Business & Economics

Why Nations Fail

The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty

Author: Daron Acemoglu,James A. Robinson

Publisher: Crown Books

ISBN: 0307719227

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 529

View: 6911

An award-winning professor of economics at MIT and a Harvard University political scientist and economist evaluate the reasons that some nations are poor while others succeed, outlining provocative perspectives that support theories about the importance of institutions. Reprint.
Study Aids

Summary of Why Nations Fail

By Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson | Includes Analysis

Author: Instaread Summaries

Publisher: Idreambooks

ISBN: 9781683785040

Category: Study Aids

Page: 30

View: 8237

Summary of Why Nations Fail by Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson Includes Analysis Preview: Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty is an examination of the causes of economic inequality. Authors Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson conclude that underdevelopment is caused by political institutions and not by geography, climate, or other cultural factors. Elites in underdeveloped countries deliberately plunder their people and keep them impoverished. The city of Nogales is half in Mexico and half in the United States. People in Nogales on the US side of the border are well-educated, prosperous, and have long life expectancies. Those on the Mexican side are poor, poorly educated, and have shorter life expectancies. The differences in Nogales can't be explained by geography or culture. Instead, different governments cause the differences in development. The United States historically established pluralist institutions that encouraged technological innovation and spread wealth throughout the population. By contrast, in Mexico, Spanish conquerors established extractive institutions that were intended to... PLEASE NOTE: This is key takeaways and analysis of the book and NOT the original book. Inside this Instaread Summary of Why Nations Fail by Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson Includes Analysis Overview of the Book Important People Key Takeaways Analysis of Key Takeaways About the Author With Instaread, you can get the key takeaways, summary and analysis of a book in 15 minutes. We read every chapter, identify the key takeaways and analyze them for your convenience. Visit our website at instaread.co.
Business & Economics

Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy

Author: Daron Acemoglu,James A. Robinson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521855266

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 416

View: 5253

This book systematically explains why some countries are democracies while others are not.
Business & Economics

Pillars of Prosperity

The Political Economics of Development Clusters

Author: Timothy Besley,Torsten Persson

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691152683

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 375

View: 8617

"Little else is required to carry a state to the highest degree of opulence from the lowest barbarism, but peace, easy taxes, and a tolerable administration of justice; all the rest being brought about by the natural course of things." So wrote Adam Smith a quarter of a millennium ago. Using the tools of modern political economics and combining economic theory with a bird's-eye view of the data, this book reinterprets Smith's pillars of prosperity to explain the existence of development clusters--places that tend to combine effective state institutions, the absence of political violence, and high per-capita incomes. To achieve peace, the authors stress the avoidance of repressive government and civil conflict. Easy taxes, they argue, refers not to low taxes, but a tax system with widespread compliance that collects taxes at a reasonable cost from a broad base, like income. And a tolerable administration of justice is about legal infrastructure that can support the enforcement of contracts and property rights in line with the rule of law. The authors show that countries tend to enjoy all three pillars of prosperity when they have evolved cohesive political institutions that promote common interests, guaranteeing the provision of public goods. In line with much historical research, international conflict has also been an important force behind effective states by fostering common interests. The absence of common interests and/or cohesive political institutions can explain the existence of very different development clusters in fragile states that are plagued by poverty, violence, and weak state capacity.
Business & Economics

The Price of Prosperity

Why Rich Nations Fail and How to Renew Them

Author: Todd G. Buchholz

Publisher: HarperCollins

ISBN: 0062405713

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 384

View: 7721

In this bold history and manifesto, a former White House director of economic policy exposes the economic, political, and cultural cracks that wealthy nations face and makes the case for transforming those same vulnerabilities into sources of strength—and the foundation of a national renewal. America and other developed countries, including Germany, Japan, France, and Great Britain are in desperate straits. The loss of community, a contracting jobs market, immigration fears, rising globalization, and poisonous partisanship—the adverse price of unprecedented prosperity—are pushing these nations to the brink. Acclaimed author, economist, hedge fund manager, and presidential advisor Todd G. Buchholz argues that without a sense of common purpose and shared identity, nations can collapse. The signs are everywhere: Reckless financial markets encourage people to gamble with other people’s money. A coddling educational culture removes the stigma of underachievement. Community traditions such as American Legion cookouts and patriotic parades are derided as corny or jingoistic. Newcomers are watched with suspicion and contempt. As Buchholz makes clear, the United States is not the first country to suffer these fissures. In The Price of Prosperity he examines the fates of previous empires—those that have fallen as well as those extricated from near-collapse and the ruins of war thanks to the vision and efforts of strong leaders. He then identifies what great leaders do to fend off the forces that tear nations apart. Is the loss of empire inevitable? No. Can a community spirit be restored in the U.S. and in Europe? The answer is a resounding yes. We cannot retrieve the jobs of our grandparents, but we can embrace uniquely American traditions, while building new foundations for growth and change. Buchholz offers a roadmap to recovery, and calls for a revival of national pride and patriotism to help us come together once again to protect the nation and ensure our future.
Business & Economics

