one hand, and comparative linguistics on the other. The TiEL series features volumes that present interesting new data and analyses, and above all fresh approaches that contribute to the overall aim of the series, which is to further outstanding research in English linguistics.
Language Arts & Disciplines

Intercultural Communication: A Critical Introduction

Author: Ingrid Piller

Publisher: Edinburgh University Press

ISBN: 0748688323

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 208

View: 6042

Combining perspectives from discourse analysis and sociolinguistics, this introduction provides students with a comprehensive, up-to-date and critical overview of the field of intercultural communication.Ingrid Piller explains communication in context using two main approaches.The first treats cultural identity, difference and similarity as discursive constructions. The second, informed by bilingualism studies, highlights the use and prestige of different languages and language varieties as well as the varying access that speakers have to them.Linguistics students will find this book a useful tool for studying language and globalization as well as applied linguistics.
Language Arts & Disciplines

Tense and Aspects in Discourse

Author: Co Vet,Carl Vetters

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110902613

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 301

View: 921

TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS is a series of books that open new perspectives in our understanding of language. The series publishes state-of-the-art work on core areas of linguistics across theoretical frameworks as well as studies that provide new insights by building bridges to neighbouring fields such as neuroscience and cognitive science. TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS considers itself a forum for cutting-edge research based on solid empirical data on language in its various manifestations, including sign languages. It regards linguistic variation in its synchronic and diachronic dimensions as well as in its social contexts as important sources of insight for a better understanding of the design of linguistic systems and the ecology and evolution of language. TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS publishes monographs and outstanding dissertations as well as edited volumes, which provide the opportunity to address controversial topics from different empirical and theoretical viewpoints. High quality standards are ensured through anonymous reviewing.
Language Arts & Disciplines

Aspect

An Introduction to the Study of Verbal Aspect and Related Problems

Author: Bernard Comrie

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521290456

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 142

View: 4834

An introduction to the general linguistic study of aspect. Topics covered include the relation of tense and aspect, the morphology and the semantics of aspect, and structuralist and philosophical approaches. Dr Comrie draws his examples particularly from English and the Slavonic and Romance languages, but also from Arabic, Chinese, Welsh, Greek and a variety of others. This is the first study of aspect, considered as a general linguistic phenomenon. It is intended for students of individual languages as well as for students of linguistics.
Language Arts & Disciplines

As Time Goes by

Tense and Universal Grammar

Author: Norbert Hornstein

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262581295

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 242

View: 1696

How do humans acquire, at a very early age and from fragmentary and haphazard data, the complex patterns of their native language? This is the logical problem of language acquisition, and it is the question that directs the search for an innate universal grammar. As Time Goes By extends the search by proposing a theory of natural-language tense that will be responsive to the problem of language acquisition. The clearly written discussion proceeds step-by-step from simple observations and principles to far-reaching conclusions involving complex data carefully selected and persuasively presented. Throughout, Hornstein focuses on the logical problem of language acquisition, highlighting the importance of explanatory adequacy and the role of syntactic representations in determining intricate properties of semantic interpretation.
Language Arts & Disciplines

A French-English Grammar

A contrastive grammar on translational principles

Author: Morris Salkoff

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027275521

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 342

View: 2665

In this contrastive French-English grammar, the comparisons between French structures and their English equivalents are formulated as rules which associate a French schema (of a particular grammatical structure) with its translation into an equivalent English schema. The grammar contains all the rules giving the English equivalents under translation of the principal grammatical structures of French: the verb phrase, the noun phrase and the adjuncts (modifiers). In addition to its intrinsic linguistic interest, this comparative grammar has two important applications. The translation equivalences it contains can provide a firm foundation for the teaching of the techniques of translation. Furthermore, such a comparative grammar is a necessary preliminary to any program of machine translation, which needs a set of formal rules, like those given here for the French-to-English case, for translating into a target language the syntactic structures encountered in the source language.
Language Arts & Disciplines

Analysing English as a Lingua Franca

A Corpus-driven Investigation

Author: Alessia Cogo,Martin Dewey

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1441109412

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 216

View: 4266

There have been considerable recent demographic shifts in the use of English worldwide. English is now undoubtedly (and particularly) an international lingua franca, a lingua mundi. The sociolinguistic reality of English language use worldwide, and its implications, continue to be hotly contested. This is one of the first books to provide a detailed and comprehensive account of recent empirical findings in the field of English as a lingua franca (ELF). Cogo and Dewey analyze and interpret their own large corpus of naturally occurring spoken interactions and focus on identifying innovative developments in the pragmatics and lexicogrammar of speakers engaged in ELF talk. Cogo and Dewey's work makes a substantial contribution to the emerging field of empirical ELF studies. As well as this practical focus, this book looks at both pragmatic and lexicogrammatical issues and highlights their interrelationship. In showcasing the underlying processes involved in the emergence of innovative patterns of language use, this book will be of great interest to advanced students and academics working in applied linguistics, ELF, sociolinguistics, and corpus linguistics.