Why Latin American Nations Fail

Development Strategies in the Twenty-First Century

Author: Matías Vernengo,Esteban Pérez Caldentey

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520290291

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 240

View: 6862

The question of development is a major topic in courses across the social sciences and history, particularly those focused on Latin America. Many scholars and instructors have tried to pinpoint, explain, and define the problem of underdevelopment in the region. With new ideas have come new strategies that by and large have failed to explain or reduce income disparity and relieve poverty in the region. Why Latin American Nations Fail brings together leading Latin Americanists from several disciplines to address the topic of how and why contemporary development strategies have failed to curb rampant poverty and underdevelopment throughout the region. Given the dramatic political turns in contemporary Latin America, this book offers a much-needed explanation and analysis of the factors that are key to making sense of development today.
Social Science

Wealth And Poverty Of Nations

Author: David S. Landes

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 0349141444

Category: Social Science

Page: 672

View: 7344

The history of nations is a history of haves and have-nots, and as we approach the millennium, the gap between rich and poor countries is widening. In this engrossing and important new work, eminent historian David Landes explores the complex, fascinating and often startling causes of the wealth and poverty of nations. The answers are found not only in the large forces at work in economies: geography, religion, the broad swings of politics, but also in the small surprising details. In Europe, the invention of spectacles doubled the working life of skilled craftsmen, and played a prominent role in the creation of articulated machines, and in China, the failure to adopt the clock fundamentally hindered economic development. The relief of poverty is vital to the survival of us all. As David Landes brilliantly shows, the key to future success lies in understanding the lessons the past has to teach us - lessons uniquely imparted in this groundbreaking and vital book which exemplifies narrative history at its best.
Social Science

The White Man's Burden

Why the West's Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good

Author: William Easterly,William Russell Easterly

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781594200373

Category: Social Science

Page: 436

View: 7412

Argues that western foreign aid efforts have done little to stem global poverty, citing how such organizations as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank are not held accountable for ineffective practices that the author believes intrude into the inner workings of other countries. By the author of The Elusive Quest for Growth. 60,000 first printing.
Study Aids

Summary of Why Nations Fail

by Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson | Includes Analysis

Author: Instaread

Publisher: Instaread

ISBN: 168378507X

Category: Study Aids

Page: 40

View: 3969

Political Science

The Rise and Fall of Nations: Forces of Change in the Post-Crisis World

Author: Ruchir Sharma

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393248909

Category: Political Science

Page: 352

View: 6886

International Bestseller "Quite simply the best guide to the global economy today." —Fareed Zakaria Shaped by his twenty-five years traveling the world, and enlivened by encounters with villagers from Rio to Beijing, tycoons, and presidents, Ruchir Sharma’s The Rise and Fall of Nations rethinks the "dismal science" of economics as a practical art. Narrowing the thousands of factors that can shape a country’s fortunes to ten clear rules, Sharma explains how to spot political, economic, and social changes in real time. He shows how to read political headlines, black markets, the price of onions, and billionaire rankings as signals of booms, busts, and protests. Set in a post-crisis age that has turned the world upside down, replacing fast growth with slow growth and political calm with revolt, Sharma’s pioneering book is an entertaining field guide to understanding change in this era or any era.
Social Science

The Great Maya Droughts

Water, Life, and Death

Author: Richardson B. Gill

Publisher: UNM Press

ISBN: 0826323812

Category: Social Science

Page: 484

View: 5480

This innovative study argues that the collapse of Classic Maya civilization was driven by catastrophic drought. Between A.D. 800 and 1000, unrelenting drought killed millions of Maya people with famine and thirst and initiated a cascade of internal collapses that destroyed their civilization. Linking global, regional, and local climate change, the author explores how atmospheric processes, volcanism, ocean currents, and other natural forces combined to create the dry climate that pried apart the highly complex civilization in the tropical Maya Lowlands in the ninth and tenth centuries. Drawing on knowledge of other prehistoric and historic droughts, The Great Maya Droughts is a useful study of the relationship of humans to their natural and physical environment. The author tries to understand why the Classic Maya failed to adjust their behavior and culture to the climatic conditions and why civilizations in general sometimes collapse in the face of radical environmental change.
Business & Economics

The Logic of Collective Action

Public Goods and the Theory of Groups, Second printing with new preface and appendix

Author: Mancur OLSON

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674283279

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 198

View: 1945

This book develops an original theory of group and organizational behavior that cuts across disciplinary lines and illustrates the theory with empirical and historical studies of particular organizations. Applying economic analysis to the subjects of the political scientist, sociologist, and economist, Mancur Olson examines the extent to which individuals who share a common interest find it in their individual interest to bear the costs of the organizational effort.
Business & Economics

Why Australia Prospered

The Shifting Sources of Economic Growth

Author: Ian W. McLean

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691154678

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 281

View: 4335

This book is the first comprehensive account of how Australia attained the world's highest living standards within a few decades of European settlement, and how the nation has sustained an enviable level of income to the present. Beginning with the Aboriginal economy at the end of the eighteenth century, Ian McLean argues that Australia's remarkable prosperity across nearly two centuries was reached and maintained by several shifting factors. These included imperial policies, favorable demographic characteristics, natural resource abundance, institutional adaptability and innovation, and growth-enhancing policy responses to major economic shocks, such as war, depression, and resource discoveries. Natural resource abundance in Australia played a prominent role in some periods and faded during others, but overall, and contrary to the conventional view of economists, it was a blessing rather than a curse. McLean shows that Australia's location was not a hindrance when the international economy was centered in the North Atlantic, and became a positive influence following Asia's modernization. Participation in the world trading system, when it flourished, brought significant benefits, and during the interwar period when it did not, Australia's protection of domestic manufacturing did not significantly stall growth. McLean also considers how the country's notorious origins as a convict settlement positively influenced early productivity levels, and how British imperial policies enhanced prosperity during the colonial period. He looks at Australia's recent resource-based prosperity in historical perspective, and reveals striking elements of continuity that have underpinned the evolution of the country's economy since the nineteenth century.
Political Science

Botswana’s Economic Success

A reaction to “Why Nations Fail” (Acemoglu/Robinson 2012): Is Botswana’s success only caused by institutions – and is it experiencing modern economic growth?

Author: Christopher King

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3656510997

Category: Political Science

Page: 7

View: 9555

Essay from the year 2013 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Globalization, Political Economics, grade: 1,0, Indiana University (Department of Political Science), course: Politics of International Development, language: English, abstract: Botswana is a landlocked country in southern Africa with a population of about 2 million people. It used to be one of the poorest countries in Africa, but after it gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1966, it went on a transformation to a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of $16,800 in 2012 (cf. Central Intelligence Agency 2013). Today, Botswana is a multi-ethnic and multi-party representative democracy with “inclusive institutions” and the least corrupt country in Sub-Saharan Africa (cf. Transparency International 2012). It is ranked by Freedom House as “Free” and has a very high HIV rate of 24.8%. Botswana has been framed as an exceptional economic success story in Africa and the following essay will explore whether institutions are the only cause of Botswana’s economic success and if Botswana is experiencing modern economic growth.
Business & Economics

A Capitalism for the People

Recapturing the Lost Genius of American Prosperity

Author: Luigi Zingales

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465038700

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 336

View: 9372

Born in Italy, University of Chicago economist Luigi Zingales witnessed firsthand the consequences of high inflation and unemployment—paired with rampant nepotism and cronyism—on a country's economy. This experience profoundly shaped his professional interests, and in 1988 he arrived in the United States, armed with a political passion and the belief that economists should not merely interpret the world, but should change it for the better. In A Capitalism for the People, Zingales makes a forceful, philosophical, and at times personal argument that the roots of American capitalism are dying, and that the result is a drift toward the more corrupt systems found throughout Europe and much of the rest of the world. American capitalism, according to Zingales, grew in a unique incubator that provided it with a distinct flavor of competitiveness, a meritocratic nature that fostered trust in markets and a faith in mobility. Lately, however, that trust has been eroded by a betrayal of our pro-business elites, whose lobbying has come to dictate the market rather than be subject to it, and this betrayal has taken place with the complicity of our intellectual class. Because of this trend, much of the country is questioning—often with great anger—whether the system that has for so long buoyed their hopes has now betrayed them once and for all. What we are left with is either anti-market pitchfork populism or pro-business technocratic insularity. Neither of these options presents a way to preserve what the author calls “the lighthouse” of American capitalism. Zingales argues that the way forward is pro-market populism, a fostering of truly free and open competition for the good of the people—not for the good of big business. Drawing on the historical record of American populism at the turn of the twentieth century, Zingales illustrates how our current circumstances aren't all that different. People in the middle and at the bottom are getting squeezed, while people at the top are only growing richer. The solutions now, as then, are reforms to economic policy that level the playing field. Reforms that may be anti-business (specifically anti-big business), but are squarely pro-market. The question is whether we can once again muster the courage to confront the powers that be.
Business & Economics

In the Wake of the Crisis

Leading Economists Reassess Economic Policy

Author: Olivier Blanchard,David Romer,Michael Spence,Joseph E. Stiglitz

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262301083

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 256

View: 9033

In 2011, the International Monetary Fund invited prominent economists and economic policymakers to consider the brave new world of the post-crisis global economy. The result is a book that captures the state of macroeconomic thinking at a transformational moment.The crisis and the weak recovery that has followed raise fundamental questions concerning macroeconomics and economic policy. These top economists discuss future directions for monetary policy, fiscal policy, financial regulation, capital-account management, growth strategies, the international monetary system, and the economic models that should underpin thinking about critical policy choices. ContributorsOlivier Blanchard, Ricardo Caballero, Charles Collyns, Arminio Fraga, Már Guðmundsson, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Otmar Issing, Olivier Jeanne, Rakesh Mohan, Maurice Obstfeld, José Antonio Ocampo, Guillermo Ortiz, Y. V. Reddy, Dani Rodrik, David Romer, Paul Romer, Andrew Sheng, Hyun Song Shin, Parthasarathi Shome, Robert Solow, Michael Spence, Joseph Stiglitz, Adair Turner
History

Why the West Rules - For Now

The Patterns of History, and What They Reveal About the Future

Author: Ian Morris

Publisher: McClelland & Stewart

ISBN: 1551995816

Category: History

Page: 768

View: 8357

Why does the West rule? In this magnum opus, eminent Stanford polymath Ian Morris answers this provocative question, drawing on 50,000 years of history, archeology, and the methods of social science, to make sense of when, how, and why the paths of development differed in the East and West — and what this portends for the 21st century. There are two broad schools of thought on why the West rules. Proponents of "Long-Term Lock-In" theories such as Jared Diamond suggest that from time immemorial, some critical factor — geography, climate, or culture perhaps — made East and West unalterably different, and determined that the industrial revolution would happen in the West and push it further ahead of the East. But the East led the West between 500 and 1600, so this development can't have been inevitable; and so proponents of "Short-Term Accident" theories argue that Western rule was a temporary aberration that is now coming to an end, with Japan, China, and India resuming their rightful places on the world stage. However, as the West led for 9,000 of the previous 10,000 years, it wasn't just a temporary aberration. So, if we want to know why the West rules, we need a whole new theory. Ian Morris, boldly entering the turf of Jared Diamond and Niall Ferguson, provides the broader approach that is necessary, combining the textual historian's focus on context, the anthropological archaeologist's awareness of the deep past, and the social scientist's comparative methods to make sense of the past, present, and future — in a way no one has ever done before. From the Hardcover edition.
History

The Zionist plan for the Middle East

Author: Israël Shahak,Oded Yinon

Publisher: Assn of Arab-Amer Univ Graduates

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 26

View: 4385

Business & Economics

Hit Refresh: The Quest to Rediscover Microsoft’s Soul and Imagine a Better Future for Everyone

Author: Satya Nadella

Publisher: HarperCollins UK

ISBN: 0008247676

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 288

View: 402

Microsoft’s CEO tells the inside story of the company’s continuing transformation, while tracing his own journey from a childhood in India to leading some of the most significant changes of the digital era and offering his vision for the coming wave of intelligent technologies.